Pricing strategies and examples,brand marketing strategy template gartner,free youtube mp4 video downloader software - For Begninners

Setting up additional price points for your offer is one of the most effective pricing strategy in marketing.
If you know your prospect will compare your price to something else – give them that something else. You again advertise your standard room, but this time you show both of your offers: standard and deluxe. By adding one seemingly useless price point (option 2), The Economist boosted the perceived value of option 3. Choosing option 3 in the presence of option 2 allows people to feel smart and canny, because they figured out which option is actually the best.
A great psychologist and economist Dan Ariely describes this example his amazing (and one of my personal favorites) book, Predictably Irrational. What having an additional option (even if it seems useless) really does, is that it makes us feel like we are great decision makers.
One point as a counter though, you might not want to provide too many choices and that is a fine art according to me.. You are very right :) This technique will work if we have 1 main offer to sell and we add another one around it.
Congestion pricing and public transportation convey mutual benefits—road pricing benefits public transportation by improving public transportation speeds and the reliability of public transportation service, increasing public transportation ridership, lowering costs for public transportation providers, and expanding the source of revenue that may be used for public transportation.
Public transportation benefits road pricing by absorbing commuters who shift their travel from automobile to bus or rail. Recent experience suggests that the effect of congestion pricing on public transportation depends on the type of pricing strategy implemented.
The current experience with HOT lanes suggests that variably priced lanes do not generate a shift to public transportation per se; however, in many cases, some of the revenues generated by the lanes are dedicated to public transportation. The four variably priced express lanes in the median of the State Route (SR) 91 freeway opened in December 1995.
Although local public transportation vehicles use the express toll lanes, there is little impact on public transportation operations from this variable-pricing application (Jackson, Zirker, Peirce, & Baltes, 2008). Although this operation is primarily seen as a traffic-reduction highway initiative, the San Diego HOT lanes have always had a public transportation link in its concept and operations.
Overall, the I-15 FasTrak® value-pricing program has been so successful that construction is underway to expand the system by 2012 to a 20-mile, two-directional managed-lane project that extends from downtown San Diego to Escondido in the far northern part of the county. There are approximately 105 miles of HOV lanes that are operating in the Houston metropolitan area.
In May 2005, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) opened the I-394 HOT-lane corridor. Since the I-25 express lanes opened in Denver, CO, in June 2006, usage levels are above predicted use.
With variable tolls, flat toll rates on existing toll roads are changed to a variable-toll schedule so that the toll is higher during peak-travel hours and lower during off-peak or shoulder hours.
In February 2001, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey changed its tolling system from fixed to variably priced along its numerous Hudson River crossings. The variable-pricing program on the Cape Coral and Midpoint Bridges in the Fort Meyers, FL, area is a small-scale project. Zone-based pricing involves charging a fee to enter or drive within a congested area, usually a city center. On February 17, 2003, London implemented an ambitious plan for using pricing to combat congestion in central London. The congestion charge had been in the planning stages since the mid-1990s but was ultimately implemented by London’s first elected mayor as one component of his transportation strategy for the region.
A detailed, pre-charge review of bus services resulted in improved frequencies on 53 routes and the use of larger vehicles on 10 routes, that is, a change to double-decker or articulated buses.
Evaluation results indicate that the charging system has been successful in reducing congestion by about 25 percent within the zone and has led to substantial increases in bus ridership.
Bus travel times and reliability improved due to the reduction in traffic congestion brought about by the charge. One noteworthy aspect of the London case is that Parliament granted a single agency, Transport for London, final authority for almost all aspects of transportation in Greater London, including the Underground and bus networks, light rail, maintenance on major roads, and the congestion charge itself. The cordon-pricing trial results were very favorable, with public acceptance climbing throughout the trial, from under 30-percent approval before the trial to over 55 percent toward the end. The clear lesson is that expansion of public transportation alone was insufficient to meaningfully impact congestion; the real change occurred after the congestion charge began. Traffic congestion was significantly reduced when peak-period pricing was introduced in downtown Singapore during the morning rush hours in 1975.
