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Most commonly known as freeze-drying, lyophilization is a dehydration process used to preserve a perishable or biological material.
The lyophilization process is slow and can take days depending upon the samples and the freeze-drying conditions. The most common accessories that provide heat to samples when freeze-drying are heated product shelves. Many end users do not realize that when freeze-drying with flasks and manifolds, heat still enters the samples. The longest freeze dry runs will occur when the sample is placed on unheated product shelves within a chamber or placed inside the freeze dryer’s condenser.
During the primary drying phase (first phase) of freezing-drying heat can be added to your sample to sublimate the water out of the sample.
If you do not know the eutectic temperature, it is best to add heat slowly and observe the sample as you gradually add more heat to each subsequent run until you determine the maximum amount of heat that can be added safely to the sample. It is difficult to control the heat that is transferred to the sample when lyophilizing in flasks on a manifold. Putting a flask inside another larger flask with an air gap in between the two flasks is another way to provide insulation to limit the amount of heat that is transferred to the sample.
How a sample is frozen will not only affect the quality of the final freeze dried sample, it will also affect the length of the lyophilization process. Spreading the sample out to increase the surface area as well as forming a thin layer of ice will speed the sublimation process. If a shell freezer is not available, it is recommended to slant freeze samples in flasks to increase surface area as much as possible. At vacuum levels lower than .200 mbar, there are not enough molecules present in the system for good heat transfer. After all of the free water molecules are sublimated in primary drying, secondary drying begins. New end point detection accessories are available on some models of freeze dryers to determine the end of the sublimation process for samples in flasks.
By better understanding the lyophilization process and employing these suggestions, hours or even days can be saved when freeze-drying.
It’s true that the SteamScrubber and FlaskScrubber are each loaded with great features and high quality construction.
The SteamScrubber operates much like a home dishwasher – water is pumped through a spray arm on the bottom of each rack and from a third spray arm mounted to the top of the washer. Thus, the SteamScrubber is best suited to wash standard laboratory equipment such as beakers, utensils, pans and other normal-shaped items found in the laboratory. The FlaskScrubber moves water through individual spindles, allowing for water to spray directly into narrow neck glassware.
Additionally, the FlaskScrubber also utilizes the rack mounted and roof mounted spray arms found in the SteamScrubber washer.
You can take advantage of the FlaskScrubber’s injection cleaning while simultaneously washing regular glassware items.
Please log on to our NEW Glassware Washer Configurator Tool to design your own SteamScrubber or FlaskScrubber for your laboratory. During the development of the Protector Echo Filtered Fume Hood, the design engineers decided to challenge the Echo with not one, but four different third-party containment tests. Why?
It’s simple, really - to ensure containment was going to live up to the Labconco standard.
Instead, it is a filtering fume hood that will filter out the contaminated air and exhaust the clean air into the laboratory, making it very energy efficient.
It was designed with superior containment in mind, using all of Labconco’s highly engineered high performance fume hood features. All of the features that make Labconco’s ducted fume hoods effective provide the same protection on the Protector Echo. During independent testing*, the Protector Echo Hood was challenged well beyond the SEFA-1† standards. The Echo was subjected to both the standard ASHRAE 110 test using Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas test while attached to a canopy, as well as the modified ASHRAE 110 test with no canopy connection, using Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) to replace the SF6.
And to go above and beyond, the NIH protocol was used – which means that during the test with a canopy, the SF6 release rate was increased to six liters versus four liters per minute in the standard ASHRAE 110 test, the hood was filled with paint cans and boxes and rapid walk-bys were incorporated. In all scenarios, the Protector Echo allowed 0.00 ppm average level of tracer gas outside the fume hood.
This allows us to conclude that for those customers who cannot duct out of their building, or for those who want to save on energy costs and use filtered fume hoods in lieu of or alongside ducted fume hoods, this enclosure will present a safe alternative. A new 2-step method for extracting lipstick gives investigators and scientists an easier and more efficient way to process samples using gas chromatography (GC). They began with an established method of lipstick sample extraction, but then eliminated unnecessary steps and improved upon the rest.
By narrowing the results by type and manufacturer, criminals can be linked to a crime scene by the simple presence of the cosmetic. This funding will largely be focused through the coffers of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta. Research on new vaccines and novel approaches to solving this hazard through elimination of disease vectors and disease mechanisms are already underway at the CDC. Researchers fear Zika causes microcephaly, a serious birth defect in which a baby's head is too small, as well as other threats to the children of pregnant women infected with it. President Barack Obama has asked for about $1.9 billion in emergency money to fight Zika but the request has stalled in the GOP-controlled Congress. Safety in the workplace is important regardless where you clock in every day, but it's especially important to master when your professional environment regularly contains hazardous particulates, harmful chemical vapors or radionuclides.
Even basic microbiological work has some associated risks, as oftentimes it is not only necessary to protect the person sitting at the face of the cabinet but the science taking place inside on the work surface.
That just scratches the surface, so we decided to dig a little deeper and get the input of an outside industry expert to talk about the true meaning of creating a culture of safety for biosafety in laboratories and how that relates to leadership. He has testified in front of Congress about infectious diseases and, in 2014, prepared the clinical staff at Emory Healthcare to respond to the first cases of Ebola on American soil.
What type of connection does your science require—are we talking recirculated A2 or thimble connected A2? From a big picture perspective, we look to make sure the cabinet is certified, it is functioning properly and it passes a smoke test. The risk assessment list goes on and on, but having effective, tested and validated SOPs is critical throughout the life of the cabinet.
These technicians are dealing with long hours at the bench, and you have to consider posture, arm position and a number of other behaviors that can affect how safe the work actually is. Adequate preparedness is critical in the workforce, and that's a leadership responsibility. Q: Can you explain in greater depth the role of ideal leadership in the laboratory and how that relates to safety? Guidelines and policies bring us together, but being together and doing together are very different things. Sean Kaufman spoke before Congress on safety in the laboratory as it pertains to the anthrax incident of June 2014 at the Center for Disease Control. For more of what Sean has to say about the importance of biosafety cabinet ergonomics, energy savings and efficiency access his latest webinar. And though we've known this for years, it's still hard to understand that the Universe is still expanding! When it comes to selecting a vacuum pump there are a number of options for choosing the best pump for your application. There are four main types commonly used in laboratories for freeze drying (lyophilization), evaporation and concentration. Traditional Rotary Vane (RV) Vacuum Pumps are often used because they can have a lower up-front cost, are smaller than other types, and can be used with multiple applications. Any solvents that are not trapped or recovered before they enter the RV vacuum pump can condense in the pump oil and damage the inside of the pump.
Rotary Vane vacuum pumps reach deep ultimate vacuum levels and have high displacement capacity. Diaphragm Vacuum Pumps are dry pumps that operate using a pulsing motion that opens and closes valves to move air.
