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A company needs to consider the marketing mix in order to meet their consumers' needs effectively. No one element of the marketing mix is more important than another – each element ideally supports the others. Management is the processes of planning, organizing directing motivating and coordinating and controlling of various activities of a firm. Planning: After objectively determining the marketing Objectives, the important function of the marketing Management is to plan how to achieve those objectives. Coordination: Coordination refers to harmonious adjustment of the activities of the marketing organization. Direction: Direction in marketing management refers to development of new markets, leadership of employees, motivation, inspiration, guiding and supervision of the employees. Staffing: Employment of right and able employees is very crucial to success of a market plan. Analysis and Evaluation: The marketing management involves the analysis and evaluation of the productivity and performs mace of individual employees. The BCG-matrix (Boston Consultancy Group Matrix) is a tool to classify the business units portfolio of a company. This entry was posted in Marketing models and tagged BCG-matrix January 7, 2013 by Marketer. A confrontation matrix uses the findings of a SWOT-analysis to identify strategic business options by for example combining a company’s strength with an opportunity. This entry was posted in Marketing models and tagged marketingplan, Models July 12, 2012 by Marketer.
A SWOT-analysis defines a company’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threaths.
Consumer Decision Making Process: from Total set to Awareness set to Consideration set to Choice set to Decision. The AIDA-model describes a four step process that your target market undertakes before taking action (buying your product or service). You as a marketer should encourage your target market to take the next step in the process. This entry was posted in Marketing models and tagged AIDA, Models July 4, 2012 by Marketer. This entry was posted in Marketing models, Marketingplan and tagged marketingplan, Models July 4, 2012 by Marketer. This is a€?Marketing Strategy and Promotiona€?, section 7.8 from the book Modern Management of Small Businesses (v.
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DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. Explain the differences and similarities in the marketing communications mix of online and onground businesses. Prior to selecting and designing any communications, however, objectives must be established for the marketing communications program. The marketing communications mixAdvertising, sales promotion, events and experiences, PR and publicity, direct marketing, interactive marketing, word-of-mouth communication, and personal selling. AdvertisingAny paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. Small businesses must choose advertising mediaRadio, television, newspapers, billboards, the Internet, and magazines. Advertising on the Internet is also a consideration for the marketing communications mix of any business with a web presence. Relating ads to the target market, making ads appealing, and including the element of surprise.
Given the expense of advertising and the fact that consumers are exposed to so many advertising messages every day, many companies correctly believe that advertising alone is not enough to get people to try a product a product or a service. Sales promotions can be delivered to the customer in a variety of ways, such as snail mail (US Postal Service), in person, in local new newspapers and regional editions of national magazines, on television and radio, in e-mail, on websites, and in electronic coupons that are sent to a customera€™s mobile device. Events and experiences also tap into the importance of the customer experience, discussed in Chapter 6 "Marketing Basics". Social media services such as Google Alerts and TweetBeep can be very helpful for managing a companya€™s reputation. Direct marketingThe promotion of a product from the producer directly to the consumer or business user without using any type of channel members.
Direct marketing is about using information to educate, establish trust, and build a company (or someone in it) as an authority. Interactive marketingOnline activities and programs designed to engage customers or prospects and directly or indirectly raise awareness, improve image, or elicit sales of products and services. Common interactive marketing tools include e-mail, websites, online shopping, videos, webinars and webcasts, blogs, and social media such as Facebook and Twitter. A blogA web page made up of usually short, frequently updated posts that are arranged chronologically. Social mediaWebsites that feature user-generated content or material created by visitors rather than the website publishers and encourage visitors to read and respond to that material.
Despite the hype surrounding social media, and the fact that many small businesses are already connected, small businesses must still consider the use of social media just as carefully as the other modes of marketing communications. Although personal selling plays an important role in the sale of consumer products, it is even more important in the sale of industrial and business products. Like all other forms of marketing communications, personal selling offers both advantages and disadvantages.
