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A brand’s ability to measure consumer attitudes provides a very helpful insight into what is driving consumer behavior.
As suggested by the name, this model breaks down the consumer’s overall attitude (that is, view of each brand) into smaller components. The goal is to try and improve the consumer’s attitude towards our brand by concentrating upon the attributes where our brand is perceived weaker than key competitors AND for attributes that are ALSO important to the consumer. Because we have scores for each attribute for each brand and the level of importance in the purchase decision, we are able to calculate an overall score for the consumer’s attitude towards the brand. As we can see, Brand A has the lowest overall attitude score – which we should look to improve.
The internal environment in marketing refers to components INSIDE the firm that are unique to the firm. Firms that do not consider the internal environment when structuring their marketing strategy will end up with a very generic strategy – one that is similar to other organizations in the same market – and will not draw upon their unique strengths and competitive advantages. This relates to skill sets and abilities and processes that the firm has AND is really good at.
What is important to management needs to be taken into consideration, as they are the ultimate approvers of competitive marketing strategy.
Top management values are evident by the overall corporate culture of the organization, which is influenced and guided by management views.
Other stakeholders to consider would include employees and what is important to them – which needs to be understood, particularly for a service firm. Obviously, successful strategies primarily need a fine-tuning only, whereas unsuccessful or weakening strategy positions would need substantial revision.
The most appropriate marketing strategy for an organization will depend upon the marketing environment in which it operates. In particular, we are concerned with resources, capabilities, corporate culture, management style and leadership, track record of success, current strategy, stakeholder goals and values, and so on.
When examining the micro environment we are particularly interested in target markets (consumers), direct and indirect competitors, suppliers (and their bargaining power) and our distribution channels (wholesalers and retailers). The micro environment requires significant analysis and much of the firm’s market research efforts will be focused on understanding consumers in particular, but also monitoring and predicting competitor activity. The various factors and opportunities within the micro environment need to be overlaid against the strengths and capabilities of the firm as identified in the internal environment in order to design a successful competitive marketing strategy. The macro environment consists of trends and factors that may influence the firm that are outside of their direct industry relationships.
The macro environment is more useful for longer term marketing strategies, with the goal of identifying long-term trends and opportunities.
In general terms, price can be considered as a monetary amount that is charged in order to get something desired from the market (that is, to obtain a product). Price is a significant factor in determining the perceived value of the product (or brand) to the consumer. Price – along with an appropriate unit margin – are fundamental to delivering the firm’s overall profitability. For example, if a shop offers small pizzas for sale at $5, then many consumers may perceive value and buy one. Marketing is based upon an understanding of the firm’s potential customers (its target market), as well as its key competitors and the main trends in the market.
By having a good understanding of what consumers want and how they buy, a firm will be in a better position to design and execute its marketing programs. After the firm has a good understanding of the marketplace, they are then in a good position to design their overall marketing strategy. As you can see, the marketing program is the actual tasks (which are called tactics in marketing) required to implement the firm’s overall marketing strategy. Once the strategy and tactics are in place, the fourth step involves “making it happen” and going to the marketplace. During this ongoing stage, the firm attempts to win customers and build repeat sales and loyalty. When you first start learning about marketing, you will notice that there are lots of different definitions. It’s fairly clear what profit is, so let’s quickly look at value and customer satisfaction. If a consumer does buy the $3 pizza slice and it’s tasty and filling, then the customer will be satisfied and is likely to become a repeat customer. Therefore, the firm needs to provide both good value (to attract new customers) and deliver customer satisfaction (to retain existing customers).