While they can have a higher up-front cost, they do not use any oil so operation and maintenance costs are significantly lower than pumps that require oil.
Ultimate vacuum levels of these pumps are not extremely deep and displacement capacities are much lower than other types of vacuum pumps. Combination Vacuum Pumps, also known as Hybrid Vacuum Pumps, have both a Rotary Vane and Diaphragm pump together in the same vacuum pump.
So while there may be a higher up-front cost than an RV pump, the operation costs are lowered as less replacement oil is needed and less time is lost changing the oil. Combination pumps are recommended for freeze drying corrosive or volatile samples as they can be used with acidic samples and those containing harsh chemicals such as TFA, acetonitrile, HBe and Nitric acid. Scroll Vacuum Pumps are dry pumps that use two spiral scrolls to compress air and vapors and move them toward the exhaust. Because the scrolls are made of metal, even on chemical- or corrosion-resistant models, only samples with acids below 20% are recommended. Scroll pumps are recommended for freeze drying as they can be used with aqueous and solvent samples including acetonitrile. No matter what type of pump you’re using, one of the most important things to remember about vacuum pumps is that whatever goes in the pump will come out! Labconco offers multiple vacuum pump options and many vacuum pump accessories including the new Scroll Pumps. A Type B2 BSC experiencing a remote exhaust failure can pressurize the work zone, pushing contaminated air into the laboratory.
An A2 can be ducted to handle odors and non-hazardous chemistry and it is easily adapted to exhaust systems. Type A and Type B BSCs cannot be retrofitted, altered or otherwise made into the other type of cabinet.
This information is provided to educate and inform life science and biosafety laboratories about their new options in selecting Class II BSCs for varying applications and operations. The Active Protection Protocol engages only in emergency building exhaust system failures and provides safety to the BSC operator while they complete their emergency shut down procedures.
During a remote exhaust failure, Type B BSC must detect an exhaust remote failure within 15 seconds. During a remote exhaust failure the Axiom can protect an operator for up to 5 minutes while they complete shutdown procedures and secure their laboratory assets. MISINFORMATION: In regard to ventilation, laboratory building requirements today cannot be easily altered. TRUTH: Scientific laboratories and their mechanical systems are specifically designed to handle changes in laboratory airflow volumes and pressures. FABRICATION: In laboratory design, the ventilation requirements for both supply and exhaust are calculated for pressure, air change rates and removal of heat load.
TRUTH: The balance of a scientific laboratory is based on pressure, air change rates and removal of heat load in accordance with ASHRAE requirements. Even simple VAV systems can automatically adjust for this change based on programmable pressures, and even simpler versions are controlled using a PC interface program. Moreover, it allows facility and laboratory management to maximize the usefulness of their existing laboratory space, eliminating the need to operate both Type A and B BSCs for varying or alternating uses.
The Axiom can be tied into almost any existing appropriate building exhaust system (with sufficient CFM reserve). MYTH: The inlet relief valve opens in the event that the building exhaust system pulls too much air through the BSC. Air is not pulled through a Type C1 by the exhaust system, conversely the exhaust system on a Type B BSC is required to pull air through the BSC. BENEFITS: Acting like a shock absorber, the inlet relief valve is an adaptive technology that balances and maintains negative pressure by allowing a small volume of room air to bleed into the transition plenum.
The inlet relief valve is part of the system that allows the Axiom to operate in either an A-mode or B-mode and makes it flexible enough to work on most building exhaust systems with sufficient CFM capacity in reserve. TRUTH: During building exhaust failures, both Class II Type A and Type C BSCs positively pressurize ductwork. A Type C BSC, such as the Axiom, prevents this positive pressurization from lasting longer than 300 seconds (or 5 minutes); limiting exposure to hazardous chemical vapors. BENEFITS: Existing Standards and equipment manufacturers all agree, positively pressurizing chemically contaminated ductwork under normal operation is not recommended. The Active Protection Protocol that positively pressurizes duct work is an emergency response mode – not an operational mode.
If a facility wishes to not have their ductwork positively pressurized, then the program can be set to operate for zero seconds. MYTH: Cleanability at the grille, work surface and sump under the work surface is negatively impacted with the additional plenum in comparison to traditional BSCs with one large work surface and no obstacles underneath. BENEFITS: The plenum under the Chem-Zone can easily be removed for cleaning by using the lift knob.
Yes, the Axiom uses paired internal exhaust and supply blowers to provide proper inflow, down flow and positively pressurized exhaust that is similar to a Class II Type A2; therefore, it can be used as a room recirculating BSC. FABRICATION: Since the Axiom has an internal exhaust motor blower, there is risk of fire or explosion when using vapor forming volatile chemistry inside the BSC. The Type B cabinets that are suggested to be safer for use with volatile chemical vapors have electrical outlets on the BSC interior, at the source of evaporation, where air is moving at a much slower rate. During a remote exhaust failure, Type B BSCs must detect an exhaust remote failure within 15 seconds. TRUTH: With all applications handling hazardous materials a risk assessment must be completed. BENEFITS: Before the Axiom, selecting Biosafety Cabinets followed this risk assessment process of determining the difference between hazardous chemicals and hazardous chemistry. If a laboratory is using chemistry of any reasonable level with its microbiology now or in the future, the C1 should be selected. FABRICATION: The unique recessed area in the center may restrict the use of equipment and other procedures commonly done in a BSC that require a flat work surface.
BENEFITS: Besides simply containing spills, the Chem-Zone, as demonstrated by Biological Safety Officers at ABSA, provides visual cues for organizing and maintaining the interior work zone of a Class II BSC. Additionally, following the practices of human factors design (ergonomics), the Chem-Zone is optimally calculated to provide sufficient working space, keeping non-essential equipment out of the way.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious respiratory infection disease caused by the bacterial complex tubercle bacilli.
New therapies and diagnostics will go a long way to reduce the number of TB related deaths by 95% and new TB cases by 90% – all by the year 2035. What makes these therapies unique and important is that after 60 years of targeting the bacteria that kills TB, these treatments open a new door in the fight against infection. Labs, too, can do their part by ensuring the containment and safety of professionals handling TB.
Thus far, the main tools for treating cancer have been relatively crude: chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. One organization has recently introduced immunotherapy, which is over 90% effective and uses the patient’s own immune system to target and eliminate cancer. After many years of research, the greatest discovery offers hope for saving more lives struck by the disease. Read the entire article, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is the launchpad of new cures by Gary Gilliland - and watch the video below for a clearer picture of the process. US EPA Method 550.1 requires an evaporation or concentration step when extracting polyaromatic hydrocarbons from liquid. GreenFumeHood Technology is unique because it adds elements of safety, energy savings and versatility to lab environments.