The State of Oregon has tested a pricing scheme that involves per-mile charges, which it will consider using as a replacement for fuel taxes in the future.
This type of congestion-pricing strategy does not involve tolls and is discussed in greater detail in a companion primer, Non-Toll Pricing. The vast majority of employers provide their employees with free parking at work; few offer any transit or other commuter benefits.
Free on-street parking provides an incentive for motorists to circle around congested urban blocks in search of a space and to bypass commercial garages that do have space but for which the driver must pay to use.
All congestion-pricing schemes deployed in the United States to date have had the primary goal of congestion reduction (via modifications to travel times and routes) followed by revenue enhancements.
Thus far, public transportation involvement in domestic value-pricing strategies has been limited. International zone-based pricing experiments could not have been successful without involvement from public transportation.
Changes to public transportation service must be tailored to local conditions, travel patterns, and public transportation capacity constraints. In London, careful planning ensured that sufficient buses were provided to keep occupancy rates relatively constant, thus preventing overcrowding. Although the increase in demand for public transportation as a result of congestion pricing can be relatively modest overall, it can still require major service changes for certain hours, locations, and directions of travel. The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) published its policy on HOV to HOT conversions in February 2007 (Federal Transit Administration, 2007).
The HOT lanes were previously HOV lanes and were reported in the National Transit Database as fixed guideway miles for purposes of the funding formulas administered by FTA. Yet for many B2B marketers, the pricing strategy in their marketing plan is challenging to write; many aren’t even involved in creating their pricing strategy. There are many factors to consider when developing your pricing strategy, both short- and long-term. Note: You can access guided pricing strategy templates and step-by-step instructions for writing the pricing strategy section of your marketing plan in our marketing planning and management app. When you offer a truly unique product or service with little direct competition, it can be challenging to establish your price. When your price, value proposition and positioning are aligned, you’re in the best situation to maximize revenue and profits.
Company C regularly evaluates their competitors’ prices to make sure they’re delivering on their promise. However, if there isn’t a strong market for prestige, this strategy may be the best one for the company long-term. If Company B charges a premium price for an average product, they’ll have a very difficult time generating interest in their it. Yet Company B may be able to implement a small price increase to raise revenue and profits; it depends how much more its customers are willing to spend. By analyzing price sensitivity and testing different prices, they can evaluate the strength and potential of this new strategy. If Company C’s prices rise in relation to those of their competitors, sales will plummet – their market is shopping on price, not factors like product leadership or customer intimacy.
If Company C cannot maintain its operational efficiency and cost leadership, it will need to develop new products or markets for its existing product. Their pricing is typically 15% above the competition – they’re the most expensive product in their class.
Their demand curve is relatively inelastic, meaning that their market isn’t that sensitive to price. Much of that results from the carefully selected positioning and branding over the past five years.
When they’re behind their sales targets, individual reps are given the green light to discount if needed to meet their sales quotas. Management doesn’t want to get in a price war, but is willing to ensure that they hit their short-term numbers. Management knows that they could spend more in R&D to differentiate their offering and have greater pricing power, but they haven’t yet committed the budget to do so.
The quality of their offering suffers, and they end up providing mediocre service for both markets. By lowering the price of their “prestige” brand to access a new market, Company C has increased its revenue, while reducing its profit margin and damaging its brand. Create a free account in our marketing planning and management web app for step-by-step guidance.
It’s best to define your positioning, create your brand strategy, and identify your distribution channels before you develop your pricing strategy in the marketing plan.
For example, if your method for delivering value is product leadership, you shouldn’t discount heavily or compete on price; you should also minimize pricing conflicts with any channel partners. Your price sends a strong message to your market – it needs to be consistent with the value you’re delivering. If your value proposition is operational efficiency, then your price needs to be extremely competitive. If your value proposition is product leadership or customer intimacy, a low price sends the wrong message.
Estimate how sensitive your customers are to fluctuations – it will help you determine the right price and volume combination. Once you’ve finalized your pricing strategy in the marketing plan, it’s time to design your marketing campaigns.
