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This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015.
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Energy consumption has increased at a faster rate than energy production, so the difference is met through imports. In the mid-1970s, when I was in high school and owned my first car, OPEC slapped an oil embargo on the U.S. One barrel of petroleum (42 gallons) yields about 19 gallons of gasoline and 11 gallons of diesel fuel.
In Crossing Savage—released March 6—I have imagined a scenario where certain forces are threatened by the potential of western governments developing the science and engineering to become energy independent.
We are eyewitnesses to how the Russian government has annexed regions of Georgia and Ukraine, and is showing threatening moves of continued occupation and annexation, with impunity.
Over the period 1990-2008, energy efficiency in the household sector increased by 19%, at an average rate of 1.1% per year (Figure 1).
The graph characterizes the average consumption per households (at normal climate) in relation to the evolution of prices and incomes. Between 1990 and 2008, the final household energy consumption increased by 13% in the EU-27, at an annual average growth rate of 0.7%.
The unit consumption in useful terms is calulated by multiplying the final consumption for each fuel by the heating efficiency for that fuel.
The energy consumption of households is decomposed in different explanatory effects: change in average dwelling size, increasing number of appliances (more electrical appliances) and central heating diffusion, energy efficiency improvement (as measured from ODEX) and change in behaviour related to more confort. Based on the ratio: energy consumption by end uses divided by the number of permanently occupied dwelling. With the increase of the average income per household, the average size of dwellings is increasing. Space heating is the largest component of energy use in virtually all member states, accounting for around 70% of the total energy consumption of households (2008). Heating demand, even corrected for differences in climate and fuel mix, varies significantly among EU-27 countries (Figure 9). What are the main explanatory factors behind CO2 emissions trends in the household sector in Europe? The graph compares by country the level of CO2 emissions for space heating per m2 for 2 years : 1990 and 2007 (direct and indirect emissions). In 2007 direct CO2 emissions of the household sector were 17% below their 1990 level in the EU-27, despite an increase in the stock of dwellings and the number of appliances owned. The reliability of total household energy consumption and related CO2 emissions is reliable due to trustworthy statistics underlying it. The previous post is Wind Power is the Most Under Exploited Energy Opportunity in the Southern U.S. Petroleum & Other LiquidsCrude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural GasExploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. ElectricitySales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. Consumption & EfficiencyEnergy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation.
CoalReserves, production, prices, employ- ment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports. Renewable &Alternative FuelsIncludes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Total EnergyComprehensive data summaries, comparisons, analysis, and projections integrated across all energy sources. Analysis & ProjectionsMonthly and yearly energy forecasts, analysis of energy topics, financial analysis, Congressional reports.
Markets & FinanceFinancial market analysis and financial data for major energy companies. InternationalInternational energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. Average crude oil prices in 2012 were at historically high levels for the second year in a row. The differential between Brent and WTI spot prices historically was just a few dollars per barrel in either direction. The surge in crude oil production led to crude oil stocks held in land-locked Cushing, Oklahoma, which is a major pricing point for crude oil, that resulted in record-high end-of-month stock levels from April through December.
The United States remained a significant net oil importer when levels of crude oil and petroleum products are added together.


Disruptions in oil production in South Sudan, Yemen, Syria, and the North Sea reduced available global supplies, putting upward pressure on oil prices.
Tomorrow's Today in Energy article will examine trends in retail gasoline and diesel prices in 2012.
The consumption of goods and services in EEA member countries is a major driver of global resource use and associated environmental impacts.
The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europea€™s environment. But how many of us know how much electricity we’re using throughout the day, the week, or even the year?
Overnight gasoline prices soared and supply was short, making it difficult to fill your tank.
No longer relying on imported oil or, in the case of Europe and Japan, free of imported natural gas and oil, would spur economic growth and security. In Crossing Savage Professor Savage discusses how synthetic fuels have been manufactured from globally available feedstocks since Germany developed the industrial processes in the 1930s to increase supplies of transportation fuels without increasing oil imports. Turmoil and political unrest in the Middle East has already contributed to our involvement in two wars there over the past two decades.
Part of these improvements occurred in the area of space heating due to better thermal performance of buildings encouraged by mandatory efficiency standards for new buildings, and a larger penetration of high efficiency boilers (e.g. The income per households for EU-27 as a whole is the sum of the 27 EU countries based on national Odyssee data. Over the same period, final household electricity consumption increased faster, at an annual growth rate of 1.9%. This phenomenon is even more rapid in new member countries where the average dwelling size remains lower than in EU-15 countries (71 m2 on average in EU-12 compared to 92 m2 for EU-15 countries in 2008[1]). The recent penetration of central heating (in the southern European countries and in Ireland)[2] has also contributed to increase the energy consumption in the household sector.
Increased energy efficiency can lead to significant reductions in energy consumption provided that measures are in place to discourage the occurrence of rebound effects. Energy efficiency is the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption while maintaining an equivalent level of economic activity.
The evaluation of energy savings in household is carried out at the level of three end uses (heating, water heating and cooking) and five large appliances (refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, dishwashers and TVs).
We reserve the right to moderate all comments and may exclude any that are spam, abusive, indecent, or off-topic. Growth in global trade is resulting in an increasing share of environmental pressures and impacts from European consumption taking place beyond Europe.
I recall people being in a near panic, and the call for energy independence rang loud and true.
The shortage of gasoline and other transportation fuels resulting from an embargo of oil imports points directly to the vulnerability of the U.S. Also, there are very compelling reasons to believe that global oil production has not peaked, and the concept of “peak oil” production looks to be false. The answer is rooted in the thousands of miles of pipelines feeding Europe more than a third of the natural gas it needs for heating and electrical power generation.
Most progress has been limited to renewable production of stationary electrical energy, only a small fraction of domestic transportation fuel is based on renewables.
Now there is civil strife and political tension in Venezuela without the iron fist of Hugo Chavez to maintain order (Venezuela is an OPEC member and major exported of oil).
Indeed the increasing size of dwellings and more electrical appliances (in particular large appliances but also small equipments) contributed to increase the average consumption per dwelling by 0.4% a year each. Central heating, which includes district heating, block heating, individual boiler heating and electric heating, implies that all the rooms are well heated, as opposed to room heating, where generally a stove provides heat to the main room only.
It is difficult, for example, to distinguish between households where a central boiler provides both space and water heating or the dwelling uses electricity for heating. Over the period 1990 to 2007, direct CO2 emissions per dwelling in EU-27 decreased by 29% (Figure 11).
The energy consumption for all these countries is aggregated by fuel and end-uses and a share is applied to the total consumption by fuel from Eurostat. The opinions expressed by those providing comments do not reflect the official position of SACE. Food and drink, housing, mobility and tourism are responsible for a large part of the pressures and impacts caused by consumption in the EU.
The average consumption of diesel fuel was about half this amount, approximately 170 million gallons per day. Many OPEC members, including Russia, generate much of their annual revenue from exported energy. Our political leaders do not exhibit the conviction and long-range vision to fix this problem which, in my opinion, is one of the biggest—and gravest—challenges we face.