The fact that the resulting fume hoods are far and away superior to other kinds of chemical fume filtering systems raises many questions. A: Carbon has been used for personal protection over 100 years now (think gas masks in WWI). All of us enjoy the individual and environmental benefits of carbon-based filtration every day, in the form of drinking water treatment, wastewater treatment, air purification and chemical purification.
A: Instead of getting our carbon ready for a specific molecule like other manufacturers, Erlab decided to flip the equation and get the various molecules ready for our carbon. A: The entire filtration technology package including the breakthrough detection and communication systems and, of course, the fume hood structure underneath it all. The detectors do not provide a ppm or ppb reading to the user and they do not require frequent recalibration or replacement.
If chemicals do break through the primary filter, an identical secondary Neutrodine filter captures them. Think of it this way: similar to electrical current, air will flow along the path of least resistance. For comparison, consider if you were to stack two (or even 15) inferior carbon filters on top of each other and that each filter has preferential passages for the air to flow without chemical removal, then the user would not be safe for long, if at all, because the chemicals would quickly break through all of the filters. A: Carbon Shifting (or settling) occurs when the filter frame is not properly designed or sufficiently filled. Carbon channeling is similar, as it, too, allows a preferential path for air to flow untreated.
As you can likely imagine, there will be many areas where there is very little carbon for the air to flow through and other areas with lots of carbon. The carbon we use, its activation, the multiple layers of transformative technology and the filter frame design allow the most efficient and complete use of the carbon’s capacity. Compare that to a filtered fume hood, where the cost of replacing the four primary filters in a 6-foot hood is roughly $4,000 to the owner, including labor.
Get more information on the Protector Echo or Protector Airo Filtered Fume Hoods with GFH technology. A new report from the United Nations states that pollinators worldwide are nearing extinction, which doesn’t bode well for our food supply. 1.1 Students learn to identify the role of enzymes in metabolism, describe their chemical composition and use a simple model to describe their specificity on substrates. Most people would know that some animals (like frogs, snakes and lizards) are a€?cold-bloodeda€? and that when the weather is cold, these animals are less active than when ita€™s warm. Each enzyme has a unique shape - it is this shape that means it will make just one reaction go. Enzymes are not usually used up in chemical reactions - they can be used over and over, so they can be present in tiny amounts.
Enzymes are difficult to study in high school but there is one in saliva that we can study. Explain why our bodies need to make large amounts of digestive enzymes (like pepsin) but only tiny amounts of other enzymes (like hexokinase, which is present in every cell and catalyses the breakdown of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate).
This experiment is important to addressing the skills outcome H11 (a€?A student justifies the appropriateness of a particular investigation plana€?). I hope you have a picture of many chemical reactions occurring in your own body right now, each one occurring because of the presence of tiny amounts of enzymes.
So, it is important that the temperature and acidity in your body has to be kept at the right level. Maybe you can think of some changes that occur in your body when the temperature gets too low! The first step to prevent your death is for your body to recognise the change in your body temperature. I have only considered what happens when there is a danger of you over-heating but there are many aspects of your body that have to be kept constant - for example, oxygen, sugar and water levels in the blood.
Nerve impulses travel very quickly, and travel from one small part of the body to another small part.
Hormones travel relatively slowly in blood, from an endocrine gland to a number of target organs.
An example might be the hormone adrenalin, travelling from the adrenal glands above the kidneys to skin (constricting blood vessels), the pacemaker in the brain (increasing heart rate), the liver (increasing the level of glucose in the blood) and many other organs. At the Mid-Atlantic ridge, a€?black smokersa€? raise the temperature of the ocean above 100oC without the water boiling (because of the very high pressure).
There are other organisms that thrive in temperatures close to the freezing point of water. The temperatures at which organisms are found and the range over which they can survive is because of the enzymes in their bodies.
A Grylloblattid - (Grylloblatta bifratrilecta) an insect related to crickets and cockroaches that lives in snow. Leta€™s make our ectotherm the impressive but relatively harmless (if left alone) Red-bellied Black Snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus).
Comparing our ectoderm (Black Snake) and endoderm (Wombat) it is clear that both have behaviours and bodies that help them to survive extremes. Your textbook does not give any examples of plants responding to temperature change - only adaptations to temperature extremes -so Eucalypts have drooping leaves which helps them to avoid overheating when the Sun is high; deciduous trees drop their leaves which helps them to avoid frost damage. Responses of plants to temperature change are not common but there has been great interest from horticulturalists over several hundreds of years in the ability of Rhododendron spp to curl their leaves in response to temperature change. Most people would know that some animals (like frogs, snakes and lizards) are a€?cold-bloodeda€? and that when the weather is cold, these animals are less active than when ita€™s warm.A  Why is this? Enzymes are not usually used up in chemical reactions - they can be used over and over, so they can be present in tiny amounts.A  But most importantly, they only work under special conditions - a narrow temperature range and a narrow pH (acidity) range. That usually doesna€™t happen because things happen in your body to cool your body.A  You sweat, surface veins open up so that blood flows closer to the cooling air, and you breathe more often releasing warm our from your lungs. This is a practical investigation involving second-hand research.A  Before you start it, you should read these notes. I have only considered what happens when there is a danger of you over-heating but there are many aspects of your body that have to be kept constant - for example, oxygen, sugar and water levels in the blood.A  For each, there are receptors that detect the changes and a control centre (usually in the brain) that counteracts the change.
Nerve impulses travel very quickly, and travel from one small part of the body to another small part.A  An example might be from a fingertip to a very small part of the brain when we touch something.
There are other organisms that thrive in temperatures close to the freezing point of water.A  For example, there are bacteria-like cells that grow on snow turning it red (to produce a€?watermelon snowa€?). On the other hand, individual organisms can generally survive in a fairly narrow range.A  For example, tropical fish die in cold water, yet antarctic fish would die in tropical waters. Choose an ectothermic animal species, an endothermic animal species and a plant species.A  Dona€™t forget the advice about second-hand research, especially to acknowledge your sources. Your textbook does not give any examples of plants responding to temperature change - only adaptations to temperature extremes -so Eucalypts have drooping leaves which helps them to avoid overheating when the Sun is high;A  deciduous trees drop their leaves which helps them to avoid frost damage.
Q- Would removal of the dam help alleviate upstream flooding problems suffered by residents of the Family Farm neighborhood in Woodside? A- Searsville Dam was not designed to provide any flood protection benefit downstream and has caused flooding upstream. A- While the dam was well built, the average age for a dam is reported, by Stanford, to be 40 years and Searsville Dam is 120 years old. Q- Stanford currently uses the reservoir for non-potable water use, such as irrigation, landscaping and fire-fighting.
A- As with other completed dam removals, this project design would maintain or replace existing owner needs with improved facilities and ease of operation. A- Recent studies and completed dam removal efforts have shown that dam removal is almost always less expensive than eventual dam safety retrofitting, installation of required fish passage facilities, and ongoing maintenance costs.