When setting market share goals, it is important to consider the proportion of consumers who are either willing or in a position to switch brands. Within the growth phase of the product life-cycle (PLC), it is common for non-consumers to buy the product category for the first time and become active consumers. However, in a mature market, the activation of non-consumers is relatively small, as these consumers have generally decided that this is not a product category that they are only interested in. Various forms of market research – typically surveys – can be used to measure the size of the available and unavailable marketplace. If the strategy is being developed for large organization, then they should be a corporate strategy document – known as a strategic plan – that should be the starting point for the development of marketing strategy and subsequent documentation in a marketing plan. This requires an internal and external analysis of what the firm has to work with, and how it is placed and positioned with consumers, and how it compares to its competition, as well as some evaluation of current key trends in the marketplace. Using the SWOT analysis, identify the strengths that can be leveraged into the opportunities for the firm. This approach is more likely to generate positive and successful results, as opposed to chasing market opportunities where the firm does not have any apparent competitive advantage (that is, no real strengths to leverage). Most organizations will tend to have financial and marketing goals that they want to achieve. Marketing focus goals should also be included and clarified – these typically relate to market share, brand awareness levels, retailer penetration, product quality, product range – as you can see, typically structured around the various marketing mix elements.
It is a good idea to develop a straightforward strategy statement that clearly articulates how the firm or brand is going to be successful in achieving its goals. In much the same way, it is necessary for a firm to them to quickly describe its overall strategy.
Therefore, the selection of marketing tactics – the various marketing mix elements to be utilized – should become more apparent and obvious. At this stage we’re now ready to document the marketing plan – we should not attempt this task until we have completed the above steps. The only additional components of the marketing plan we require in this step is the identification of the timetable for the implementation and the selection of key targets that would be used for control objectives in the marketing plan. Please note that the firm’s vision and mission is set at a corporate level – and is not the responsibility of the marketing area (although the marketing area may be involved in crafting the actual words that are used in the vision and mission statements). The next step in the strategic planning process is to identify goals for the organization overall – what is the organization want to achieve over the next 3 to 5 years?
In order to achieve the defined corporate goals, the overall organization will need to contribute.
As suggested above, the overall corporate strategy needs to be allocated to functional areas. Marketing strategy development will take its structure and guidance from the overall corporate plan. In other words, marketing strategy is implemented through the combination and design of the marketing mix elements to meet the identified needs of a selected target market.
This approach to marketing strategy implies a very customer-centric approach, which is consistent with the marketing concept. It is generally a significant mistake to look at the marketing mix elements in isolation, without consideration to an overall strategy. Unfortunately, this becomes somewhat of a common situation in some firms of lack clear agreement on a competitive marketing strategy. Components of the marketing mix – such as product mix, pricing, forms of communication and so on – are looked at on individual basis – rather than on a holistic approach in order to execute the overall marketing plan and strategic goals. In other words, we identify the corporate strengths and then try to match them to opportunities in the marketplace. Core competencies are special skills and capabilities of the firm that provides some competitive advantage in the marketplace.
You should note that core competencies are skill sets that reside in the people and processes within the organization. Probably the best way to understand a core competency is to review the article on core competency examples. Apple has superior innovation expertise – they are very good at enhancing existing technology and improving its capability and making it easy and enjoyable to use. This skill set means that they will have ongoing success in the marketplace because they are able to KEEP delivering exciting and interesting new products and generating large scale demand. Compare this position to Nokia – that not that long ago was a leading mobile phone provider.
Apple who leverages this skill set for innovation into the mobile phone market – the results have been spectacular, with Apple becoming a dominant player in the market and extremely profitable. Let’s look at another example of core competencies – this time using McDonald’s – so what are they really good at doing?
McDonald’s expertise in the speed of the process, along with their efficiency of costs, along with their customer service skills – all add up to a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Core competencies are attractive to firms because they allow the firm to have a relatively unique advantage in the marketplace – again think of the Apple example above – that skill set of innovation is very difficult (or very expensive) for competitors to duplicate, if not impossible? Here is a link to a Harvard Business Review article that is worthwhile reading on this topic. You will note that it is suggested that there are three evaluation factors that firms should use to identify the strength of the core competencies in the business. We can consider these three questions as “tests” of the degree of value of the core competencies. The first point of ability to leverage has been demonstrated by Apple who has been able to take the innovation expertise into multiple technology markets – such as, mobile phones, tablets, watches, computers, and even retailing.
It is also clear that Apple’s expertise in innovation provide significant customer value – as their customers are most appreciative of features and designs of the Apple products.