The Marketing MO planning app is your behind-the-scenes Chief Marketing Officer, a comprehensive resource that will improve your overall business, whether it’s a consulting practice, start up, or mid-size company. You’ll be joining the 130,000 Smart Insights members from 80 countries who trust our advice to Plan, Manage and Optimize their marketing. This model relating pricing for a product or service to the quality delivered may not be as familiar as some other marketing models we have covered in our classic marketing model series, although it was created by author Philip Kotler.
You can use the Price - Quality Strategy Model to review competitors’ products and services and review their strategies.
This is the High value strategy, where a higher quality product is provided and more expensive components are used.
This is a similar low price strategy involving setting a low initial price to capture market share initially, then when the market grows and costs decrease, costs are reduced further. When they introduce a new product, such as fans and heaters, these follow the same premium pricing strategy.
The objective was for maximum profit, so when Apple iPhones were the first smartphone in the marketplace they could set high prices before other players entered. The objective was product-quality leadership which was followed by Dyson Vacuum cleaners, They design and manufacture quality products, based on years of research, testing and significant investment into patents. Waitrose's objective was more than survival but to recapture customers, or stop them switching.


For maximum sales growth, Subway sandwiches offer a lower price lunchtime snack and now have more outlets across the UK than MacDonald. If you’re developing products and changing the quality, perhaps saving money and reducing one element of the process, review the price too, or you could fall into False Economy or Rip-Off strategies. In our free, illustrated guide to 15 classic planning models diagrams we explain what they are and give examples of why and how to apply them in business. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Different pricing strategies adopted by BMW car mfg company across its various product range and geographies. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. There are multiple approaches to pricing of information technology products and services.  Although pricing strategies differ based on whether the software or system is getting sold as a product or getting leased as a service, there are certain basic generic strategies for pricing the same.
Cost-based pricing of technology is historically the most popular method since it relies on more readily available information from the cost-accounting system.
The problems of a cost-driven pricing strategy arise from the assumptions that must be made about product costs. Another pricing strategy for software products and services is based on Function Point analysis and Full Function point analysis. A few other pricing techniques are  MIPS-based pricing, tiered pricing, user based pricing, flat pricing and usage based pricing. In a MIPS-based pricing strategy, software prices are based on the on the theoretical throughput of the system (MIPS) on which the software is running.
In a flat pricing contract, customers pay a fixed price for unlimited use of the software product.
In an user based pricing strategy, the customer is charged based on the number of users that utilize a collection of software features over a given period of time by assigning costs to a particular number of users or workstations and sum up individual cost allocation. In an usage based pricing strategy, customers is charged by the vendor firm only for what they actually use on a transaction basis, during a contract period, say in months, but more popularly for larger IT firms and engagements, in years.
Today another popular pricing technique is based on the economic value that a client firm may get from a technology product or service level agreement. However, which pricing strategy to deploy and at what stage is entirely dependent on multiple factors like whether it is a service level agreement or not, whether it is a product or not, whether it is being licensed as a technology platform to another implementer or not, which stage of the product life cycle is it into, what is its competitive scenario, what is the industry structure of the product or the nature of the industry where it will get implemented (say automobile vs telecom), is it entering a new market or an established one, etc etc.
Now whoever comes across your ad, will compare your offer to other offers they have seen – of different hotels.
Now your prospects compare the standard room to the deluxe one – not the competition. If you choose option 2, you get print-only subscription, whereas in option 3 – web and print. The threat with pricing your products or services low is that we turn our customers into bargain seekers. By replacing traffic with free-flowing conditions on major routes, congestion pricing can improve the speed and productivity of current express bus services, making them more attractive to commuters while reducing operating costs. At present, variably priced lanes have had limited effect on public transportation usage, whereas the impact of zone-based (cordon or area) pricing has been significant. On HOT lanes, low-occupancy vehicles are charged a toll, whereas high-occupancy vehicles (HOVs), public transportation buses, and emergency vehicles are allowed to use the lanes free of charge or at reduced rates.