On the minus side, the biggest disadvantage may be the negative perceptions that many people have of salespeople: pushy, annoying, slippery, and willing to do anything for the salea€”whether legal or not. IMC is about pulling all the marketing communications together to convey a consistent message. Small-business owners should be familiar and comfortable with the terms promotion, marketing communications, and integrated marketing communications (IMC).
The marketing communications mix for a small business will consist of some combination of advertising, sales promotion, events and experiences, PR and publicity, direct marketing, interactive marketing, and personal selling. Franka€™s All-American BarBeQue has historically taken a very low-key approach to promoting the business, choosing to rely on word-of-mouth communication.
Choose two products or services that you purchased recently from small businesses, one from an online business and one from an onground business. For almost 20 years, Gayle has been transforming the careers of thousands and setting resume writing trends that have impacted the way employers think.
WorkBloom's goal is to help job seekers find work and reach their highest aspirations, one step at a time.


Firms modify each element in the marketing mix to establish an overall brand image and USP, or unique selling point, that makes their products stand out from the competition.
Organizing functions of marketing management involves the collection and coordination of required means to implement a plan and to achieved pre determined objectives.
It involves coordination among various activities such as sales forecasting, product planning, product development, transportation, warehousing etc.
The market manager coordinates with the Human Resource Manager of an organization to be able to hire the staff with desired capability. With a confrontation matrix, these Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threaths can be used to identify strategic options. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Marketing communications can be defined as a€?the means by which firms attempt to inform, persuade, and remind customersa€”directly or indirectlya€”about the products and brands they sell. Although many IMC plans may be oriented toward a single objective, it is possible for a program to accomplish more than one objective at a time. According to Lorrie Thomas, author of Online Marketing,Lorrie Thomas, Online Marketing (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011), 157. By offering a promotion that helps a worthy cause, you can create a good name for the business. Giving away a free product or service is usually a good way to get people to try a product or a service for the first time, the hope being that it will lead to a purchase. It can be very effective if you run a promotion that helps provide information to potential customers to help them make a decision.
A small business could choose to sponsor a Halloween costume event for petsJerry Robertson, a€?Secrets to Low Cost PR for Small Businesses,a€? Yahoo! Today, customers a€?want products, communications, and marketing campaigns to deliver experiences.
Reputation managementThe process of tracking opinions and comments about a companya€™s actions and products and reacting to those opinions and comments to protect and enhance the companya€™s reputation. Instead, there will be one person whose job includesa€”among many other thingsa€”PR and publicity. Direct marketing can be used to sell, but it can also be used to test new markets, trial new products or customers, reward existing customers to reward loyalty, collect information for future campaigns, or segment a customer base. Because e-mail, websites, online shopping, webinars and webcasts have been mentioned previously, the focus here will be on videos, blogs, and social media.
However, even though small businesses hear much about blogs these days, creating one must be considered carefully. Social media has not worked out well for some small businesses that have used it, so each business must decide what social media is expected to do for the company, and then it must be used well and strategically.
More than four times as many personal selling activities are directed toward industrial and business customers than toward consumers.John M. Because personal selling is a person-to-person, and often a face-to-face, communication, it is a natural way for getting customers and consumers to experience a product for the first time. The most important objective of personal selling by far is persuading customers and consumers to make a purchase. Most personal selling focuses on building long-term relationships with customers and consumers. On the plus side, personal selling is flexible and dynamic, providing companies with the best opportunity to tailor a message to satisfy customersa€™ needs. The reality, of course, is that most salespeople (unfortunately, not all) do not fit this stereotype. This is where the salesperson tells the product a€?storya€? to the buyer: the producta€™s features, advantages, benefits, and value. They can be very effective, but they have not worked well for all small businesses that have used them.
Robert believes that Frank needs to increase the sophistication of the marketing communications.