You should note from the above list, that there are no physical resources or assets listed – they are some form of a skill set.


Core competencies are the collective learning in the organization, especially how to coordinate diverse production skills and integrate multiple streams of technologies. The goal of marketing strategy is to consider the best top level approach to acquiring and retaining profitable customers in the marketplace.
Let’s assume there is a fast food chain that does not have a clear market strategy and are just looking to grow their business.
Without a clear marketing strategy, this fast food chain cannot really answer any of those questions with certainty.
If this fast food chain had a clear competitive strategy these above questions become very straightforward. This strategy statement would quickly answer those above questions – such as, “Which foods should we have?” The clear and obvious answer would be “a broad range of flexible hamburgers only”. Once a very clear marketing strategy has been put in place, then the marketing mix elements become easier to define and design.
When studying marketing it is important to understand the concept of a market and the exchange process. A fundamental concept in marketing is the identification and selection of appropriate consumer or business segments to actively pursue. We would refer to marketing activities targeting individuals or households as B2C – which is business to consumer. A consumer wants to lose weight = low-fat products, fitness centers, personal trainers, diet books – all provide a potential solution to this consumer need. In this example, there are multiple ways that a consumer can solve their need when they are hungry: food at home, quick snack, fast food, beverage, distraction, restaurant, and so on.
Therefore, the underlying NEED that the consumer wants to solve is hunger and the preferred solution at the time is a restaurant. March 30, 2015 by Mael Brunet The European Commission has just revealed its updated strategy for internal use of Open Source Software for the years 2014-2017.
The new strategy consists of a set of 10 principles, which remain largely the same as in the previous version (running 2007-2013), but for the first time also makes reference to “a comprehensive action plan” (not published), to be put to execution during the period 2015-2017.
Content on this site, made by OpenForum Europe, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 4.0 International License. Home of the Golden Gate Bridge, Ghirardelli Chocolate and the 2014 World Series champion San Francisco Giants. President & CEO, Andy Marsh kicked off the presentation by announcing our recently-signed Master Services Agreement with a large footwear manufacturer in North America.
John Cococcia, Plug Power’s Vice President Business Development & Investor Relations, then discussed our strategy for expansion opportunities in markets like stationary, ground support equipment, transportation refrigeration and European material handling. Following management presentations, the floor was opened for a robust Q&A session and we were not disappointed by the questions from our investors. Some of the other questions included what the biggest reason is that we lose sales deals, why we are not pursuing residential backup or prime power, and how our strategy process relates to the range extender and refrigeration truck markets. Read about exciting business updates and innovations driving our success as the leading hydrogen and fuel cell provider.
According to IDC MarketScape: Worldwide Digital Enterprise Strategy Consulting Services 2015 Vendor Assessment, “PwC is well regarded worldwide by business consulting customers that view it as overall the most capable firm at helping them improve operational efficiency, at understanding the unique needs of their business, and at leveraging local and global staff appropriately. IDC MarketScape vendor analysis model is designed to provide an overview of the competitive fitness of ICT suppliers in a given market. You can’t make people want to work with each other and then force them into a diversified engagement team. PwC has joined a consortium of companies to launch the Techstars Internet of Things (IoT) Accelerator.
On November 4, 2013, PwC US announced that it had acquired substantially all the assets of BGT.
Today as part of PwC Digital , we are excited to bring our strategy, analytics, creative and technology capabilities to PwC to open new opportunities for our clients, our people and the communities in which we work. PwC is fueled by the right acquisitions – each bringing their own specific strengths and experience – to offer incredibly powerful end-to-end solutions.
A strategy can be defined in many different ways, but essentially all definitions encompass several key elements.
An Udemy business strategy class can prepare you with ways to best create and implement a business strategy. More than anything, strategy training is first and foremost about analysis.
A strategy should also include the scope of the business, and the value or impact – monetary or otherwise – that the company will have on itself, its environment, its customers, clients, and shareholders. The Udemy business strategy courses page displays the top free courses, the top paid courses, and new and mention-worthy courses. The courses on Udemy also provide training which promotes innovation, smart planning, and customer retention.