A- Fortunately, there are many sources of funding for dam removal and ecosystem restoration projects of this kind. A- The existing ecosystem has emerged around an artificial and unsustainable reservoir that is filling in with sediment. Q- What effects would removal -- including possible flushing of sediment -- have on the recovering population of steelhead elsewhere in the watershed? A- The dam has held back sediment for over a century and altered the natural flow of gravels and beneficial sediments downstream creating a a€?hungry watera€? situation that has impacted bank erosion and the native habitat for steelhead.
Corte Madera Creek and the many tributary streams (above) contain excellent habitat and continues to support wild, rainbow trout (below), which are the descendants of sea-run steelhead.
Q- The current wetlands support a rich bird habitat and foraging ground for bats a€“ would this be protected with the removal?
A- Some of the recently established wetlands and habitat utilized by birds and bats can remain with dam removal and design plans would maximize the protection of sensitive areas in a manner similar to other successful dam removal efforts.
Stanford officials have often wondered about the impacts of dam removal on vegetation established on the reservoir and possible negative impacts to neotropical migrant birds that have been observed here in high abundance. Searsville Dam removal would restore miles of currently buried streams, riparian forests and thick border habitats, and increase the amount of highly productive fringe wetland habitat that these riparian zones provide. Overall, the project could trade in the unsustainable, artificial, reservoir habitat for a net gain in stream habitat, riparian forest habitat, fringe wetland habitat, historic wetland ponds, and upland habitat.
A- Dam removal will eliminate the artificial reservoir habitat that currently allows for the breeding and dispersal of several exotic and invasive species that prey upon and compete with the native species. A- Dozens of large dams have been successfully removed and hundreds of medium and smaller dams have been taken out over the past couple decades. A- Over 500 dams have been removed in the United States in recent years and several dams that were about the size of Searsville, and larger, have recently been removed from rivers around the country. The mouth of San Francisquito Creek (above) is near several wetland restoration projects in need of sediment. Q- How would the removal of 60 feet of concrete blocks affect the biological preserve and surrounding communities? A- Removal of the concrete blocks would be a short-term disturbance to the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve and surrounding communities. A- Doing nothing at the dam and reservoir is not an option that any stakeholders are currently considering or embracing due to the imminent negative impacts of such a non-action.
Q- How will you work with Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve and other watershed stakeholders to ensure their concerns are being met?
A- Members and supporters of the Beyond Searsville Dam Coalition have been collaborating with Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, Stanford University, San Francisquito Joint Powers Authority, San Francisquito Watershed Project, local jurisdictions, government agencies, community groups, and other non-profit groups for several decades on a variety of watershed related projects.
Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Director, Philippe Cohen (green cap), and Stanford Engineering Professor, David Freyberg (at right), atop Searsville Dam talking to a group from the Salmonid Restoration Federation conference who were interested in dam removal. 1) What is a dam?a€?There are a number of technical and legal definitions of a dam but generally it is any structure that impounds or diverts water. However, this inventory only covers dams that meet minimum height and impoundment requirements, so an unknown number of small dams are not included in the inventory. 3) Which state has the most dams?a€?According to the NID, Texas has the most dams of any state at 6,798. 4) Who regulates dam operations?a€?A number of state and federal agencies are responsible for regulating dams. 5) How many dams actually produce power?a€?FERC regulates approximately 2,300 hydroelectric producing dams. 7) Why are some dams being removed?a€?There has been a growing movement to remove dams where the costs - including environmental, safety, and socio-cultural impacts - outweigh the benefits - including hydropower, flood control, irrigation, or recreation - or where the dam no longer serves any useful purpose. 8) How are dams removed?a€?Because dams and rivers vary greatly, physical removal strategies and techniques may also vary on a case by case basis. 9) How many dams have been removed to date?a€?Currently, American Rivers is aware of more than 600 dams that have been removed over the past 50 years in this country.A  We are still in the process of gathering this data, so that figure is likely to increase as more information becomes available.
10) How much does it cost to remove a dam?a€?Because the size and location of dams vary so greatly, the cost to remove an individual dam can range from tens of thousands of dollars to hundreds of millions of dollars.
11) Who owns the dams that are being removed?a€?Private businesses, federal agencies, state agencies, local governments, or public utilities may own dams.
12) Who pays for dam removal?a€?Who pays for the removal of a dam is often a complex issue.
13) Who decides that dams should be removed?a€?The decision to remove a dam is made by varying entities, depending on the regulatory oversight of the dam. 14) Can rivers be restored through dam removal?a€?Although most rivers cannot be completely restored to historic conditions - simply because of the amount of development that has occurred on and along them - dam removal can often recreate conditions that move the river towards those historic conditions. 15) What benefits do dams provide?a€?Dams may provide a variety of benefits, including water supply, power generation, flood control, recreation, and irrigation. 16) How can the benefits of a dam be replaced when it is removed?a€?While dams serve a number of human needs, society has developed ways to address many of these needs without dams. Rather than plugging rivers with multiple hydropower dams, a cheaper and less environmentally harmful solution is to use existing energy efficiency technologies.
17) Is it cost effective to remove a dam?a€?Dam removal can be expensive in the short term, but in most cases where dams have been removed or are being considered for removal, money is actually saved over the long term.
18) Will the removal of a dam matter if other dams in the system are not removed?a€?Some rivers are so heavily developed and dammed that removal of one dam on that river will only return flows to a small portion of the river.
19) Are we going to decide in twenty years that we need to start building dams again?a€?We have learned a lot in the past twenty years about the many impacts dams have on rivers, and we have learned many alternatives to damming rivers. 21) What are the potential downsides to dam removal?a€?Dam removal does result in fundamental changes to the local environment. How quickly do rivers recover after dam removal?a€?Rivers are very dynamic and resilient systems. 1) What is a dam?There are a number of technical and legal definitions of a dam but generally it is any structure that impounds or diverts water. 3) Which state has the most dams?According to the NID, Texas has the most dams of any state at 6,798. 4) Who regulates dam operations?A number of state and federal agencies are responsible for regulating dams.
5) How many dams actually produce power?FERC regulates approximately 2,300 hydroelectric producing dams. 7) Why are some dams being removed?There has been a growing movement to remove dams where the costs - including environmental, safety, and socio-cultural impacts - outweigh the benefits - including hydropower, flood control, irrigation, or recreation - or where the dam no longer serves any useful purpose. 8) How are dams removed?Because dams and rivers vary greatly, physical removal strategies and techniques may also vary on a case by case basis. 9) How many dams have been removed to date?Currently, American Rivers is aware of more than 600 dams that have been removed over the past 50 years in this country.A  We are still in the process of gathering this data, so that figure is likely to increase as more information becomes available. 10) How much does it cost to remove a dam?Because the size and location of dams vary so greatly, the cost to remove an individual dam can range from tens of thousands of dollars to hundreds of millions of dollars.