The wonderful feature of this technology is that any carbon-containing raw material—waste, biomass, natural gas, etc.—can be caused to react with water to make fuels like gasoline and diesel. Since the year 2005 however, energy consumption per capita in the household sector decreased in almost all countries. For the EU-27 as a whole, new buildings built in 2008 consumed about 40% less energy than buildings built in 1990, because of new building codes[1]. In southern countries, the progression was particularly rapid because of increasing comfort levels (more dwellings well heated in winter and diffusion of air conditioning). It is estimated that the replacement of single room heating by central heating increases the energy required for space heating by about 25 % on average. The proportion used for space heating depends on factors such as climatic conditions, the level of thermal efficiency of buildings or the level of comfort. Most other new member states also appear to perform better than the EU-27 for which the average energy efficiency improvement rate was 1% per year over the period. CO2 emissions for residential and CO2 emissions of public electricity and heat production based on the Annual European Community Greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2007 and inventory report 2009. Electricity related emissions per dwelling (indirect CO2 emissions) corresponding to the emissions in the power sector associated with the electricity consumed in the household sector also decreased but at a slower pace (-17% over the period).
The Plan lists a range of cost-effective measures, proposing priority actions to be initiated immediately, and others to be initiated gradually over the Plan's six-year period. The average energy consumption per m2 per dwelling equivalent to central heating is used to leave out the impact of the diffusion of central heating.
For instance, the space heating consumption of gas is calculated as the total consumption of gas as published by Eurostat for the EU-27 multiplied by the share of space heating in the gas consumption in the sample of 16 countries. Achieving significant reductions in environmental pressures and impacts will require changing private and public consumption patterns, to supplement gains achieved through better technology and improved production processes. Before long, the embargo was lifted and things went back to normal, only the price for a gallon of gasoline never went back to its pre-embargo level. To put this in perspective, transportation fuels account for 28% of all energy consumed by the U.S.
For large appliances, the improvement in energy efficiency results from technical improvement driven by EU mandatory Directives on labelling and voluntary agreements with equipment manufacturers. This can be explained by the high energy efficiency potentials available in these countries due to outdated infrastructures (e.g. As a result total CO2 emissions per dwelling (direct + indirect emissions) decreased by 24% in the EU-27 over the period 1990-2007.
The effect of (heating) behaviour was estimated by assuming that technical progress cannot be reversed. The space heating consumption for the EU-27 is then calculated as the sum of the consumption for space heating for each fuel.
Given that energy is essential, it is imperative that countries work collectively toward energy security.
Efficiency improvements in space heating and large electrical appliances reduces the consumption while increasing size of dwellings and increased use of electrical appliances and central heating contribute to increase the consumption and offset part of the energy efficiency benefits. As a result, the share of the most efficient appliances (A, A+) has increased significantly: from 6% in 1997 to 92% in 2008 for refrigerators and from 3% to 95% for washing machine, for example[2]. The share of the electricity consumption for lighting and appliances in the total household consumption has increased by 4 points, from 10% to 14% since 1990, which tends to affect the rise in the overall energy consumption per dwelling[3].
The EU is increasingly dependent on energy imported from Non-EU Member Countries, creating economic, social, political and other risks for the Union.The EU therefore wishes to reduce its dependence and improve its security of supply by promoting other energy sources and cutting demand for energy. CO2 emissions per dwelling were 24% below their 1990 level in 2008, mainly because of CO2 savings resulting from switches to fuel with a lower CO2 content.
But the decrease of direct CO2 emissions per dwelling by 28% driven by fuel switch to cleaner fuels (e.g. Consequently, it is putting the accent, above all, on improving energy efficiency and promoting renewable energy sources.
Just imagine what would happen to our economy if there was another serious disruption in supply of gasoline, diesel, and aviation fuel? Differences in direct CO2 emissions for space heating per m2 between countries broadly reflect the level of energy consumption per m2 (see Figure 9) and to a lesser extent differences in the fuel mix for heating. Differences in the carbon intensity of the electricity system explain the differences observed for the indirect emissions. Until 2000, the average energy consumption per dwelling (at normal climate) in the EU-27 was almost stable despite increasing household income and decreasing energy prices (Figure 4). If they are scaled to the average EU climate, Finland, Latvia and Norway have total emissions per m2 that were more than five times lower than countries such as Greece.



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