One very popular course is Idea Validation – from idea to paying customer in 1 day, by instructor Evan Kimbrell. Kimbrell’s course is all about validating a business idea before deploying it, sort of ‘beta testing’ it in the shallow waters.
This course is intended for anyone with an idea: entrepreneurs, product managers, small business owners, marketers, and basically anyone who is interested in testing the waters online before committing to a specific plan. Students which took the course had very good things to say about both the class itself and its instructor. The client’s Sino-foreign JV was suffering shrinking market share and poor competitive positioning, so they desired an objective assessment of their China business, as well as potential new strategies. Casey Quirk conducted in-country fieldwork with local fund managers, distributors, and regulators, outlined reasonable expectations for internal—and global—demand for Chinese product and identified success characteristics of existing and likely Chinese market expansion strategies.
Generally a consumer’s attitude towards the various brands in the marketplace has a significant influence over their purchase and word-of-mouth actions. These components are the individual product features, functions and perceived benefits – which are collectively known as product attributes. An analysis of the internal environment is critical in the development of marketing strategy to ensure to ensure that the firm’s strategy is based upon its situation, resources and goals. In marketing terms, we are particularly interested in: product range, brand equity, financial position, customer loyalty, customer base size, retailer relationships retailer relationships, access to technology, manufacturing skills and innovation, and so on. It is particularly valuable in service firms that rely on customer – employee interaction and in organizations that rely upon innovation and improved operations being delivered by key staff.
This should be a fundamental building block of the firm’s marketing strategy – as it will create opportunities for sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace.
For example, some key people in management might see innovation and change as critical to success, but top level management in other organizations may be quite conservative and risk adverse. Sometimes it is very profit and growth driven, but for some organizations there could be a social goals aspect as well. How well is the current strategy working given the firm’s internal and external environments? Based upon these internal factors we are better placed to construct an appropriate marketing strategy.
That is, marketing strategy should be based upon the strengths and position of the organization. In terms of the strategic 4C’s, the micro environment relates to competitors and customers. When the word “environment” is used in strategic discussions it is generally referring to the macro environment. If consumers perceive value (enough benefits or a good solution for their needs) for the product at that price, then they are more likely to become customers. Many consumers equate price with overall product quality – and a more expensive product is generally perceived to be better. Consumers will weigh up the potential benefits against the various costs of acquiring the product.
But if the shop was to price the same small pizzas at $20, then most consumers would not perceive value and would probably not make a purchase.
As you probably know, the purpose of marketing activities is to create value for consumers and to deliver ongoing profitability (or other success metric) for the firm as a result. This is important because not only does the firm need to meet consumer needs, but they need to do so in a way that is different to their main competitors. As suggested by the heading, their marketing strategy should be “customer-driven” – which means that it should be designed to meet consumer needs and to provide value. For example, in Step Two they might decide that a key part of their marketing strategy is to build a strong brand. Step One was research and analysis, Steps Two and Three were planning and documenting, while Step Four is in the market. This is achieved if the firm delivers value and meets customer needs better than its competitors (as they first identified in Step One).
If the firm has undertaken its first four steps well, then the outcomes should be the win-win situation, where the customers are satisfied and the firm will make ongoing profits as a result. The above definition is a nice and simple one to start with – and it’s quite applicable for most profit-driven firms.
But if the pizza is dry and does not taste good, then the customer will be dissatisfied with their purchase and will not re-buy. Increased market share is primarily delivered through winning a greater proportion of the market’s business.
This incentive is typically structured around a sales promotion, a product line extension, increased availability, or is generated by a cut through marketing communications campaign. In some circumstances, such as the fast-moving consumer goods industry, brand switching is relatively easy.
