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Th Victor Talking Machine Company of Camden recorded orchestras (as shown here in 1902) for its Red Label disks. Professional recording engineers know that creative microphone selection is an essential ingredient in every great recording. In a dynamic microphone, the audio signal is generated by the motion of a conductor within a magnetic field. Used extensively in the golden age of radio, ribbon mics were the first commercially successful directional microphones. A recent development in microphone technology, the USB mic contains all the elements of a traditional microphone: capsule, diaphragm, etc. A microphone’s frequency response chart can tell you a lot about which situations are appropriate for a given microphone and which situations are not.
The frequency response of the SM57 makes it especially good for certain instruments such as a snare drum because the fundamental frequency of the snare resides in the 150Hz to 250Hz range – right where the SM57 frequency response chart shows that the SM57 response is flat, or neutral.
A Supercardioid polar pattern is more directional than Cardioid; Hypercardioid even more so. A Figure-8 polar pattern is one in which the mic is equally sensitive to sounds picked up from front and back, but rejects sounds coming from the sides. Often perceived by the newbie recordist as living in the shadow of its large diaphragm counterpart, small-diaphragm condenser mics actually shine in applications that leave their bigger cousins struggling to keep up. For starters, you’ll normally want to stick with cardioid dynamic mics on the drums, a cardioid small diaphragm condenser on the hi-hat, and a matched pair of either large- or small-diaphragm condensers for the overheads. The Behringer Ultravoice XM1800S is a set of three dynamic super-cardioid vocal and instrument mics.
The U 87 Ai is used as a main microphone for orchestra recordings, as a spot mic for single instruments, and extensively as a vocal microphone for all types of music and speech.The U 87 Ai is addressed from the front, marked with the Neumann logo. The letter A in the name indicates a more recent generation, as compared to the U 87 i microphones that were built from 1967 to 1986.
The present-day circuitry increases the operational headroom of the U 87 Ai by supplying the bias voltages for the capsule through a reduced resistance.
This setting also compensates for the unavoidable bass boost that occurs with all pressure gradient transducers when they are used at close distance (proximity effect). The cardioid characteristic maintains a smooth frequency response at a distance of 30 to 40 cm, the figure-8 characteristic even at a distance of 15 to 20 cm. Get my Smart Start To Mixing video and learn the 3 steps to get more clarity and punch on your next mix, guaranteed!
That being said, if we can learn somethings that will minimize our mistakes and the pain involved, then chances are good we can get to some better recordings faster, right? This guide track is usually a series of tracks that help the musicians and engineer have a clearer map of where they are going. By taking a little extra time to set these elements in place, your band or musicians (or yourself) will be forever grateful as they can hear where they are in the song, feel confident about the tempo they should play to, and in turn will deliver a more musical and professional performance. If you record to any modern DAW or recording software, you have a super clean signal path with practically no noise floor.
Part 1, I already had down, I’m a big believer in reference tracks, and I almost alway slay down a drum loop rather than a click track when I start. I hope you like my work, though I must inform you… the drums were programmed using PC Drummer Pro, and then recorded onto the MD4 studio to add the rest.
My name is Graham Cochrane and I'm the founder of The Recording Revolution, one of the world's most loved audio recording and mixing blogs with over 200,000 readers each month. If you’re new to recording, however, the subject of microphones is probably shrouded in mystery. In most dynamic mics, a very thin, lightweight diaphragm moves in response to sound pressure.
Today, ribbon mics are enjoying a comeback, thanks to the efforts of a handful of companies such as Royer. In theory, frequency response charts are generated at the factory by testing the microphones in an anechoic chamber. The horizontal numbers in a microphone frequency response chart represent frequencies (again, usually over the 20 Hz to 20 kHz range) and the vertical numbers represents relative responses in dB (Decibels).
In other words, at this frequency, what you hear going into the microphone is what you will tend to hear coming out – nothing more, nothing less. Unlike Cardioid, both of these polar patterns have sensitive rear lobes (smaller in the Supercardioid) that pick up sound, which can make positioning these highly-directional mics somewhat tricky. From vocals to strings to brass to percussion, you can use large-diaphragm condenser mics to record just about anything.


