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The implementation stage of your PR plan will need to outline the various communication methods or channels to the key stakeholders.
The results should be measured against the objectives, which should have been written in quantifiable terms to see how closely the actual result for each objective has matched the intended result.
A rule of thumb is to use multiple channels of communication frequently enough to lead to behavior or attitude change. Each target audience will need to be reached through credible and accessible channels of communication.
An example of a change communication plan for the introduction of an employee incentive and performance management program is shown below covering the period leading up to the launch. Wherever possible, the implementation activities should be tested on a focus group or a suitable sample of other people so that the actions can be fine-tuned when the full-scale activities take place. It is all too easy to fall into the trap of applying a convenient label to the activities that are based on the broad communication process, such as saying the project is a community relations campaign, or it is a government relations project.
If the logistics of the communication program are too large to be handled effectively by in-house PR staff, it may be necessary to use public relations consultancies to assist with the effort.
The implementation phase requires decisions to be made about project management of the communication activity.
Charting the planned stages of a project can be an extremely valuable technique to ensure the project is running to time and all necessary actions are taking place when they should. Gantt charts showing the scheduled start and finish of each part of every PR project can be used to help ensure projects are running on time. A Gantt chart is constructed with a horizontal axis representing the total time span of the project, broken down into increments (for example, days, weeks, or months) and a vertical axis representing the tasks that make up the project. Automated Gantt charts store more information about tasks, such as the staff assigned to specific tasks, and notes about the procedures. A PERT chart is a project management tool used to schedule, organize and coordinate tasks within a project. A PERT chart presents a graphic illustration of a project as a network diagram consisting of numbered nodes (either circles or rectangles) representing events, or milestones in the project linked by labeled vectors (directional lines) representing tasks in the project. Tasks that must be completed in sequence without requiring resources or completion time are considered to have event dependency. The PERT chart is sometimes preferred over the Gantt chart because it clearly illustrates task dependencies. You’ll be joining the 130,000 Smart Insights members from 80 countries who trust our advice to Plan, Manage and Optimize their marketing.
You may have noticed we're fans of using practical models as tools to support marketing strategy development? I think most would agree that models are useful "Mind Tools" to structure thinking and communicate a strategy, but there's a problem.
In our free, illustrated guide to 15 classic planning models diagrams we explain what they are and give examples of why and how to apply them in business.
In the Essential Models guide we have selected what we see as the classic,most popular models that have stood the test of time and we think are still relevant in today’s era of omnichannel marketing. Please select which you find most useful of the 15 models covered in our guide - you can select more than one or suggest others. Some marketing models are digital focused while others apply equally to digital and traditional forms of communication. This new guide, published in 2016 lists 10 models that can be used by marketing professionals and students for digital audits, planning and strategy.
Since I'm a digital marketer, I have my own views on the relevance of these, indeed in my books I have often included them.
So before we wrote the guide I thought it would be nice to share an overview of the relevant models here for anyone passing this way who isn't familiar with them. The 7P's of the Marketing mix model are Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Process and Physical evidence - these elements of the marketing mix form the core tactical components of a marketing plan.
I think it's right this is at the start of the list since it's still widely used and I think is a simple way to think through how a company markets its products.
Unique Selling Proposition is the concept that brands should make it clear to potential buyers why they are different and better than the competition. This is a simple concept and an essential message to communicate online since the core brand message often isn't clear. This well known, essential MBA model categorises products offered by a business in a portfolio based on their performance rating them as Stars, Cash Cows, Dogs and Question Marks as below.
I find this isn't so applicable in the online marketing world for small and medium businesses - it's more of a Big Business corporate strategy model.
This model allows marketers to visualise a brand’s relative position to competitors in the market place by plotting consumer perceptions of the brand and competitor brands against the attributes that drive purchase. The creation of an engaging online brand is so important to success in digital marketing, it's a pity there aren't more effective branding models.
Customer Lifetime Value is the concept used to assess what a customer is worth, based on the present value of future revenue attributed to a customer’s relationship with a product. A different class of models to others, this is more of calculation model - covered in Chapter 6 of my Internet Marketing Book.