And non-consumers are consumers who are within the target market but do not purchase the product category. In essence, this is what drives the market during its growth phase – it is the reason the market grows so quickly in this stage of the PLC. Size of the overall available market will give some guidance to the organization to what extent an increase in market share is possible. This is somewhat similar to the “30 second elevator speech”, where individual would describe their skills and talents. This creates significant consistency in the organization and makes it easy to remember and easy to communicate throughout the organization to all staff. Obviously we need to be considerate of the overall budget, available resources, and time to execute and implement the various marketing mix elements required to deliver on the plan’s goals and strategy.


It is usually a mistake to rush into documentation prior to significant analysis, evaluation, and review of strategic options. Corporate goals typically structured around high level competitive positions – such as, become the market leader, increase market shares, enhanced technology, greater profitability, product range, expand the operations, and so on. Each functional area would then develop its own plan to assist the organization in executing and achieving the strategy, which in turns delivers the corporate goals, which in turn allows the firm to “live” is mission and progress towards its long-term vision.
What are the corporate goals and what are marketing’s responsibilities to help deliver them. Depending upon whether the firm is a service firm (and then would use the 7P’s marketing mix) or some form of manufacturer (then they would use the 4P’s marketing mix). This means that the strategy is built around customer needs, rather than existing operations of the business. They are ways that the organization operates, rather than the physical resources that the firm. They are also quite good at growing markets and attracting large numbers of consumers to new technology. They had the resource advantage of a larger market share, a larger selection of mobile phone products, and a strong established brand in the mobile phone market.
And as highlighted previously above, the ability for competitors to duplicate Apple’s expertise is highly unlikely. For example, there are literally thousands of different ways that firms can choose to promote their activities. For example, let’s assume that they structured their marketing strategy as something like “a specialist hamburger chain, offering make your own hamburger options, in a fun and lively atmosphere with energetic staff”.
The challenge for the firm and becomes the execution and implementation of the overall marketing mix elements – not continuous choices about which opportunities should be pursued? Sub-markets are smaller parts of an overall market that are likely to have different competitors, different channels, and different approaches of consumer behavior.
In the above diagram, three potential market segments are shown – but there would be many more possible ways of segmenting these markets. And we would refer to the marketing activities targeting businesses as B2B – business-to-business. When we talk about solving problems for consumers we are generally talking about fairly straightforward problems. The choice of solving this need through going to a restaurant would be considered a WANT – likewise if the consumer went to a restaurant for a special or social occasion that this would also be considered a WANT. Specific objectives of the renewed strategy include equal treatment of open source and proprietary solutions in procurement, and an increased participation in the work of communities involved in building software used by the Commission. The strategy also includes a reminder that the Commission is already making extensive use of open source solutions, notably for its web servers and (since recently) for its Content Management System. The Plug POWERTrip – our six-city investor road show – spent the day in beautiful San Francisco at the Merchants Exchange Club with a group of our west coast investors. The footwear manufacturer has completed a demonstration at one of its distribution centers with very positive results.
He highlighted the GenDrive platform, explaining that it is really three different series of products designed for different types of material handling equipment. John outlined how we decide what to focus on in the near and long term and why hydrogen is a critical enabler for any market. For detailed answers to each of those and more, you’ll have to listen to the replay of the webcast.
Here, we take a deeper dive on topics and insights key to our drive for solutions that move our customers’ businesses into the future.
The research methodology utilizes a rigorous scoring methodology based on both qualitative and quantitative criteria that results in a single graphical illustration of each vendor’s position within a given market.
We are purpose-built to be your best asset not just in facing digital disruption, but thriving in it.
A business strategy is defined as the decisions a company makes when it comes to discuss its business objectives and the ways of achieving them.
Examples of the courses are: Sales and Business Case Development ($89), Productivity Management Formula ($125), Listbuilding for Internet Marketers ($199), and Foundations of Business Strategy (Free).
Udemy offers courses on drafting a business plan, naming a business, using the internet for marketing purposes, and managing a product responsibly. Kimbrell is the founder and director of San Francisco-based SprintKick, a digital agency which provides solutions to anyone and everyone with an idea. In his course, Kimbrell teaches students how to develop an idea from scratch, experiment with it, and avoid the problems and pitfalls which cause many – if not all – business ventures to fall flat on their faces. It aims to help out those who already have an idea or product, but are interested in analysis.
