A depressive disorder is an illness that involves the mood and thoughts and in simple words can be expressed as persistent sad mood. Depression is diagnosed only clinically in that there is no laboratory test or X-ray for depression. Depression is not a weakness but a serious illness with biological, psychological, and social aspects to its cause, symptoms, and treatment. Depression is a feeling that we get when something bad happens and we are unable to deal with it. Statistics show that more than 15% of the population is affected by clinical depression at some point.
There are various theories that suggest a multiple number of reasons, both internal and external factors which can cause depression.
2) It has also been noted that changes in the brain structure or even brain functions may be one of the causes of depression.
Low self-esteem, pessimism and stress are considered to be psychological causes of depression. Depression affects people across all age ranges, genders, ethnicities, cultures and religions.
Headaches, digestive problems, back pain and other physical symptoms for which there is no medical illness. If any combination of these symptoms last for more than two weeks then a diagnosis of clinical depression will be made in most cases.
Before any sort of cure can be administered the depression sufferer must admit that they have depression. Some of these treatments are long term and can eventually cure the depression sufferer of their aliment.
1) Antidepressants are classified as TCA (Tricyclic Antidepressant Drugs), SSRI (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, RIMA (Reversible Inhibitors of Monoamine Oxidase), MAOI (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors) and SNRI (Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors). Join tens of thousands of doctors, health professionals and patients who receive our newsletters. Sadness, feeling down, having a loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities - these are symptoms of depression familiar to all of us. Having these problems persistently, such that they affect life for a period of time, could signal the treatable condition of depression, rather than a passing episode of "feeling down" - which most of us feel at some point.
The World Health Organization (WHO) puts depression at the top of the list - it is the most common illness worldwide and the leading cause of disability. You will also see introductions at the end of some sections to any recent developments that have been covered by MNT's news stories. Worldwide, 350 million people are estimated to have depression and the condition is more common among women than men.
Life events such as bereavement produce mood changes that can usually be distinguished from the features of depression.
Separate diagnoses include bipolar disorder, psychotic depression, postpartum depression and seasonal affective disorder. The causes of depression are not fully understood but are likely to be a complex combination of genetic, biological, environmental and psychosocial factors. In addition to the mental symptoms, such as inappropriate feelings of guilt, physical ones may include problems with sleep and a loss of energy.


Diagnosis is usually made by a doctor conducting a structured interview to ask specific questions to rate levels of depression, if present. Treatments include psychological treatments, including cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy, and drug therapies, including a range of antidepressant classes.
Whether drug or talking therapies, or both, are the most appropriate treatment depends on the individual, and they are similar in efficacy.
Depression is different from the fluctuations in mood that we all experience as a part of a normal and healthy life. Unipolar depression may be described as mild, moderate, or severe, and can involve anxiety and other symptoms - but no manic episodes. Psychosis can involve delusions - false beliefs and detachment from reality - or hallucinations - sensing things that do not exist.
Some prescription drugs - including corticosteroids, some beta-blockers, interferon, and reserpine - can lead to depression. Abuse of recreational drugs - including alcohol, amphetamines - can accompany depression or result in it. Chronic pain syndromes in particular, but also other chronic conditions, such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease.
Online and social networking interventions for the treatment of depression in young people: a systematic review. Prevention of relapse following cognitive therapy vs medications in moderate to severe depression.
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence (PREVENT): a randomised controlled trial. Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:MLAMacGill, Markus. For any corrections of factual information, or to contact our editorial team, please see our contact page.
Please note: Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional.
The publication of a study in the BMJ on 6 June triggered a flurry of headlines suggesting that "exercise doesn't help depression".
Taking a close look at the psychological, physical and social signs and symptoms of depression. Learn all about serotonin - a chemical created by the human body that works as a neurotransmitter.
Depression is not a character flaw or a sign of personal weakness and the suffering person can’t make himself well by trying to snap out of it. Things like financial problems, the breakup of a relationship, or the death of a loved one can bring on depression. People who have low self-esteem and a negative outlook are at higher risk of becoming depressed. Serious medical conditions like heart disease, cancer, and HIV can contribute to depression, partly because of the physical weakness and stress they bring on.
Although their risk for depression is lower, men are more likely to go undiagnosed and less likely to seek help. Typically, people are prone to depression when something bad or what they perceive as bad occurs in their lives, such as the death of a loved one, financial trouble, work pressure, marital discord or the breaking up of a relationship.


Most people prone to depression do not seek professional treatment, attributing their feelings to a bad mood that will pass. With these mood traits a person suffering from low self-esteem will regard themselves with feelings of pessimism, worthlessness, a desire to end their life and perhaps even attempts at suicide. Severe medical conditions like Parkinson disease, heart attacks, strokes and diabetes can make the individual believe that there is nothing worthwhile living for.
Any combination of these symptoms that last for more than a two week period of time signifies that someone is suffering with depression.
With this therapy you relearn your reaction to situations that can lead you into depression.
Content (text, audio, video) on this website is only intended to provide general information to the reader and for academic purpose of medical students.
The low mood involves sadness and loss of interest that persists beyond the temporary feelings we all have occasionally and is severe enough to interfere with daily life. First-degree relatives of depressed patients are themselves at higher risk, and occurrence of depression between identical twins is high.
John Markowitz and Myrna Weissman, World Psychiatry, 2004, volume 3, number 3, pages 136-139. Arlington, Virginia, US: National Alliance on Mental Illness, citing information from the American Psychiatric Association.
We take a look at when they were first introduced, how many people take them, why they take them and how antidepressants work.
The first step in fighting depression is to understand what it is, how it affects you, and what causes it. Depression can make medical conditions worse, since it weakens the immune system and can make pain harder to bear. They may show the typical symptoms of depression, but are more likely to be angry and hostile or to mask their condition with alcohol or drug abuse.
This type of depression tends to decrease over a period of time and eventually fades away; there are times though, when depression gets out of hand and lasts for months, then it is known as a depression disorder. In this case the person who suffers from low self-esteem and depression will only see the negative aspects of life. London, UK: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Clinical Knowledge Summaries. Bethesda, Maryland, US: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health.
These low self-esteem and pessimistic feelings maybe some of the causes of depression, as they invoke the response towards depression. At the present the medication that is prescribed for depression is that of antidepressants. This way the problems can’t overwhelm you and make you feel like a failure for not being able to solve them quickly. Loved ones may attribute the signs of depression to the normal results of aging, and many older people are reluctant to talk about their symptoms.



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