Historically there have been large-diaphragm and small-diaphragm mics, but more recently the medium size has begun carving out its own category, though not everyone agrees on the precise upper and lower limits. Their characteristic ultra-responsiveness is precisely due to their smaller, lighter-mass diaphragms.
Note that condenser mics can certainly be used on the snare and toms (and for the more adventurous, even kick).
Better yet, stay in the control room and have your assistant (if you’re fortunate enough to have one) move the mics while you listen.
If you can spare just one mic, use a dynamic (the iconic Shure SM57, for example), positioned close on the speaker cabinet. For a lead vocal, you should match the mic to the vocalist – who may also have a personal mic preference. Use two large-diaphragm condenser mics, or a large diaphragm for the low strings, and a small diaphragm for the highs. It is equipped with a large dual-diaphragm capsule with three directional patterns: omnidirectional, cardioid and figure-8.
It is a good choice for most general purpose applications in studios, for broadcasting, film and television. The frequency response of the cardioid and figure-8 directional characteristics are very flat for frontal sound incidence, even in the upper frequency range.
A switch below the headgrille selects the three directional patterns: omnidirectional, cardioid and figure-8. Modifications apply to the electronic components of the microphone only; the capsule remained unchanged. When this switch is activated, the microphone accepts sound pressure levels up to 127 dB (equivalent to a sound pressure of 45 Pa) without distortion. All situated in purpose built, comfortable surroundings.Studio 1This specially designed recording facility is based on the fourth floor separate from the rest of the building.
By simply creating a new session in your DAW, hooking mics up, and diving into the recording session, all without proper preparation, you are setting yourself up for failure. They’re mind will be less focused on where they are and instead zeroed in on the music. Musicians played towards a metal cone, which was directly connected to a disc inscription device in the next room. With a bit of studio experience under your belt, you learn that certain mics work well for recording particular instruments, but without an understanding of acoustic theory, you likely won’t understand why. The diaphragm’s motion causes a voice coil suspended in a magnetic field to move, generating a small electric current. This simple mechanical system consists of a thin stretched conductive diaphragm placed close to a metal disk (backplate).
The preamp makes it unnecessary for the USB mic to be connected to a mixer or external mic preamp. As you look at a frequency response chart, you can tell how a given microphone performs at certain frequencies. The ability to reject sound from the rear makes Cardioid patterns useful in multi-miking situations, and where it’s not desirable to capture a large amount of room ambience.
An extreme example is AKG’s C12VR – which sports the aforementioned patterns, plus six intermediate settings, for a total of nine polar patterns! The multiple pickup patterns and pads found on many large-diaphragm condensers make these the most versatile mics in your studio. The hands-down choice for acoustic guitar, hi-hat, harp – or any instrument with sharp transients and extended overtones, many recording engineers actually favor small diaphragm mics as drum overheads.
If you have a large-diaphragm condenser, try placing it a few feet back (if the source is loud, engage the pad, if the mic has one). Large diaphragm condensers can also work nicely on acoustic guitars, as well as ribbon mics. The best way to approach this is to set up three or four likely mics, and have the singer sing the same (critical) section of the song into each of them. Piano mic placement is highly variable, so a certain amount of experimentation is in order. Or, if you’re fortunate enough to have a ribbon mic, this may well be what you prefer. The microphone can be used very close to a sound source without the sound becoming unnaturally harsh. You’re brand new to an artform that requires both technical skill, talent, and experience.


While there are so many things that CAN go wrong in a recording session, today I want to highlight six of the most common “mistakes” I see home studio owners falling prey to and how if you reverse these, you can improve your recordings right away!
And honestly, whatever you can do to get a better performance, your recordings will be better for it!
In fact, the hotter you push things the worse they can sound as computers don’t handle loud signal levels the way analog equipment does. The prominence of specific instruments on the finished record was based on the physical placement of musicians in the recording room.
Dynamic mics are less sensitive (to sound pressure levels and high frequencies) than condenser mics, and generally can take more punishment. This arrangement creates a capacitor which is given its electric charge by an external voltage source – a battery or dedicated power supply, or phantom power supplied by your mixer. In studio applications this functional difference isn’t important, although it can be critical during an exterior location recording on a windy day!
The idea here is to create a controlled atmosphere where each microphone can be tested equally, so the room is completely dead, without any form of sound reflection.
In addition, its rolled off low end makes it great for de-accentuating the kick drum which is often very close in proximity. Popular in both studio and live use (where rear rejection cuts down on feedback and ambient noise), Cardioid mics are used for a very high percentage of microphone applications. There are also large-diaphragm dynamic mics that are well suited to capturing loud sources with robust bass energy (such as kick drum or toms). Generally speaking, medium-diaphragm microphones tend to do a good job of accurately catching transients and high frequency content (as a small diaphragm would) while delivering a slightly fuller, round and potentially warmer sound (as a large diaphragm might). A bonus with these bantamweights (often referred to as pencil mics, due to their typically thin cylindrical shape) is that they are easy to position.
You can mix these mics together at the console, or record them to separate tracks, if tracks are not at a premium.
Record each of these passes to individual tracks, then invite the singer into the control room for playback to decide which mic best matches his or her voice (and the song). By means of a high-pass filter interferences through subsonic and low frequencies are reduced remarkably. Softer string instruments were positioned closer to the cone, while stronger brass and percussion instruments were farther away. The diaphragm vibrates slightly in response to sound pressure, causing the capacitance to vary and producing a voltage variation – the signal output of the microphone. That makes mobile digital recording as easy as plugging in the mic, launching your DAW software, and hitting record!
Generally, a speaker is set up in front of the microphone that is being tested and pink noise is played (pink noise is all frequencies with equal energy in every octave). This combination is what most engineers are looking for in a great snare drum mic – the ability to capture the true sound of the snare, accentuate its snap and reject other instruments in close proximity. Keep in mind that like all non-omnidirectional mics, Cardioid mics will exhibit proximity effect (increased bass response when the mic is very close to the sound source). With so many mics to choose from, it can seem overwhelming, so a basic understanding of microphone types and their uses will serve you well. Condenser mics come in both solid-state and tube variations and a wide variety of shapes and sizes – but they all function according to these principles.
The microphone is routed into a spectrum analyzer that measures the output and a frequency response chart is produced. Assuming the cab’s in a decent-sounding room, experiment by backing up your condenser mic to soak up more room sound. You’ll be able to get more volume and signal out of your tracks with compression, so no worries. A bad mic choice usually comes back to haunt you – sticking out like a sore thumb in the mix – but not to fear!
Sweetwater’s Studio Microphone Buying Guide unravels the mysteries of the microphone, putting you on the path to awesome-sounding recordings.




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