The Ansoff’s model is a matrix that can be used to identify alternative growth strategies by looking at present and potential products in current and future markets.
Ansoff's model dates back to the 1960s, but I still cover it in the books to show how companies should "think out of the box" with new opportunities for their digital strategies by considering new opportunities for market and product development rather than simply market penetration which misses the opportunities of digital marketing for me. This model shows the steps a person takes before becoming loyal to a brand as they move through the stages of prospect, customer, client, supporter and advocate.
Loyalty models are useful as a way of thinking through the opportunities to generate lifetime value.
As an extension of the traditional PEST model, this analysis framework is used to assess the impact of macro-environmental factors on a product or brand - political, economical, social, technological, legal and economic. However, PESTLE is still widely taught and Annmarie Hanlon is a fan so to explain it's value to me and others she has this in-depth post on how to use the PEST or PESTLE model. The Five forces in Porter's model are Rivalry, Supplier power, Threat of substitutes, Buyer power and Barriers to entry and are used to analyse the industry context in which the organisation operates. Yes this one features in my books and I reference a classic 2001 paper by Porter on applying the Five Forces to the Internet.
This diffusion innovation model plots the natural path of a product as it moves through the stages of Introduction, Growth, Maturity, Saturation and Decline. This three stage STP process involves analysing which distinct customer groups exist and which segment the product best suits before implementing the communications strategy tailored for the chosen target group. As a model which is focused on delivering relevant products, services and communications to the customer and so generating value for an organisation, this is essential for every marketer to understand and apply in practice. This acronym stands for Situation, Objectives, Strategy, Tactics, Actions, Control and is a framework used when creating marketing plans. I'm a big fan of using PR Smith's SOSTAC® model as a way of planning and implementing strategies. Finally, I wanted to thank the Chartered Institute of Marketing who prompted the idea for this post when they were celebrating their centenary and they ran voting around different models. I tell the students to use the 7Ps (or 8 with Principles (ethics etc)) to review the competitors and use the Ps plus capabilities and resources for the internal review. Completely agree about TOWs too – we always recommend that rather than a backwards looking SWOT. The concept I write about is taken from Bob Lauterborn, professor of advertising at the University of North Carolina. SOSTAC is a widely used tool for marketing and business planning which is rated in the top 3 most popular marketing models in the Smart Insights review of Marketing Models that have stood the test of time.
In this post I give an example of how I have applied PR Smith’s SOSTAC® Planning Model - which is my interpretation of SOSTAC®.
Further guidance and examples are available in the Smart Insights guide for Expert members by PR Smith and this post by Dave Chaffey giving an overview of the SOSTAC® model. A guide for Expert members to creating a digital marketing plan using SOSTAC® by PR Smith, the creator of the method.
Originally created in the 1990s by writer and speaker PR Smith, the SOSTAC® framework has built an authoritative reputation as the framework of choice for different scales of  business including multinational and startup organisations across the world.
If you're looking for a visual example, the process for creating a digital marketing plan has also been summarised in this Multichannel Marketing Plan infographic. Stage 1 of implementing this digital marketing planning framework is setting out the situation analysis. SWOT analysis – what are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to the whole organisation. For example, how do you envision your organisation to differentiate itself from the competition? Creating customer personas helps brings to life who your existing customers are and what their motivations are. Route to purchase – Were purchases made through a search engine, email newsletter, affiliate website, direct from site or through the call centre, i.e. Based on this data, the next stage is to turn this data into more of a personality that your organisation can relate to.
Steve is a 28 yr old professional, renting in London, single and with a high disposable income.
Steve is comfortable in ordering online and engaging with social media to keep up to date with the latest football news and football product launches. Steve has been reading the latest new stories regarding the World Cup through his favourite football blog site.


Clare has received an email from one of her preferred online retailers which includes a cross marketing promotion to Company X, where you can order your World cup shirt by quoting a promotional code. It’s worth considering creating a SWOT analysis of your organisation, thinking laterally by embracing all your internal departments rather than just focusing on the digital marketing department and gathering evidence and interviews on your colleagues, suppliers, customers thoughts.