The objectives of the SR-91 express lanes were to generate revenue and to provide additional highway transportation options. Although a commuter rail line and an express bus line both operate in the SR-91 corridor, total public-transit ridership in the corridor amounts to less than 1 percent of the highway traffic (Sullivan & Burris, 2006). The HOT lanes currently generate annual toll revenues of approximately $1–$2 million. A key component of this $1 billion expansion project is the inclusion of direct access ramps to five new BRT stations.
The HOV lanes are owned and managed by the Metropolitan Public Transportation Authority of Harris County (Houston Metro). This encourages motorists to use the roadway during less-congested periods and allows traffic to flow more freely during peak times. An early analysis in June 2001 showed some effect on travel and public transportation patterns at a few key locations. To provide an incentive for motorists to adjust their travel times, half-price tolls are offered during a short period prior to and after peak hours to those vehicles registered with Lee Way prepaid toll accounts. The scheme requires the payment of an £8 ($16) fee to enter a 15-square-mile area of Central and West London, which includes the historic and commercial core of the city. Enhanced public transportation services were at the core of this strategy and were deployed well in advance of implementing the congestion charge. Fifteen routes were restructured or extended, and seven entirely new routes were introduced.
The charge raises £122 million ($240 million) per year, which by law must be reinvested in transportation. This fosters cooperation between the various modes of travel and appears to have been a significant success factor in coordinating the start of the congestion charge with additional public transportation services.
It was first deployed on a trial basis from January 2006 to July 2006 and was made permanent in August 2007. It was the largest increase in public transportation investment in modern times and accounted for an overall 7-percent increase in public transportation service.
There was an immediate 22-percent drop in vehicle trips into the zone, a decrease in travel times, and a large shift to public transportation—ridership on inner-city bus routes rose 9 percent.
Both additional public transportation service and congestion pricing are necessary to reduce congestion (Jackson, Zirker, Peirce, & Baltes, 2008).
A congestion-pricing component was tested, with higher charges during congested periods on high-traffic road segments. Even when alternative benefits are offered, they are generally capped at a far lower value than the parking subsidy that is provided.
Studies show that on average, 30 percent of traffic in dense urban areas can be attributed to such circling. Most areas have barely acknowledged mode shift as a goal and usually recognize it only as a byproduct of pricing initiatives.
To capture the mutual benefits of congestion pricing and transit, upper management at both highway and public transportation agencies must commit to jointly develop multimodal congestion-pricing programs. Enhanced public transportation services are an essential component of a zone-based pricing system and must be comprehensively planned and deployed well in advance of zone-based charging. In both London and Stockholm, this meant significant increases in bus services due to capacity constraints on the underground networks.
In the year following the beginning of zone-based charging, overall bus ridership was up by only 2 percent in Greater London, but inbound morning ridership increased by 38 percent. Department of Transportation (USDOT) announced the National Strategy to Reduce Congestion on America’s Transportation Network. Facilities that were not eligible HOV lanes prior to being converted to HOT lanes will remain ineligible for inclusion as fixed guideway miles in FTA’s funding formulas.
Learn how to set up, manage and improve your distribution channels with this detailed how-to guide from the experts at Marketing MO. Their consultants come from top schools, and they work with Fortune 100 clients to implement complex, large-scale projects. Their clients are buying the best expertise they can find, and they’re less sensitive to price because they care most about getting top talent. There’s a lot of competition and their product is only slightly better than the alternatives.
They regularly review the market, run promotions, and adjust prices to maintain their competitive position. Their value proposition is operational excellence and they consistently deliver the same product at a better price. They hire more consultants, but since they’re charging less per hour, they can’t afford the same top-tier talent. By doing so, you’ll ensure that your pricing reflects your value and reinforces your brand. If you’re perceived as a commodity, you must either change the market’s perception via a new positioning strategy, or compete on price and focus on innovating to keep costs low so you can still make a profit. You’ll be far more effective when considering discount promotions – you’ll know exactly how low you can go and still be profitable.
If your value proposition is operational efficiency, evaluate your competitors on a regular basis to ensure that you’re continually competitive.
