Recipes, healthy eating habits, new sources of food and what to look for in our diet that could prevent us from reaching our goal of living healthy.
I want to tell you at the beginning of this post while you are still paying attention that if you eat more fiber you MUST drink more fluids, preferably water. About the authorjughandleI believe that it in order to do anything in life you MUST understand how it works. Fats are a type of lipids that include fatty acids and their compounds with a sugar alcohol called glycerol: monoglycerides, diglycerides and triglycerides. Lipids are organic substances insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents, such as acetone and ether; they include fats, sterols (including cholesterol), waxes, phospholipids and lipid-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K). Oils or vegetable oils are plant fats that are liquid at the room temperature, for example, corn, canola, seed, nut, olive, soybean and palm-tree oils. Vegetable fats are plant fats that are solid at room temperature, for example, vegetable shortening, margarine and coconut butter.
In your body, fats can be converted to glucose, amino acids, cholesterol, bile acids, hormones or to structural lipids (phospholipids, lecithin, mainly in the cell membranes) [13]. According to the Institute of Medicine in the US, the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for fat for adults is 130 grams per day [8]. All types of fats, animal and vegetable, saturated and unsaturated, contain 8.7 Calories per gram of the “net metabolizable energy” [1]. 1 pound (454 g) of the body fat tissue contains about 87 % of the actual fat, that is 395 grams, which, multiplied by 8.7 Calories (energy in 1 g fat) gives 3,437 or about 3,500 Calories per 1 pound of the body fat tissue. Chart 3 sources: US Department of Agriculture [3], Food and Drug Administration [4,9]  * 1 cup = 237 mL, 1 fl. Digestion. Triglycerides are partially broken down in the stomach with the help of the enzyme gastric lipase, but mainly in the duodenum with the help of the enzyme pancreatic lipase into free fatty acids and monoglycerides [10].
Fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed into the small intestinal lining cells, where they join together to form triglycerides [11]. From the intestinal cells, a small fraction of lipids, namely medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), are absorbed directly into the venous blood in the portal vein, which carry them to the liver. Acute symptoms: loose, whitish, bulky, sticky, floating and foul smelling stools (steatorrhea). Chronic symptoms: steatorrhea, weight loss, night blindness (due to vitamin A deficiency), bone pain and fractures (due to osteoporosis caused by vitamin D deficiency), easy bleeding (due to vitamin K deficiency), numbness and tingling in limbs (due to a peripheral neuropathy caused by vitamin E deficiency). Fat malabsorption can be confirmed by finding excessive amount of fat in the stool (positive fecal fat test). After absorption, dietary fats appear in the blood as triglycerides, which are carried by the blood lipoproteins (LDL and HDL), and free fatty acids, which are carried by the blood proteins called albumins. From the blood, fats enter the body cells, where they can be burned to release energy or are converted to other substances. 2. During the prolonged hard exercise (marathon), low-carb diet (high-fat or ketogenic diet) or fasting for more than one day, when your body glucose stores (glycogen) are depleted, dietary and body fats can be used as a source of energy for the muscles and heart.
Results of studies about the effect of fat intake on blood lipid levels are shown in Chart 4. The only fats that were consistently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in many studies were trans fats [33].
We have found insufficient evidence to claim that animal fats are more harmful for health than plant fats or vice versa.


In various reviews of studies, high meat, red meat and beef intake was associated with increased risk of colon cancer [70,72], dietary fat, red meat and milk intake was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer [58], and processed meat, but not red meat, was associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes 2 [71].
In one 2011 systematic review of studies, high intake of olive oil was associated with decreased risk of cancer, but it is not clear if the association was due to monounsaturated fats or other olive oil ingredients [73].
In one study [74], but not in one systematic review [75], high palm oil intake was associated with increased risk of chronic heart disease. There is SOME EVIDENCE that high-fat (ketogenic) diet can help prevent seizures in certain types of epilepsy [35,36] and reduce the risk of gallstones during rapid weight loss [55,56].
There is SOME EVIDENCE that adding fats to meals can slow gastric emptying in children with rapid gastric emptying (dumping syndrome) after stomach surgery [34]. In various studies, unsaturated fats (nuts, fish, unsaturated oils) were associated with health benefits when consumed instead of saturated fats [30,45,46,47,48,49]. There is insufficient evidence about the association between high-fat diet and weight loss, the risk of cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus 2 in healthy individuals [24,25,38,52,68], and fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, and total and LDL cholesterol levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2 [28,37], and changed behavior in children with autism [17,18]. There is insufficient evidence about beneficial health effects of adding fats to carbohydrate meals in individuals with diabetes mellitus. There is insufficient evidence about the association between high intake of omega-3 fatty acids from foods (fish, some vegetable oils) or supplements and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Replacing saturated fats with carbohydrates or proteins seems to have no beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease [46,52]. There is a STRONG EVIDENCE about the association between high intake of trans-fats (cakes, cookies, crackers, biscuits, doughnuts, pies, frozen pizza, processed meats, hard margarines and other spreads, partially hydrogenated oils, vegetable shortening, French fries, potato chips) and the risk of coronary heart disease [33,69]. There is SOME EVIDENCE about the association between high-fat diets and the increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis) [31]. Fat intolerance refers to abnormally increased blood triglyceride levels after ingesting fat [41]. There is insufficient evidence about the association between the total fat intake and the risk of obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus 2 [29,32,33] and cancer [58,59].
According to several [30,33,43,46,50,52], but not all [47,57], systematic reviews of studies, there is insufficient evidence about the association between high intake of saturated fats (red meat, high-fat dairy) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (heart attack, stroke). The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) eating plan, which includes diet low in saturated and trans fats and high in potassium, calcium and magnesium, was associated with decreased risk of high blood pressure, but it is not known how much, if anything, fat intake contributed to this effect [53].
There is insufficient evidence of health benefits of low-fat diets for healthy individuals [68]. In individuals with Crohn’s disease, especially after partial surgical removal of the small intestine [61], low-fat diet can reduce fatty diarrhea (steatorrhea). Low-fat diet can also help prevent fatty diarrhea in active celiac disease, lymphoma, chronic pancreatitis, liver disease, blocked bile duct and other causes of fat malabsorption [65].
Cooking does not lower calorie value of fats, but some fats can leach out of foods and thus decrease their fat and calorie content. It is the greater amount of calories you spend than those you get with food that cause weight loss; the percent of fat in the diet by itself probably does not influence the rate of weight loss. 1 gram of fats can provide about 9 Calories, while 1 gram of carbohydrates and proteins can provide about 4 calories.
Festi D et al, 1998, Gallbladder motility and gallstone formation in obese patients following very low calorie diets.
The information on this site is for educational purposes only and should not be considered diagnostic or medical advice.