11) Who owns the dams that are being removed?Private businesses, federal agencies, state agencies, local governments, or public utilities may own dams.
13) Who decides that dams should be removed?The decision to remove a dam is made by varying entities, depending on the regulatory oversight of the dam.
14) Can rivers be restored through dam removal?Although most rivers cannot be completely restored to historic conditions - simply because of the amount of development that has occurred on and along them - dam removal can often recreate conditions that move the river towards those historic conditions. 15) What benefits do dams provide?Dams may provide a variety of benefits, including water supply, power generation, flood control, recreation, and irrigation. 16) How can the benefits of a dam be replaced when it is removed?While dams serve a number of human needs, society has developed ways to address many of these needs without dams. 17) Is it cost effective to remove a dam?Dam removal can be expensive in the short term, but in most cases where dams have been removed or are being considered for removal, money is actually saved over the long term.
18) Will the removal of a dam matter if other dams in the system are not removed?Some rivers are so heavily developed and dammed that removal of one dam on that river will only return flows to a small portion of the river. 19) Are we going to decide in twenty years that we need to start building dams again?We have learned a lot in the past twenty years about the many impacts dams have on rivers, and we have learned many alternatives to damming rivers. 21) What are the potential downsides to dam removal?Dam removal does result in fundamental changes to the local environment.
22)How quickly do rivers recover after dam removal?Rivers are very dynamic and resilient systems. The following information has been compiled to help spread the good news with the hope of placing more people onA the path to greater health, relaxation and happiness. The product shelves of most Tray Dryers are microprocessor controlled, and the shelf temperatures are automatically changed according to a program that has been set and stored.
It is very difficult to transfer heat through an air gap and even more difficult when the air gap is under vacuum. The eutectic temperature (triple point) is the temperature at which your sample only exists in the solid phase.
If the eutectic temperature is unknown, developing the optimal method will require many trial and error runs until the critical temperature is determined. At vacuum levels above .200 mbar, there are too many molecules present and this will slow down the sublimation rate. Set the vacuum level in the freeze dry system at .200 mbar to maximize the sublimation rate. Because ending a run too early can cause a sample to melt back or result in a collapsed cake, the tendency is to error on the side of caution and extend the lyophilization run further than necessary. Because of evaporative cooling, the sample temperature will be lower than the shelf temperature.
The multi-directional spraying arms move as much as 112 gallons per minute throughout the washer chamber, ensuring powerful scrubbing of water to the entire chamber.
Once wash and rinse cycles are complete, items are dried by air forced through the wash arms and a floor-mounted blower. After wash and rinse cycles, air is forced through each spindle, in addition to the spray arms, for fast drying of tough-to-dry glassware. These tests ranged from the standard ASHRAE 110 containment test, to a challenging modified containment test with adverse conditions to truly test its limits.
The team found that GC provides the best results out of all other chromatography methods for analyzing the type and manufacturer of lipstick. Now that the Ebola virus has largely subsided in Africa and the Zika outbreak is spreading rapidly in South America, approximately $600 Million in leftover funds will be shifted to fight Zika.
Many representatives in Congress threaten to fight this shift in funds; however, others support the new focus on this hazardous virus as it threatens to spread across US borders. It's with this eye toward protection that laboratories have rightfully turned to employing the use of biosafety cabinets, allowing their technicians to properly and safely handle biosafety agents requiring BSL 1-3 containment. Sean's approach to the biosafety industry is truly safety-centric, and his knowledge has been called upon in various high profile circumstances including the 2001 Anthrax attacks and SARS outbreak. He then traveled to Nigeria and Liberia to prepare healthcare workers there to do the same. When you look at a biosafety cabinet, the first and most basic thing you have to do is determine what you're going to be using it for. If all those are in check and you've chosen the appropriate equipment, the biosafety engineering aspect has been done for you.


Leaders need to train them how to choose appropriate personal protective equipment and develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) that answer real questions. In my opinion, by the way, the cabinet should be broken down and cleaned at the end of each night.
When there are standard, easy to follow checklists in place for routine operations, some of those processes can be streamlined and the risks minimized.
However, the minute they come in contact with a human exhibiting human behaviors, that person better be trained or the cabinet could risk losing its protectiveness. Even if they were to follow all of them, leadership still has a responsibility to the workforce. Everyone has to be on-board with safety in order for it to work, and that starts at the top. The size of the Universe cannot be overstated, which reiterates everyone's ultimate insignificance within the grand scheme of things. Vacuum pumps are available in different types that offer varying displacement capacities and ultimate vacuum levels. RV pumps use oil to ensure a tight seal, lubricate the working parts and remove heat to cool the rotors.
It’s necessary when using an RV pump to collect the evaporated vapors upstream of the pump. It is recommended that the oil in these pumps be checked regularly and changed approximately every 3,000 hours of use. While there are systems that automate oil changing, time is still lost while the pump is out of use for the maintenance. Diaphragm pumps can handle highly viscous liquids and be used with a wide range of samples but the applications are limited to those requiring higher ultimate vacuum levels.
Therefore, almost any type of sample, even those containing a combination of solvents and acids can be used with these pumps, making them a good choice for both evaporation and concentration. In a combination pump the diaphragm pump keeps the oil of the RV pump under negative pressure to reduce or eliminate vapors going through it and condensing in the oil. The ultimate vacuum level and displacement capacity with combination pumps is similar to those of RV pumps. While they can have higher up-front costs, the lifetime operation costs are much lower because they don’t require oil and very little maintenance is needed.
By eliminating the oil, the hydrocarbon-free design means these pumps are environmentally friendly as well. Compared to diaphragm pumps, scroll pumps can reach deeper ultimate vacuum levels and have higher displacement capacities. They may be used with concentration applications also, however the cost tradeoff may make another type of pump more attractive. Even with filters, you need to take other precautions when samples include potentially hazardous materials. If you’re unsure which vacuum pump is the best for your application, our Application Specialists are always here to help.
Though similar in airflow to a B1, the Type C1 does not require special considerations when handling hazardous chemistry, nor does it require a dedicated exhaust system.
The Type C1 adopts the strengths of the Type A and B BSCs while addressing their limitations and is cross functional. It will be designated something other than a Type A or Type B, will be defined as such, and upon completion will be recognized by NIH, CDC, CFIA, and PHAC.
Type B2 cabinets are commonly selected out of an over-abundance of caution related to a microbiology lab’s use of chemicals considered to be hazardous, not out of risk assessment determining that the application is using hazardous chemistry. However, since the B2 must have a dedicated exhaust system, the cabinet is forever committed to its installation.
This is possible because the cabinet does not exhaust 100% of its air and does not need a dedicated exhaust system.