When tackling any new marketing task, have confidence that we have your back – with the structure and detail you need to get things done right.
Typically, there are few competitors and a strong brand driving demand, so a higher price can be set. The cost-plus pricing model has long gone as we expect goods and services to be appropriately priced. Their Essential range was launched as the UK hit the recession to re-capture shoppers buying from discount stores, so they reduced the prices of their basic food. Since often, information technology post deployment is treated with Activity based costing, while developed in-house for many firms, a cost based pricing strategy becomes extremely lucrative to developers for the simplicity of development.
But then, one needs to consider the fact that unit costs are volume dependent while fixed cost per unit is allocated such that it varies with projected volume. Function Point Analysis is one of the most popular techniques for pricing of technology.  Function Point Analysis has been proven as a reliable method for measuring the size of computer software in terms of Kilo Lines of Code (and more recently, Millions of Lines of Code), based on which and its complexity of development the software is priced.
This approach enables customers to more easily predict what they will pay for the use of the software. Our authors are educators from top QS ranked universities and practitioners from multinational enterprises.
You add another offer (deluxe) not to sell it, but to make a standard offer look like a very good deal.
We jeopardise the loyalty they might have had to our brand and turn them into customers who go for the best price rather than best value. If you have any more questions regarding setting additional price points for your pricing strategy, you can also leave your question below and I will get back to you. Reducing congestion can also facilitate rapid deployment of innovative, high-performance bus-rapid-transit (BRT) operations in major corridors, which require only modest investments in new vehicles and passenger facilities.
Approximately half of the toll revenues are used to fund the Inland Breeze bus express service between northern San Diego County and downtown San Diego along the HOT lanes.
The high-frequency BRT service is currently in development and will address the shortcomings of the Inland Breeze express bus service (Jackson, Zirker, Peirce, & Baltes, 2008). Public transportation vehicles, carpools with specified occupancy, vanpools, and motorcycles are allowed to use these lanes. This was made possible through strong enforcement and by incorporating the latest technologies into the HOT-lane operations. Peak-toll rates may be high enough to guarantee that traffic flow will not break down, thus offering motorists a reliable and congestion-free trip in exchange for the higher peak toll.
These cities’ experiences demonstrate that properly structured zone-based charging schemes can reduce urban congestion and increase public-transportation ridership. Most of the public transportation investment was focused on the bus system, with 300 additional buses put into service months before the congestion charge was initiated. All of these changes were implemented in 2002 and early 2003, months before the congestion charge actually took effect.


By contrast, there has been little change in ridership on the London Underground and suburban rail services. An additional institutional factor that has proven important is support from other layers of government.
As the fixed-track (rail) service was already considered fully utilized during rush hours, it was clear that much of the increase in capacity had to be achieved by investing in extended bus service. Residents of the City of Stockholm voted for continuation of the system in a referendum on September 17, 2006.
General Accounting Office noted that in 1975, the Singapore city government instituted a $1 charge for private vehicles to enter the central business district during the morning rush hours.
The Puget Sound Regional Council tested the travel behavior impacts of a similar charging system in the Seattle metropolitan area during 2005–2006. Introducing on-street-parking pricing is a public acceptance challenge, although technologies such as pay-by-cell-phone systems and mid-block parking-ticket-dispensing machines that accept credit cards can help. In London, planning for the zone-based charge began in the mid-1990s and included a series of progressively more detailed analyses.
On the basis of analysis of its travel patterns, Stockholm also emphasized express services from the suburban municipalities to the inner city, with accessible locations, limited-stop service, and frequent operations. The focus on the bus system also made sense, given that it has proven impossible to provide air conditioning in the Underground.
Although overall public transportation ridership increased by 6 percent in Stockholm, the city saw increases in inbound morning ridership of 10 percent on the buses and 13 percent on the Underground (even with its capacity constraints). One major component of the National Strategy is the Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) Program, through which the USDOT partners with specific congested metropolitan areas to demonstrate the effectiveness of synergistic combinations of proven strategies in reducing traffic congestion. If they’re extremely sensitive, you may be better off at a much lower price with substantially greater volume.