The first professional in Australia to achieve the Certified Professional Resume Writer credential, Gayle set the pace for her peers, cementing her level of proficiency to be the first Master Resume Writer, Certified Expert Resume Writer, Master Career Director, Credentialed Career Manager, and Career Web Portfolio Practitioner in Australia. In order for you to see this page as it is meant to appear, we ask that you please re-enable your Javascript! Management of marketing activities is Marketing Management.Management Guru Philip Kotler defines marketing as “Marketing Management is the analysis, planning, implementation anc control of programmes designed to bring about the desired exchanges with target audiences for the purpose of personal and mutual gain. The organization involves structure of marketing organization, duties, responsibilities and powers of various members of the marketing organization.
You may also download a PDF copy of this book (38 MB) or just this chapter (3 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). The problem is that this may be confusing to potential customers.Dana-Nicoleta Lascu and Kenneth E. Each mode of communication has its own advantages and disadvantages, which should all be considered carefully before any final selections should be made. Advertising is around us all the timea€”for example, ads are on television and radio, in newspapers and magazines, in train stations and on trains, on the sides and inside of buses, in public restrooms, in taxis, on websites, and on billboards. A local travel agency selling spring getaways to college students, for example, might post flyers on campus bulletin boards, run ads in the campus newspaper (for the students) and local newspapers (for the parents), and run ads on the college radio station.[citation redacted per publisher request].
Sales promotionThe variety of short-term incentives to encourage trial or purchase of a product or a service.
For example, a small electronics store that is competing with a large retailer could offer a discounted price on a popular cell phone for a limited time. Donate a portion of sales to the local food bank, buy clothing for the homeless, or donate to the local animal shelter to help pay veterinarian bills. Coffee clubs are popular (buy so many coffees at the regular price and you get one cup free), but this approach can work for sandwiches at a deli, bags of bird food or dog food at the local pet store, shoe repairs at the local cobbler, dry cleaning services, and virtually any other kind of business.
However, the product or the service has to be good enough to stand on its own so that when the a€?freea€? unit is gone, the person will come back to buy.
This works especially well for products or services that are complicated or unfamiliar to customers, for example, software or product usage (particularly for business-to-business [B2B] customers), financial services, investment services, or estate planning. The degree to which a company is able to deliver a desirable customer experiencea€”and to use information technology, brands, and integrated communications and entertainment to do soa€”will largely determine its success.a€?Bernd H. The key is for PR and marketing to work closely together so that a€?every piece of communication produced by the company speaks with one voice.a€?Dana-Nicoleta Lascu and Kenneth E. This can translate into a higher conversion and success rate than if you tried to communicate with everyone in the mass market.
Everything is personalized and individualizeda€”from the website content to the products being promoted.Dana-Nicoleta Lascu and Kenneth E.
Using online videos has become an increasingly popular strategy in small business marketing. However, strong relationships can be built only over time, and they require regular communication.


The successful salesperson is the person who focuses his or her efforts on satisfying customers over the long term as opposed to his or her own selfish interests. For example, prospects for a small electric motor company would be all the businesses that use small electric motors. For example, you want to know about the prospecta€™s needs, attitudes about available products and brands, critical product attributes and benefits desired, and current vendor(s). It is important not to spend too much time on product features because benefits and value will most directly influence the purchase decision.
The key to overcoming these objections is to maintain a positive approach, ask the prospect to clarify the objections, and respond to the objections by reiterating the major benefits of the product or the service and pointing out additional features, guarantees, service, and anything else that would address the objections.
The request can be direct, or the salesperson can encourage the purchase by using a trial closing approach like asking, a€?Would you like us to finance product A for you?a€? Closing the sale is understandably the most difficult step for many salespeople because of the fear that the prospect will say no.
They are key to establishing the strong long-term relationships that every small business desires and needs.
Web searches and online content help prospective customers or clients do their own prospecting and qualifying.
For each product or service, identify the various media that were used to promote the product or the service and analyze the marketing communications mix. Marketing communications are all about getting the word out about a companya€™s products and services because customers cannot buy what they do not know about, and, in the process, creating more of a two-way relationship with customers than was typical of the more traditional notion of promotion.