Though there are laboratory balance considerations, modern laboratories outfitted with VAV and lab balance mechanical systems can easily handle the volume of air this entails. If the Axiom’s installation is changed, all of these requirements would have to be recalculated and physically changed. This flexibility makes it possible for a laboratory to save over 50% of operational costs compared to Type B BSCs (over $50,000 compared to the life time operating costs of each Type B2 BSC).
One Axiom does the job of both Type A and B while costing the institution only the price of a single BSC.
The inlet relief valve is used to ensure that the exhaust transition plenum is kept under negative pressure in B-mode – maintaining containment of hazardous chemistry in the duct. The inlet relief valve is open all the time when the Axiom is operating with proper building exhaust in B-mode.
What’s more, positive relief valves shunt chemically contaminated air back into the laboratory. ANSI Z9.5 for Laboratory Ventilation only briefly mentions Class II BSCs in the ventilation (section 5) and merely describes the types of connections and requirements for manifolding (ganging) BSCs with hoods and general exhaust. These large VAV mechanical systems are significant enough in volume to absorb the volume of air being moved by an Axiom with the Active Protection Protocol engaged. It is designed to bridge the gaps in safety, flexibility and engineering that exist among current BSC types.
For the A2, A2 with canopy, B2 and C1 – users simply work inside the dished work surface. When using chemicals, this is where the operator MUST work – an operational requirement sure to cause fatigue, mistakes and injuries.
A back wall mounted latch can be used for hands-free assist by holding the Chem-Zone work surface out of the way during cleaning. However, the large volume of the air moving through the exhaust system keeps most chemical applications in a BSC well below ignition levels. For the purpose of selecting the correct BSC type, this risk assessment must determine one thing: is the chemistry being used hazardous or not? Chemical and biological risks are addressed with the chemical containment of a type B, the flexibility of a type A and remote exhaust failure dynamic protection exclusive to the Axiom.
This empowers the use of equipment and other procedures commonly done in a BSC in a safe, productive and efficient manner.
Definitions including those for the different types of Class II Biosafety Cabinets (BSC) are to be reviewed, updated and added to.
These treatments often make the patient even sicker in hopes of eventually making them better, but the results are mixed. New treatments are being developed to attack different forms of cancer from brain to skin and many cancers in between. Erlab debuted GFH Filtration Technology at Pittcon in 2008, offering manufacturers (like Labconco) access to an altogether new and sustainability-focused hood operating system. One of the key elements of your GFH Technology is the inclusion of Neutrodine filters, a new and significantly better-performing type of carbon filter. It has evolved significantly over this time and most improvements focus on it being able to adsorb a broader range of chemicals and do so at a higher capacity. Our multi-layer design allows the filter to neutralize acid molecules before they reach the carbon, and the original molecule has been transformed. Neutrodine filters can adsorb acids, bases and solvents, simultaneously and in large capacity, making them ideal for applications that use a wide variety of chemicals, such as undergraduate chemistry teaching labs (general, organic, inorganic), QC test labs, cosmetics R&D labs, petrochemical companies and many other applications. From a detection and safety standpoint, users must be warned when filters are losing their efficiency and chemicals are breaking through.
With this double filter arrangement, the user exposure is always less than 1% of Threshold Limit Value (TLV) as set by ACGIH or OSHA.
Erlab has engineered the most optimal filter frame for molecular filtration, and we've spent over 47 years perfecting crucial components of our filters.
If the inside perimeter of the filter frame allows preferential passages for the air to flow without chemical removal, the chemicals would break through very quickly. Erlab’s Neutrodine technology allows the use of a Primary and a Secondary filter, each with superior capacity and range of chemical adsorption. Channeling specifically, though, is a result of improper filter frame design in the area where the carbon meets the frame, the perimeter and any interior frame supports. The channels between the socks are where the air will mostly flow, allowing chemicals to break through the filter quickly.
Of course, as a general rule, filter life is based upon the volume of vapors generated within the fume hood and thus is very application-dependent. Operating cost savings are achieved when the filter replacement costs are less than the energy that would have been consumed by an equivalent ducted hood.
Depending upon use, the operating cost of this ducted hood is somewhere around $3,000 to $4,500 per year—possibly more.
If the filters last three years in the customer’s application, that is an annualized cost of only $1,350 versus a potential expenditure totaling $4,500 or more. From an overall filtered fume hood perspective, what are we looking at in terms of a lab's bottom line? Rather, they are stand-alone devices that do not require connection to anything other than an electrical outlet and, of course, any services the customer needs to work (like vacuum, gas or water as with a traditional ducted hood).
Incineration does require energy, yes, and there is some remaining ash that must be stored long term. Of the world’s food crops, a full 75-percent relies on pollination by insects and other animals.
Tens of thousands of species of pollinators play some part in the pollination ritual – and they need our help to survive.
With nearly 16% of the global vertebrate pollinators facing extinction, we must act now to prevent a breakdown in our future food supply. However, because it can maintain its body temperature within a narrow range, wombats can remain active over a much wider temperature range. As the elevation of the reservoir and trapped sediment were lowered, upstream flooding issues caused by the dam are expected to be eliminated. The dam removal design plan can maximize flood protection benefits to downstream communities. Searsville Dam provides a moderate amount of water that can easily be replaced with a less harmful water diversion facility that allows for improved functionality to Stanford. Federal, state, local, private, and non-profit entities are all providing large grants and donations to dam removal efforts nationwide. Some of the current vegetation and habitat that has grown up on the upstream end of the reservoir can be maintained with the dam removal design. Dam removal would provide additional spawning gravels below the dam for steelhead as well as more natural water flow regimes and anticipated improvements to water quality. These native trout are genetically isolated by the dam and their survival is at risk due to inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity.
It is critical to understand that while the artificial, and disappearing, open-water reservoir habitat will be reduced, the historic and ecologically unique habitat buried by the dam and reservoir will be restored. In addition, much of the established riparian vegetation at the upper end of Searsville Reservoir could remain with theA  dam removal design. The historic map below shows what this habitat looked like before the dam and what it can look like again with dam removal and ecosystem restoration. Several species of non-native bass, sunfish, and panfish as well as bullfrogs occur in the warm, artificial, flat-water of Searsville Reservoir. Much more complicated dam removals have been completed that involved hydro-power replacement, polluted sediment disposal, adjacent development, and other challenges that this project would not have. There are also several dams that are planned for removal over the next couple years that are many times larger in size and in the amount of stored sediment. A portion of the sediment can be transported for other uses, including the stated desire for it at planned San Francisco Bay wetland restoration projects or nearby agricultural sites.