The aim is to help companies position their products or services relative to competitors as perceived by the market, and consider their pricing strategy accordingly. One marquee hire company I worked with offered high quality service and a very low price which was a superb-value strategy. Every year, we invest half our profits back into harnessing them at our research and development laboratory in Wiltshire. Cost of development of a software product is often calculated based on the COCOMO model or from the COCOMO – II model. The allocation procedures, be they direct labour hours, or some other surrogate metric, are not very precise.
Function Point Analysis has been established as being extremely robust in estimating projects, managing change of scope of implemented engagements, measuring productivity, and communicating functional requirements.
In a tiered pricing strategy, vendors attempt to package software benefits according to user requirements and their willingness to pay.
This is slowly becoming the most popular pricing strategies followed in research labs for emergent technologies, like that of IBM Research, Microsoft Research and SAP labs.
By offering three options: S,M or L coffee they are increasing significantly the posbility of purchasing the L option.
Improving the performance and variety of peak-period public transportation through a combination of congestion pricing and limited capital investment can provide significant benefits to current public transportation users. People can meet the minimum vehicle passenger requirement, or they can choose to pay a toll to gain access to the HOV lane. The toll schedule is adjusted every 3 months based on traffic observed over the prior 3-month period. The toll varies based on the congestion level, which is analyzed every 6 minutes, with appropriate modifications made to the toll rate if needed.
Ridership on the Inland Breeze is modest, and most of its riders had been using public transportation prior to its advent; thus, the new express bus service had little direct impact on congestion. The QuickRide program operates on two HOV facilities (I-10 and US 290) on which two-person carpools are required to pay a toll of $2.00 to use the HOV lanes during certain specified peak times when only vehicles with higher occupancy levels may ride free. Regional transportation district buses operated over 96 percent on time in the first year of operation of the HOT lanes. Variable tolls can also be introduced on existing toll-free facilities to manage traffic flow. However, there has been no discernable public transportation interest in this bridge-toll-pricing system (Jackson, Zirker, Peirce, & Baltes 2008). More important, there is a significant relationship between the success of zone-based pricing and the provision of public transportation.
In the first year, ridership into the zone during the morning peak was up by 29,000 passengers (38 percent). In this case, the required level of public transportation investment exceeded the net revenue produced from the congestion charge, and public transportation funding, which was made available by the central government, offset the shortfall. During the trial, the public transportation system added 197 new buses and 16 new bus routes to allow for additional alternatives for travel during peak periods. However, in the absence of a reliable and viable public transportation alternative, higher fees have not led to significant modal shifts. Much of the additional public transportation service was rolled out as early as one year before the advent of charging.
Stockholm increased park-and-ride spaces by 18 percent and heavily publicized the new parking options. Passenger comfort is an important factor when planning changes to public transportation service in anticipation of zone-based charging. Another noteworthy lesson is the role that private service providers played: The timely expansion of bus services in London was possible because of contracts with private service providers. There are 650 engineers and scientists based there.' They share their story and ‘behind the scenes’ details, such as the hammer test (below), to justify their premium pricing strategy. Therefore, product costs are not too dependable and offer technology developers lower returns on their investments.
This approach to pricing is an attempt to link software product costs to perceived customer value.
It can improve public transportation’s effectiveness in reducing peak-period auto travel and can provide the expanded passenger-carrying capacity necessary to accommodate shifts in public transportation commuter use induced by the imposition of congestion pricing. With citizens growing more frustrated with under-used HOV lanes, HOT lanes are increasingly being viewed as a solution that can reduce public opposition to HOV lanes.
Still, public transportation improvements financed by toll revenues contributed to a 25-percent increase in bus ridership.
Although a large number of public transportation vehicles use the HOV lanes, including express buses, there does not appear to be a strong connection between HOV lanes, the QuickRide program, and public transportation. As is typical with all Minnesota HOV lanes, public transportation, carpools, and motorcycles never pay a toll.
Again, tolls vary by time of day and are charged only on congested highway segments to manage traffic flow and to recover the highway’s capacity to carry the number of vehicles for which it was designed.