Not only will it provide a better picture to lay out a strategy for your organisation as a whole but it also provides you with the opportunity to interview and build relationships across the organisation. Dave Chaffey has examples of a marketing SWOT examples in his post where he recommends the TOWs matrix method to link the SWOT forward to strategies. To help create your objectives, I recommend you use two guides to help to create both measurable and realistic goals to achieve for your digital marketing strategy, focusing on the 5 S’s and ensuring you make each objective SMART. The 5 Ss goals refer to: Sell, Serve, Speak, Save and Sizzle which were created by PR Smith and the concept first published it in various online elearning packages and reference can also be found in the book, Emarketing Excellence . Specific – Are you focusing enough on a specific issue or challenge within the organisation? There are a number of different SMART objectives that can be set for example, lead generation, acquisition or engagement or retention. We have already identified Company X will be focusing on its key strengths: product range, organisational structure and global operations (as detailed in the SWOT analysis) whilst remaining realistic to its lack of financial resources in comparison to the competition. It is recommended Company X to develop a site geared for the World Cup which will provide a dedicated section used to service the customer base and to meet and service the objectives set for the strategy. Increase email frequency from one email per quarter to one email per week from May 2015 through to July 2015.
Dave Chaffey recommends you use this type of table to summarise how you link or align strategy with objectives.
Tactics cover the specific tools of the digital mix that you plan to use to realise the objectives of your digital marketing plan. It is recommended Company X develop a micro site geared for the World Cup which will provide a dedicated section used to service the customer base and to meet and service the objectives set for the strategy. To help achieve the objectives above, use the 7PS of the Marketing Mix to focus on the key attributes to be considered by Company X in order to meet youe objectives.
Price – Review pricing of World Cup products and to ensure it is consistent to online competitors. Place – Operating as an online retailer, this provides the main hub for all stock movements utilising courier companies to increase efficiency in delivering stock to the customer in the quickest time possible. Email marketing: Through past purchase history, set up targeted emails to send to existing customers based on team they support.
Social Media: Utilise the company accounts to engage with other football news accounts and provide information on latest World Cup products and promotions. People – Utilise the customer service team to engage with customers should it be needed to provide support for customers who would like to answer questions on delivery of their order, tracking their order. Process – The customer would be directed to the website through a referral or recommendation. Partnerships – List important strategic relationships with other companies that operate in non-competing sectors that have become an important selling point to differentiate itself from other online competitors. From the competitor analysis, one of the key weaknesses of Company X over its competitors was a lack of financial muscle. As with SEO, the keyword research will provide a foundation on what keywords to target with a budget. As with SEO, there will be an ongoing refinement of keywords to target as well as budget to allocate per keyword. A cost effective vehicle in driving brand visibility for Company X is the launch of a program. An email strategy needs to be implemented in order to ensure our existing customer base is receiving regular newsletters. Stage 5 of your digital marketing planning framework is focused on how to bring your plan to life, to make actionable measures. The action section covers what needs to be achieved for each of the tactics listed in the previous section of the SOSTAC® plan to realise the objectives of your digital marketing plan.
Continuing with the theme of the football World Cup, we have identified Company X will be focusing on its key strengths: product range, organisational structure and global operations (as detailed in the SWOT analysis) whilst remaining realistic to its lack of financial resources in comparison to the competition. For the purpose of this case study, the following tactics were listed and below each tactic, actions have been included to ensure each has been considered before launch. On page optimisation – Of the targeted keywords, we need to optimise the website pages of the micro site to ensure best rankings within Google.
Content - Identifying and reaching out to industry leading bloggers, forums and websites prepared to create guest content and build a relationship to propel your brands proposition around the World Cup. Link building – Bring together a targeted group of websites to target with similar keywords and are seen as high authority sites.