We will continue to work with all of these stakeholders to address their concerns, as we feel that the safety and ecosystem issues are in our mutual interest and that the most effective project will occur when shared goals are best addressed. While many progressive leaders at Stanford acknowledge the potential benefits of dam removal and the need for comprehensive studies to analyze specific dam removal alternatives, many watershed stakeholders are concerned that several individuals at Stanford are misrepresenting the issue and standing in the way of productive collaboration and investigation on this critical watershed decision that impacts all stakeholders. There are approximately 75,000 dams in the US Army Corps of Engineers' (Corps) National Inventory of Dams (NID), which is the most comprehensive inventory of dams nationwide. Of the 75,000 dams in the database, approximately 66,000 are located on rivers (the remainder impound water off-river). Generally, the process involves drawing down the reservoir, potentially removing the sediment built up behind the dam, removing the structure, and mitigating for downstream effects of increased flow and sediment re-suspension.
Most of the dams removed to date have been owned privately, by local government, or by public utilities.
In past cases, removal has been financed by the dam owner, local, state and federal governments, and in some cases agreements whereby multiple stakeholders contribute to cover the costs. In most cases, the dam owner itself is the decision-maker, often deciding that the costs of continuing to operate and maintain the dam are more than removing the dam.
For example, fish are returning to historic stretches of river that had been previously obstructed on Butte Creek in California, theA Souadabscook River in Maine, and the Clearwater River in Idaho, as a result of dam removals. For instance, flood control can often be accomplished more effectively and for less money by restoring wetlands, maintaining riparian buffers, or moving people out of the floodplain. Removal eliminates the expenses associated with maintenance and safety as well as direct and indirect expenses associated with fish and wildlife protection (e.g. The reservoir will be eliminated, and with it the flat-water habitat that had been created. Experience has shown that natural river systems can be restored relatively rapidly after dam removal. Increasing the amount of the sample that is in contact with the glass sides of the flask, will increase the heat transferred to the sample and will result in a faster lyophilization rate. If your frozen sample goes to a temperature higher than the eutectic temperature, it will begin to melt.
The more heat you apply the faster the process, however your sample must remain below its eutectic point during primary drying. If a sample in a flask is melting back (getting too much heat) simply, insulate the flask with foam to slow the heat transfer down.
As the front moves through the sample, the sublimating water vapor must pass through the dry cake that is formed behind the ice front, as it is being evacuated from the sample to the condenser. If there are no molecules present around a sample, it is difficult to effectively transfer heat. With sample temperature probes and heated shelf temperature probes, end point can be detected when the sample temperature becomes equal to the shelf temperature. Advances to lifting lipstick stains are helping forensic scientists identify and target criminals before they’re able to strike again. You can spend thousands and thousands of dollars on a cabinet, but all the control can be negated in an instant with inappropriate behavior. That's how we have instances of individuals coming out of biosafety cabinets and contaminating other areas of their laboratories. RV pumps work especially well for aqueous samples and solvents with high boiling points whose vapors can be easily trapped before they reach the pump.
The valves are often made of polytetrafluoroethylene making the pump resistant to corrosives and less susceptible to damage from vapors.
This design keeps the oil cleaner and allows for less frequent changing – oil lasts up to 10 times longer between changes compared to RV pumps. Because the diaphragm pump is incorporated into the design, these pumps are better at handling acids and solvents than RV pumps. Scroll pumps handle water vapor better than most types of pumps and make significantly less noise during operation. A B1 BSC cannot operate without exhaust and therefore will always require the infrastructure and cost associated with moving expensive tempered air.
Type B2 BSCs also heavily tax exhaust systems with large volumes that can exceed 1,200 CFM – this can cost over $100,000 per BSC to operate over its life. Meanwhile, the BSC continues to operate as well, allowing operators to continue their work without forcing a shutdown.
During which the Type C1 Axiom provides an audible alarm, visual alarm – describing the alarm occurrence, and provides a countdown timer to BSC shutdown. This does not mean that hazardous chemicals are being used; rather that the chemicals being used are of a concentration and volume that would require a chemical fume hood. In August, 2015 that Task Group determined that the Purifier Axiom will be designated something other than a Type A or B, and defined as such.
GFH technology includes a suite of detectors (solvent and acid) that will alarm when the primary filter is approaching saturation. This proprietary design prevents channeling and shifting of the carbon during transport and use. Additionally, the entire surface area of the filter frame presents consistent air pressure drop (friction to air flow, if you will) so that there is even airflow throughout the entire carbon bed. Carbon filters must be designed properly to prevent this occurrence or they won't function properly.
Also, note that the annual cost of maintenance of a ducted hood versus a filtered hood can be substantially more given the additional equipment required to make it work properly (like airflow control valves, exhaust fans, etc.). In addition, these arrangements greatly reduce the HVAC demand and allow both laboratory supply and exhaust air to be controlled with devices that are smaller, cost less and are easier to use.
Once incinerators are brought up to temperature, the combustion process is nearly self-sustaining—a catalytic effect. Hauville, founder of Erlab, was awarded the first patent on the ductless hood back in 1970. And the motivation is there, I hope, since the pollinators’ survival has such a direct correlation to our own.
Sustainable agriculture, diversifying crops and eco-friendly food production should go a long way to restoring the balance to our delicate food system. The valley and historic wetlands that are buried beneath Searsville Dam and Reservoir once provided natural flood protection benefits by filling and absorbing winter rains and then slowly releasing flows following the peak flow event.
Large cracks that remain on the dam were observed by the dam caretaker immediately after the 1906 earthquake. The shrinking reservoir provides a fading amount of storage capacity that can be replaced with existing off-stream reservoirs, expanded storage areas, new off-stream storage, and possible dredging of the remaining upper Searsville Reservoir areas.
Almost all dam removal studies and construction efforts are being partially or fully funded with these available grants.
In addition, miles of historic stream, riparian, and wetland habitat currently buried can be revived and restored with the dam removal. The existing downstream steelhead population is able to migrate up all other existing spawning and rearing tributaries in the watershed and away from any potential short-term disturbances from the dam removal. Several miles of stream habitat and associated riparian forests, comprising over 6 different tributary streams, can be reestablished. These species are able to breed in this artificial habitat and spread downstream of the reservoir were they can prey on and compete with threatened steelhead trout, other native aquatic species; including amphibians and even small birds and mammals. Habitat restoration of this size has been successfully completed at hundreds of locations and many dam removal projects have enabled stream habitat and native wildlife to restore themselves quickly. See our Dam Blog page and American Rivers website for more information on completed and planned dam removal projects. Noise abatement methods, scheduled use of roads by trucks, use of cleaner burning biodiesel in equipment operation, working around Preserve activities and research, and other determined actions could be implemented to reduce impacts. Dredging the reservoir and maintaining some open water has also been considered, but has limited benefits and most of the existing ecosystem and safety problems with the dam would remain. We firmly believe that a collaborative, well-designed dam removal effort can be in the best interest of Stanford University and the entire watershed community. Non-federal dams that produce hydropower are regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). According to the NID, Oroville Dam, on the Feather River in California, is the tallest dam in the United States, measuring in at 770 ft.
