Measurement of Obesity in AdultsObesity is determined by measuring body fat, not just body weight. Effects of Certain MedicationsSome prescription medications contribute to weight gain, usually by increasing appetite. Biological Effect of Childhood Obesity on Adult WeightAchieving a healthy weight becomes more difficult as children get older. Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Metabolic SyndromeType 2 Diabetes and Insulin Resistance. If people do not balance energy input and output by eating right and exercising, fat can build up. People might be over the weight limit for normal standards, but if they are very muscular with low body fat, they are not obese. Anthropometry is the measurement of skin fold thickness in different areas, particularly around the triceps, shoulder blades, and hips. The odds of obesity persisting into adulthood range from 20% in 4 year olds to 80% in teenagers. Most people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, and weight loss may be the key to controlling the current epidemic of type 2 diabetes. The common factor appears to be insulin resistance -- that is, the body can no longer respond properly to insulin. Gaining some weight is common with age, and adding about 10 pounds to a normal base weight over time is not harmful. To determine if a child is overweight or obese, experts compare BMI levels of children at the same age to each other. They generally contain more calories and unhealthy fats, and fewer nutritious ingredients, than homemade or restaurant meals.
Women gain fat predominantly in the stomach, hips, and thighs, while men tend to gain fat in the belly and waist.
By age 55, the average American has added nearly 40 pounds of fat during the course of adulthood.
Some people are also just born with more fat cells.After adolescence, fat cells tend to increase in mass rather than quantity, so that adults who overeat and gain weight tend to have larger fat cells, not more of them. Most standard criteria have not recommended weight-loss surgery for diabetics whose BMI is less than 35.IntroductionA stable weight depends on a balance between the energy you get from food and the energy you use.
They may blame themselves for not having the will power to keep the weight off, and many regain more than they lost.Today, we know that biology is the reason some people cannot keep this weight off. This condition is made worse by the fact that muscle and bone mass decrease with age.Risk by Gender. This growth in mass may be responsible for the greater risk of persistent obesity among teenagers compared to small children who are overweight. Even among people who live in the same environment and eat the same foods, some become obese and others do not.


Your body generally uses this energy to keep your temperature steady and the muscles of your heart and intestine working. They are also used to help decide when surgery may be most appropriate.Calculating Body Mass Index.
Thermogenesis accounts for about 10% of spent energy.When a person consumes more calories than the energy they use, the body stores the extra calories in fat cells (lipocytes).
In some people, this system may not be working correctly.Think about the gas gauge in your car.
Weight gain in the area around the waist (apple type) is more dangerous than weight gained around the hips and flank area (pear type). You would want to put in more gas, even when the tank is already full.Some people may struggle to maintain a healthy weight because one or more of the signals that tells the brain when they have eaten enough does not work correctly. Low income women and their families tend to have fewer fruits and vegetables and are actually taking in more calories a day than higher-income women.
In other words, the gas tank (stomach) may be full, but the brain (gas gauge) does not realize that.The Biological Pathway to AppetiteAppetite is determined by processes that occur both in the brain and gastrointestinal tract. However, obesity is increasing in young adults with college education as well as in other groups.Ethnic Groups. Eating patterns are controlled by areas in the hypothalamus and pituitary glands (in the brain).The body produces a number of molecules that increases or decreases appetite, including leptin. Among ethnic groups in general, African-American women are more overweight than Caucasian women are, but African-American men are less obese than Caucasian men are. When energy input is equal to energy output, there is no expansion of fat cells (lipocytes) to accommodate excess. When you take in more calories than you use, the extra fat is stored in your lipocytes and you begin to accumulate fat. It is associated with obesity and is difficult to treat.About 30% of people who are obese are binge eaters who typically consume 5,000 - 15,000 calories in one sitting Bulimia is binge eating followed by purging in order to lose weight. Still, leptin's role in obesity is unclear.Specific Genetic FactorsOur bodies are set to maintain weight within a certain range. Office workers, drivers, and people who sit for long periods are at higher risk for obesity.Ex-Smokers.
Nicotine increases the metabolic rate, and quitting, even without eating more, can cause weight gain.
If a person has the genetic makeup for obesity and they eat a lot of high-calorie foods and do not exercise, it is almost certain they will become obese. It will likely be harder for such a person to stay at a healthy weight than someone who does not have the genes for obesity.Obesity is not caused by just one gene.
It is important to note that weight control is not a valid reason to smoke.People with Disabilities. Those with disabilities in the lower part of the body, such as the legs, are at highest risk.People with Chronic Mental illnesses.


However, scientists have not yet discovered the exact genes that contribute to obesity.Genetics also determines the number of fat cells a person has. People who have a chronic mental illness are at high risk for obesity and diabetes, most likely due to their lifestyle. Some people are simply born with more.Learned Behaviors and HabitsThe way we eat when we are children may strongly affect our eating behaviors as adults.
A child who is overweight or obese is more likely to be overweight or obese as an adult.Obese children are now developing health problems that used to be seen only in adults. They affect what we eat, when we eat, and how much we eat.Children are very good at listening to their body's signals of hunger and fullness.
When these problems begin in childhood, they often become more severe when the child becomes an adult.Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey shows that 17% of children and adolescents (aged 2 - 19) are obese. The number of obese children and adolescents has more than tripled since the 1980s.No single factor or behavior causes obesity.
However, at some point a well-meaning parent may tell them they have to finish everything on their plate.
Obesity is caused by the many factors described above, including a person's habits, lifestyle, and environment. This forces them to ignore their fullness and to eat everything that is served to them.As adults, these same people may say that they feel guilty if they do not eat everything on their plate. Many people have a very hard time breaking these habits.The foods we eat when we are children may influence our food likes and dislikes for life. Being raised on processed foods that are high in fat, salt, and sugar may make it difficult to start eating natural foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, when we become adults. Also, more people today work desk jobs compared to jobs in the past that had activity built into them.Devices such as remote controls, mobile telephones, escalators, elevators, and computers all make life easier for us. But fewer trips up and down stairs and fewer walks down the hall at work to talk with a co-worker mean that we are storing more calories instead of burning them off.Researchers have found that labor-saving devices had reduced a person's energy use by over 100 calories a day.
The average American now eats 100 - 200 more calories a day more than they did 10 years ago. Less activity and more calories can lead to a weight gain of 12 - 25 pounds every year.Long hours in front of a TV or computer may be the most hazardous pattern of behavior. In one study, TV watching produced a lower metabolic rate than sewing, playing board games, reading, writing, and driving a car.



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