Product Availability – Are we communicating with our buyers to ensure we are bidding on keywords associated with products available to purchase? Business Development – Have we built up a working relationship with the affiliate program and will they assist in identifying and recruiting key affiliates to the program. The final stage is to layout how you plan to monitor and measure your performance based on the objectives set at stage 2. For further information on PR Smith SOSTAC® planning guide, I recommend you purchase the book, The SOSTAC® Guide To Writing Your Perfect Digital Marketing Plan or Smart Insights Expert members can access it as part of their resources.
It is important to identify measurable actions that each stakeholder group or sub-group needs to take to fulfill the selected goals. In total, all the component results contained in the plan should add up to successful achievement of the overarching results objectives so that the overall plan is achieved.
In this era of electronic communication there are many more channels available to communicators than in the past, and research has shown that a combination of channels generally provides the most effective result. For instance, in a government lobbying campaign to gain support from Members of Parliament or Congress, a series of briefings, workshops and working groups may be held with relevant parliamentary or Congressional committees and key government officials. Some of the techniques include face-to-face meetings, telephone contact, group meetings, teleconferences, email, letters, faxes, reports, brochures, and media releases to the mass media, ie all forms of print and electronic media, as well as media conferences. Most PR plans comprise a complex, interconnected range of activities and therefore a label based on one communication process can be a simplistic and limiting approach.
External consultants may have expertise that is not available in-house, such as skills in strategy development, issues and crisis management, media relations.
The communication strategy document should outline the roles and responsibilities of the members of the project or campaign group. Everyone needs to be clear about who will approve the creative concepts and whose budgets will pay for the activity.
In public relations projects, several types of charts are used such as Gantt charts, PERT charts, and to a lesser extent, critical path analysis and sophisticated project management software for more complex work. A Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart developed as a production control tool in 1917 by Henry L.
The PERT chart, another popular project management charting method, is designed to do this. PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) was developed by the US Navy in the 1950s to manage the Polaris submarine missile program. On the other hand, the PERT chart can be much more difficult to interpret, especially on complex projects.
We believe a clear, simple model gives us a framework to assess how we're doing things now compared to our competitors and plan growth strategies for the future. Over the years,  many models have been developed and some are academic rather than of practical application in the "real world".
But which are the most useful - do take our poll to share which you think are of the most practical use and are valuable in understanding opportunities to grow a business. In fact, most are included in my Digital Marketing: Strategy, Implementation and Practice book. CLV is mainly important online for transactional sites and certainly investment decisions like allowable cost per acquisition (CPA) must be taken with future customer purchases and attrition rates considered. The four growth strategies are market penetration, market development, product development and diversification.
I find students tend to review these in-depth at the expense of creating innovative strategies. But, I personally think it has limited practical value - yes we know customers have more bargaining power online. It features in all my books and I know Paul Smith, who created it well - he's my co-author on Emarketing Excellence. I am currently writing a MSc Strategic Digital Marketing paper analysing a company’s current strategic digital marketing practice and management. COM (Competitors, Other (indirect) competitors and Market) is the micro environment – needs constant review as it changes quickly.
CIM senior examiners on Diploma in Digital Marketing, failure of students to use this digital marketing model versus old tried and tested models like PESTLE, Ansoff and even SOSTAC!!, but doesn’t get mentioned here, and seems to be a lack of scholarly articles on it? It’s so frustrating especially as the course text (Digital Marketing Chaffey, Ellis-Chadwick) has no mention of it either. BCG and Porters are higher-level tools and probably most appropriate in larger organisations. I learnt this model from the IDM digital diploma, but although I now know it has been used i direct marketing for decades, it wasn’t around when I did my MBA, not is it a concept that is understood by many business professionals. My recommendations cover many of these planning and management activities, but not all, due to space. The situation should provide an overview of your organisation – who you are, what you do and how you interact and trade online by addressing internal and external factors impacting the business.


This is essential to ensure you’re providing a clear picture of existing customers and who you are looking to also target. To help define your organisations OVP, David Chaffey recommends the 6Cs of customer motivation framework.