Fiber — along with adequate fluid intake — moves quickly and relatively easily through your digestive tract and helps it function properly.
However, when you lose weight, you do not lose only the body fat but also some muscle protein. This means, 1,000 Calories from fat will give you the same amount of energy or will result in the same weight gain as 1,000 calories from carbohydrates or proteins. Triglycerides are packed together with proteins into large lipid particles called chylomicrones, which are absorbed into the lymph, which is carried by the lymphatic vessels into the venous blood [11].
During rest or moderate physical activity, in healthy people who eat regularly, dietary fats are the primary source of energy for the skeletal muscles and heart, but not for the brain, which can use only glucose as a source of energy. In untreated diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2, the body may not be able to use glucose because of lack of insulin or resistance to insulin, which prevent glucose to enter the body cells, so the dietary and body fats start to break down into fatty acids and ketones to provide energy, but when ketones appear in the blood in excessive amounts they can cause a life-threatening ketoacidosis [41]. Fats can make certain foods, for example, vanilla yogurt, more palatable and can thus stimulate calorie intake.
At this point of research, we can not say any other fats by themselves, like saturated fats, are harmful for health [33].
To our knowledge, the direct cause-effect relationship between animal fat and any disease has not been proven so far, though. Various studies suggest the beneficial effect is due to replacement of saturated fats with polyunsaturated [48,49,54,77], or both polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats [47,51,52].
In several studies, fatty foods, when consumed with or 30 minutes before carbohydrate meals slowed gastric emptying, that is delivery of carbohydrates to the small intestine, and lowered blood glucose spikes after meals in some [19,20], but not all, individuals with diabetes 1 [21] or diabetes 2 [22]. Causes can include developmental disorders in newborns [39,41], amyloidosis that affects the liver [40] and long-term smoking [16]. According to several systematic reviews of studies, there is insufficient evidence about the beneficial effect of low-fat diet on high blood cholesterol levels in otherwise health individuals with acquired hypercholesterolemia [26], or on the risk of heart disease [27]. For a person with an intake of 2,000 Calories per day, a low-fat diet would include less than 45 grams of fat per day. Low-fat diet does not seem to reduce the bowel inflammation in Crohn’s disease, though [62]. One of the rare reasons for a short-term fat-free diet lasting for several days, may be chylothorax (see above). This means fats are more calorie dense but this does not automatically mean they are a better source of energy than carbohydrates and proteins.
Women should try to eat at least 21 to 25 grams of fiber a day, while men should aim for 30 to 38 grams a day. An obese person with a lot of body fat initially loses weight mainly by burning the fat tissue and only a small amount of the muscle tissue, so a deficit of 3,500 Calories results in a loss of about 1 pound of body fat, but later, when a lot of body fat has been burnt, a deficit of 3,500 Calories results in a loss of less than 1 pound of fat tissue and in a loss of greater amount of muscle tissue than initially, altogether in a loss of more than 1 pound of the body weight, because burning of muscle tissue requires less energy than burning of fat tissue (loss of 1 pound of muscle tissue requires only about 1,800 Calories) [5,6].
When you consume more fat than you burn, excessive fat is stored in the body fat cells (adipocytes) under the skin and in the abdominal cavity (body fat stores). For a healthy individuals, a long-term fat-free diet would be harmful from the reasons described above [64]. However, during fat heating, some triglycerides can be broken down into fatty acids and some unsaturated fats may be converted into trans fats.



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