Only one student said he was forced to listen to the lectures in the form of a podcast, since Kimbrell’s body language was very distracting. Courses on productivity, finance, web development, and running a home business are displayed as quick links, for easy access and navigation throughout the Udemy website. The goal is to leverage the strengths of the organization against the opportunities presented by the marketplace. As price is the most significant cost that consumers will consider, then the setting of price at a certain level will influence the perception of value. Marketing should be a win-win situation for both the firm (or organization) and its customers. Therefore, in Step Three they would create that brand through advertising, social media, celebrity endorsements, sponsorships, events and so on.
But if the pizza slice is $20, then the consumer will probably not see value and then either buy something else or stay hungry.
But in service firms where there may be contractual arrangements, such as a mobile phone contract, switching is more difficult and less frequent. For example, young adults are typically a prime target market for fast food chains, but a proportion of this target market would not make any fast food purchases – therefore these potential consumers would be classified as non-consumers. Usually you would expect to have financial goals of profitability levels and probably some form of growth target as well. Therefore, considerable thought needs to be given to how to best get to the desired financial and marketing position. These are typically top level goals often centered around product range, product innovation, brand equity, market expansion, and competitive strengths.
And then we should consider how to align the marketing mix to the particular needs of the target market. In the fast food sector, consumers expect the food to be “fast” but also to be delivered with a consistent quality and with good value. It is important because core competencies are more likely to be unique in the marketplace and more likely to deliver ongoing competitive advantage. There are millions of different products available in the marketplace that firms can choose to produce and market.
Long term approach of this would be a very inconsistent offering and positioning in the marketplace – leading to reduced competitive success.
In our banking example, we can see that some of the sub-markets would include the credit card market, the mortgage market and so on.
Whereas a want is an optional approach to solving a consumer need or is a personal goal or desire for the consumer – such as going to a restaurant. OpenForum Europe welcomes this announcement, and congratulates the Commission for steps taken to make better use of open source. Corporate management at the footwear manufacturer has defined the first three sites for implementation of Plug Power’s GenKey hydrogen and fuel cell solution and is analyzing wide adoption of the technology in its 30 sites globally. Andy mentioned that a key target for 2015 is the integration of our internal fuel cell stacks into our products in order to drive costs down.
The Capabilities score measures vendor product, go-to-market and business execution in the short-term. We help clients determine what success looks like, innovate their business, and create new value. A good strategy will include the clear definition of goals, as well as the plan with which the company will pursue said goals. A strategy makes plain the bigger questions which drive any business: what business are we in?
From design through development to deployment – Kimbrell’s company does it all, and has a proven track record. The course has over 51 lectures and nearly 9 hours of content, and has been taken by nearly 4000 students. Kimbrell’s teaches his students to analyze their idea or product, and the market in which they are in, in order to see if the goals which they are interested in achieving are indeed achievable.
Kimbrell’s course is well-organized, and provides a great starting point for all business newcomers.
It would be unusual – except for a non-profit organization – NOT to have a profit objective included in their plan. He also spoke about GenFuel, noting that we do 2,500 fuelings each day into Plug Power fuel cells – that’s one every 12 seconds.
The Strategy score measures alignment of vendor strategies with customer requirements in a 3-5-year timeframe. Former BGT CEO and founder, David Clarke, and Chief Client Officer, Andrea Fishman, joined PwC as principals. When done correctly, analysis of internal and external data can help maximize the company’s potential, make smart use of its resources, and gear it towards success.
The same week, the college of Commissioners agreed on the areas for action of the new Digital Single Market Strategy, which states that “Europeans should be able to fully benefit from interoperable e-services”.
Of course, some knowledge of basic online research techniques can be beneficial, but it is not necessary.
In his course, he provides valuable tools which will save those who use them time and money, and ensure that once they finally do launch, there will be a lot less risk involved. Vendor year-over-year growth rate relative to the given market is indicated by a plus, neutral or minus next to the vendor name.



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