There is an array of exemptions, including a 90-percent discount for residents of the zone.
Overall, total scheduled bus mileage within the zone (including on the boundary) increased by 10 percent between January 2002 and January 2003.
Half of this was attributed to the congestion charge itself as opposed to other improvements that had been made to the bus system. Of the 16 new bus routes, 14 were express buses with enhanced comfort, transporting people from the municipalities surrounding Stockholm into the inner city. Exhaust emissions decreased by 14 percent in the inner city and by 2–3 percent in Stockholm County. There was substantially less congestion on Stockholm access roads and a significant reduction in traffic to and from the city center. The result was an immediate 73-percent decline in the use of private cars, a 30-percent increase in carpools, and a doubling of buses’ share of work traffic. Parking cash-out allows employers to offer their employees the option of receiving taxable cash in lieu of any parking subsidy offered, thus providing employees an incentive to find alternatives to driving alone during peak periods. Insufficient development of park-and-ride facilities has greatly limited public transportation’s involvement in the domestic-pricing deployments.
Congestion pricing had been under discussion in Sweden since the early 1990s, and once the decision was made to begin zone-based charging, a year was spent comprehensively planning service modifications and their related impacts.
Selection criteria were applied to ensure that the new parking spaces were in close proximity to public transportation options, and parking was free with a public transportation pass. Research showed that potential customers were suspicious and didn’t place orders with them as they thought the product quality was low because the price was low. Express toll lanes are similar to HOT lanes—the difference is that all vehicles are required to pay a toll, that is, HOVs do not get free service. On the basis of a 2004 evaluation of the QuickRide program, there were a number of complaints in regard to existing Houston Metro service along the HOV corridors.
Although value-pricing objectives stated that road-use charges seek to provide incentives to shift some trips to off-peak times, less-congested routes, or alternative modes, a November 2006 evaluation found that most public transportation providers reported negligible impacts on operations as a direct result of the MnPASS deployment. These service expansions coincided with other ongoing efforts to improve bus services, including improved traveler information, exclusive bus lanes, electronic fare payment, stricter enforcement of bus lanes and parking restrictions, public transportation signal priority, and low-floor and accessible vehicles.
In spring 1998, the city shifted to a fully automated electronic-charging system, with in-vehicle electronic devices that allow payment by smart card, which is enforced with the use of cameras and license-plate–reading equipment. Among 1,700 employees in eight case study firms in Southern California, parking cash-out led to an 11-percent reduction in commuter trips and a 12-percent reduction in commuter vehicle miles traveled.
If mode shift is a project goal, properly sited parking must be developed to accommodate increased public transportation demand. New and enhanced public transportation service was launched 5 months in advance of the imposition of the congestion tax, which provided time to iron out problems and publicize the service. The service is not generating substantial and sustainable modal changes that favor public transportation ridership (Jackson, Zirker, Peirce, & Baltes, 2008). The evaluation went on to emphasize that the MnPASS deployment will not result in mode-share changes to the I-394 corridor (Jackson, Zirker, Peirce, & Baltes, 2008). Overall, bus ridership across the zone boundary during charging hours is now 37-percent higher (70,000 additional passengers) than before the charge. All existing bus routes added more frequent trips, and train lines added off-peak capacity where possible.
Variable electronic charges were also introduced on the expressway system, with charges set by time of day to ensure free flow of traffic. The additional bus capacity provided decreased impact on load factors: From 2002 to 2003, average occupancy on inbound morning buses only increased from 32 to 36 and has since moderated.
The system, the first of its kind in the world, has reduced traffic by 13 percent and increased vehicle speed by 22 percent (U.S. The cost for passing a control point varied, and there was a maximum charge per day, initially set at $8 per day. No congestion charges were made for travel during the evenings or at night, Saturdays, Sundays, or public holidays. Certain vehicle types, such as emergency vehicles, those with disabled drivers, and buses, were exempt from the tax. There were no resident discounts, except for residents of one land-locked island, which is only accessible by passing through the cordoned area.



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