Ads can also be found in other places, and the locations are limited only by the creativity of the company placing the ads. Whether the advantages of advertising outweigh the costs and disadvantages is something that must be decided by each small business. Free onground seminars or webinars or webcastsSeminars or presentations that are delivered online and that are typically an hour in length.
There is no one more qualified to educate the market about a need than a small business owner: a€?Theya€™re the ones who will know their audience and what theya€™ll find unique, irresistible and compelling.
If his name is not familiar, he is the founder of NapaStyle, a high-end small business retailer with both an onground and online presence.
Many small businesses in the B2B sector are already using social media for business as a resource, to engage in initiatives, or both.
Duening, Business Principles, Guidelines, and Practices (Mason, OH: Thomson Learning, 2007), 431. Personal selling can help a small business build strong, loyal relationships with customers and consumers.
Prospects can be found through a variety of sources, including current customers, trade directories, business associates, and newspaper or magazine articles.
It is also important to ask questions and listen carefully to a prospecta€™s answers because they will provide valuable insights into the prospecta€™s needs. The salesperson should schedule a follow-up call to ensure proper installation, instruction, servicing, and troubleshooting and resolution should any problems be detected. The Marketing managers are responsible for influencing the level, timing, and composition of customer demand accepted definition of the term. IMC objectives can fall into seven major categories: increase demand, differentiate a product (stressing benefits and features not available from competitors), provide more information about the product or the service (more information seen as being correlated with greater likelihood of purchase), build brand equityThe value added to a brand by customer perceptions of quality and customer awareness of the brand.
Participation in a local business fair could provide exposure for a product or a service and the opportunity to experience the product if that is possible. By having special events, a small business will stand out from the rest,Jerry Robertson, a€?Secrets to Low Cost PR for Small Businesses,a€? Yahoo!
Addressing extremely negative comments immediately is very important for any small business with a web presence.
Online video content is becoming increasingly popular with avid Internet users, so a small business should consider creating a video for its website.
Maintaining a blog takes a lot of time and energya€”and then there need to be people to read it. Always remember that unhappy customers will defect to competitiona€”and they will spread negative comments about the company. A companya€™s website becomes the first sales presentation and, as a result, is critical in moving a prospect toward a sale. While the psychological factors focus upon discovering the needs and wants of the consumer and the changing patterns of buying behavior, habit etc. Forrester Research forecasts that interactive marketing expenditures will reach $55 billion by 2015, accounting for 21 percent of all expenditures on marketing. After careful consideration, it may be better to focus a companya€™s promotional efforts elsewhere.
It stands to reason that successful small business owners should have the same sales skills. Because it is much cheaper to retain an old customer than to obtain new ones, it is in a companya€™s best interests to provide good follow-up and maintenance services. In short, all employees must be fully integrated into web marketing because web marketing is the primary driver of the sales process. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience.
Small-business owners should be familiar and comfortable with all three terms because at least one of them will be the basis of conversations with vendors, employees, and other businesses. Factory tours and company museums, both of which can also be virtual, can offer great experiences for customers.
Traditional PR tools include press releases and press kits that are sent to the media to generate positive press on behalf of the business. According to Ad-ologya€™s 2011 Small Business Marketing Forecast, 45 percent of US small businesses with fewer than 100 employees plan to use online video.
Depending on the size of the company, small businesses will have varying numbers of salespeople, so some of the costs will vary as well.
Tip: If you are not sure whether an online business can be considered a small business, type in the name of the business plus a€?corporate HQa€? into Google or your preferred search engine.
Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. However, from a small business management perspective, IMC should be the guiding philosophy for a company. As with all objectives, IMC objectives must meet the SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-based) criteria that are described in Section 7.2 "The Marketing Strategy Process". Paul Bond Boots, a small US maker of custom-made cowboy boots that are individually handmade to fit, features five really cool videos on its website.



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