Persona creation also helps to get buy-in across your organisation in helping to paint a picture and bring to life your customer profiles. As the World Cup provides the chance to showcase international replica shirts, this provides Company X with the chance to engage with Steve to make an additional purchase of an international replica shirt as well as purchasing his favourite club shirt.
She likes to keep up with the latest fashion trends and is comfortable in ordering at her favourite online shop. Stage 1 looked at the situation analysis which provided an overview for your organisation, specifically: who you are, what you do and how you interact and trade online by addressing internal and external factors impacting your business. The strategy section should also identify which segments of the market you aim to target with your plan.
The site will act as a key differentiator from the competition and a reason to visit and carry out a transaction.
Competitor research was completed in stage 1, situation analysis, and a micro site will act as a key differentiator from the competition and provide the foundation to meeting the objectives of the strategy. It therefore needs to ensure sufficient stock levels have been secured for each team playing at the World Cup finals. However SEO does provide the company with a platform to compete head on, specifically, Search Engine Optimisation. Much of the competition do not operate a PPC campaign, therefore this is an area to capitalise on, by building traffic to the World Cup site as well as to increase brand visibility. Due to stock fluctuations, keyword budgets will need to be paused or activated based on stock volumes and demand for the product. Building your affiliate marketing network is a central component to ensure you’re maximising opportunities in generating incremental revenue streams through a network of publishers that are active within your program either through lead generation, display, search or voucher codes. Tactics to be employed include a variation on what should be included within the content of the newsletters to ensure we retain a good click-through rate, open rate and conversion to sale. Are we tracking performance of email delivery and tracking email effectiveness such as click through rates, open rates, conversion to sale? The tactics have been considered and your control section is providing you with a series of dashboards tailored for each tactic. For example, if the CEO wants to change the corporate culture, you should discuss first, before developing a communication plan, what observable and measurable behaviors will be different if people respect each other more or have more integrity, etc. However, too often the communication method used is employed for its convenience to the sender rather than its effectiveness in changing the behavior of the stakeholders receiving the message.
Other channels may also include ongoing meetings with political party leaders and other relevant Members of Parliament or Congress. Notice how the communication processes or channels are varied to suit the different target audiences, even though all the recipients are employees in the same organization, and how different channels reinforce key messages.
It is far better, therefore, to work back from the objective of the project or program and use a working title relevant to that. This is especially important where the organizing committee comprises representatives from different areas within the organization or external representatives from a PR consultancy, advertising or marketing agency. As the project progresses, secondary bars, arrowheads, or darkened bars may be added to indicate completed tasks, or the portions of tasks that have been completed. Charts may be adjusted frequently to reflect the actual status of project tasks as, almost inevitably, they diverge from the original plan. In the diagram, for example, the tasks between nodes 1, 2, 4, 5, 15 and 16 must be completed in sequence. The small numbers between the nodes indicate the time (in this case the number of days) allotted for each task. They're also great for communicating the purpose and reason behind a strategy you are pursuing. Because of this, we've just produced a new guide free for all members on digital marketing models specifically. But it suffers from a push mentality completely out-of-keeping with modern digital marketing approaches of listening to and engaging customers in participation through social median marketing. For example, to do a thorough SWOT analysis one has to do a PESTLE (taught to me as STEEPLE+E) and Porters five forces to fully analyze both macro and micro environment.
But I also think SWOT can only identify so much and we need other tools to expand the results. If you’re operating in a competitive environment, consider including what your online value proposition (OVP) is should you have one? To create a series of personas, a majority of this work can be completed by extracting existing data through your CRM system and analytics and then build on this to create a profile picture of your existing customers.
He likes to display his support for his football club every year, buying the clubs latest replica shirt online.
Steve clicks on the link and arrives at Company X which brings up a list of World Cup shirts available to order displaying the exclusive 10% discount promotion.
Her boyfriend is a keen football fan who likes to keep up with football fashion by purchasing the latest football replica shirts of his favourite team.
She is unsure of the team and shirt to order so decides to phone the order helpline and take advantage of mixed-mode buying. The strategy will be to outflank competitors in order to grab market share for world cup online traffic. Increase the brand presence within identified online channels that target the football fan audience. This tactic would be to utilise the existing customer database and incentivise them to recruit friends and colleagues to join the mailing list through weekly campaigns. Once the behaviors reflecting each desired cultural value are defined, the behaviors can be measured before and after the communication plan is implemented. Frequently used in project management, Gantt charts provide a graphical illustration of a schedule that helps to plan, coordinate, and track specific tasks in a project. A few years ago now, I was talking to marketing consultant and trainer, Annmarie Hanlon about the power and challenge of using planning models and we decided it would be good to collaborate to create a free guide where we picked and explained the most useful, practical models for students and professionals alike to share. It gives details on the 10 key digital marketing models, so you get the most relevant marketing models for your business. I also think it under-represents the power of intermediaries like comparison sites and publishers in the online world.
Threats can kill your business and opportunities are the future but if your mind set is internal you look outside with blinkers on. Steve chooses the shirt of his choice in his preferred shirt size and completes a transaction using his credit card.
Clare may engage with the hype of the World Cup and this could provide an opportunity to for her to make and purchase at Company X for her boyfriend and the International team they choose to support during the tournament. Clare explains her situation over the phone to the sales consultant and places her order over the phone for the football shirt. The customer will then receive an automated email response to confirm their registration along with an email to confirm order.
Gantt charts may be simple versions created on graph paper or more complex automated versions created using project management applications such as Microsoft Project or Excel. The tasks between nodes 1 and 2, nodes 1 and 3, and nodes 1 and 6 don’t depend on the completion of one to start the other and can be undertaken simultaneously.
Send this email to five of your friends and if they register you get a 15% discount off your next order. Overall, people may have different preferences, but most useful is kind of pointless since they are inter-connected.
Research our competitors and understand what online marketing tools they are using as well as not utilising and take a first mover advantage. Who was the first source of contact with information concerning this alleged "disappearance" who discussed it with Claire?A  Clearly, you didn't check with me before discussing such damaging lies with her, so I assume you must have had permission from Eric William Swanson to speak with Claire about this alleged event, and what might have happened to me?A  Was my possible death ever discussed?
Rose discussed this alleged "disappearance" of me with Claire prior to your having an in depth and detailed conversation with Claire?A  Please list the names of any other persons who may have discussed this topic with Claire.
We are hitting up the neighbors for air and futon mattresses, so everyone will have some padding!
A  I learned something from every man I met or exchanged emails with, and Lou taught me a few words in Spanish.A  Ole! Grant, Attorney at Law, Juneau, AK From Wedding Bells to Tales to Tell: The Affidavit of Eric William Swanson, my former spouse AFFIDAVIT OF SHANNON MARIE MCCORMICK, My Former Best Friend THE AFFIDAVIT OF VALERIE BRITTINA ROSE, My daughter, aged 21 THE BEAGLE BRAYS! We can take a little walk, maybe get our feet wet, and then lie on a blanket and listen to the waves.
I do the same thing myself, when the mood strikes.A  And how about this for being an "in tune with women" kinda guy?A  A few days after I had ordered myself 2 new green dresses and several in black to add to my collection from a mail order company named Newport News, he sent an email asking:A  "So, what are you wearing right now? A  For Christ Sake!!A  How about saving the Taxpayers a buck?A  In addition to that $6 million you've already blown by hovering and covering me, and scheduling a proper Face to Base meeting in your office; at my convenience?
Dramatic, but no drama.A  Short black skirt, or long black dress?A  Heels or boots?A  Camo, or commando? HELL'S BELLS: THE TELLS OF THE ELVES RING LOUD AND CLEAR IDENTITY THEFT, MISINFORMATION, AND THE GETTING THE INFAMOUS RUNAROUND Double Entendre and DoubleSpeak, Innuendos and Intimidation, Coercion v Common Sense, Komply (with a K) v Knowledge = DDIICCKK; Who's Gunna Call it a Draw?
Until then, as in the end,there is much more to come.A A A  Once Upon a Time, a little mushroom popped through the moss covered ground of the Southeast Alaska Rainforest.



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