State dam safety offices can often order a dam to be removed if there are major safety concerns. Updating antiquated irrigation systems and replacing inappropriate crops can dramatically reduce the need for dams and reservoirs in the arid West.
Many dams that have been removed no longer had any beneficial use or that use was very limited.
In some cases, this additional section of river is enough to sustain crucial populations of endangered or threatened species of fish, mollusks, and other wildlife. In the next twenty years we are likely to learn even more about alternatives to dams and the impacts of dams on rivers. Wetlands surrounding the reservoir will also be drained, although new wetlands are often created both in the newly restored river reach above the former dam site and in the river below. For example, spawning fish returned to theA Souadabscook River in Maine only months after a dam was removed, and the flushing of the sediment from the Milwaukee River in Wisconsin following the Woolen Mills Dam removal took only six months. Using a far infrared sauna can help strengthen the bodya€™s immune system by stimulating increased production of white blood cells by the bone marrow and killer T-cells by the thymus.A 2. Room temperature variances will certainly affect the required length of time to freeze dry.
Knowing the temperature your sample cannot go above enables the greatest amount of heat to be added to the sample without experiencing melt back. By increasing the surface area, more sample is in contact with the flask resulting in better heat transfer to the sample. The less cake the water vapor must pass through, the faster the molecules will sublimate, resulting in a faster run. Because the majority of the water in the sample has already been sublimated, the sample temperature can rise above the eutectic point without melting back. Just be advised that the drying time may be a little slower as the SteamScrubber does not support forced air-drying through spindles.
Furthermore it localizes it to the area of the cabinet that is directly exhausting any evaporated hazards due to a spill or normal work.
These improvements allow the vast majority of the carbon to be utilized before any chemical breakthrough occurs. Far better than exhausting pollutants into the atmosphere, used Neutrodine filters must be incinerated. Since that time, Erlab has continued to further develop, innovate and invent chemical filtration solutions addressing today’s needs.
All over the nation, restoration projects are being constructed that restore historic wetlands and adjacent riparian overflow areas to provide the dual benefits of ecosystem restoration and natural flood protection.
It is not known what the current structural condition of the dam is because it has been 43 years since the Division of Safety of Dams (DSOD) has inspected the foundation, toe, and groins of the dam.
New diversion facilities can tie into existing storage facilities, irrigation, and landscaping pipelines and improve water delivery. One state agency, the Department of Water Resources, already offered to study alternatives at Searsville Dam, including removal, at no cost to Stanford. The artificial reservoir ecosystem also currently harbors many exotic species of fish and frogs, which would be eliminated or drastically reduced in numbers, benefiting native species. As observed with other dam removal efforts, such as the Marmot Dam removal in Oregon, wild salmon and steelhead migrated upstream of the removed dam within several days of it being removed and reestablished themselves into historic habitat, expanding their distribution and improving their population health.
Biologically-rich wetland ponds and seasonal overflow wetland areas that are currently covered by the reservoir can be restored along with acres of transitional and upland habitat. Dam removal and ecosystem restoration plans can minimize the risk of additional exotic species becoming established during the restoration effort and help to minimize future exotic introductions. Other sediment alternatives such as slurry piping and controlled sediment transport can be utilized to design the best plan to address project complexities. As with so many other recently completed dam removal efforts, project stakeholders decided that the long-term gains to the ecosystem, dam owner, and surrounding communities warranted the short-term disturbance of dam removal. Only dam removal has the combined benefits of eliminating the safety liability of the dam, providing a free flowing stream, restoring historic habitat (wetland, stream, riparian), eliminating or reducing non-native species, providing unimpeded steelhead migration, and providing natural flood protection features. Non-federal dams that do not produce hydropower are regulated by the state in which they reside. The dam with the largest impoundment is Hoover Dam, on the Colorado River in Nevada, which stores approximately 30 million acre-feet of water.
The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission can order a hydropower dam under their jurisdiction to be removed for both environmental and safety reasons.
In addition, removal often generates income from newly available recreation opportunities - including fishing, kayaking, and rafting - which may actually result in a net economic benefit.
Sediment that collects behind a dam, sometimes over hundreds of years, may contain toxics such as PCBs, dioxide, and heavy metals. Far infrared rays improve blood circulation, stimulate endorphins, lower lactic acid, kill certain bacteria and parasites, and burn calories.
In addition, dam removal efforts nationwide are being awarded funding to precede the dam removal with major downstream flood protection projects to increase channel capacity, replace undersized bridges, improve levee systems, and ensure that flood risks are reduced with the project. Many earthquakes and several decades have past since this last detailed foundation inspection.
The remaining upper reservoir, west of Portola Road, is an historic wetland pond that preceded the construction of Searsville Dam. Water quality and habitat conditions downstream are expected to improve with dam removal, as has been the case elsewhere. Dam removal projects have consistently shown a strong benefit to salmon and steelhead populations in watersheds across the world. An amazing and diverse array of habitat types and species will be restored for birds, bats, steelhead, and the full array of native species. Most of the non-native species utilizing Searsville Reservoir cannot thrive in the natural flowing stream environment. A combination of multiple sediment options has been used in other dam removal efforts and may provide the best way to deal with the sediment. The dam that provides the most hydroelectric power in the United States is Grand Coulee Dam, on the Columbia River in Washington, which generates 6180 megawatts (MW) of power.
Re-suspension of these toxic-laden sediments in the process of dam removal has the potential to damage downstream water quality and threaten the health of fish and wildlife and water users. Proponents of hyperthermia, also known as fever therapy, maintain that using far infrared energy to therapeutically induce higher body temperatures helps fight infections and even cancer. The goal of pre- freezing is to form large crystals with a slower freezing rate while making sure the sample does not separate in the longer pre-freeze process. This is an unprecedented opportunity to get massive funding and ease of permitting to reduce flooding, restore ecosystem health, and rebuild Stanforda€™s out-dated water supply facilities to a modern and sustainable state. Stanford is responsible for coordinating this inspection that DSOD has identified in the above 2007 inspection report as a a€?prudenta€? measure that should be taken. This pond can be maintained and continue to provide fire-fighting needs as well as water storage capacity and open-water wetland habitat benefits.
Dam removal would also allow for the resurgence of annual steelhead trout runs to the watersheda€™s largest tributary for the first time in 120 years, bringing back a critical keystone species to the ecosystem. Removal of Searsville Dam would open up over ten miles of historic spawning and rearing habitat in the largest tributary of the entire watershed, where high quality habitat and native rainbow trout persist. In addition, the dam removal will reestablish critical wildlife migration routes at this confluence of riparian corridors currently blocked by the dam and submerged by the reservoir. A detailed Dam Removal Alternatives Analysis study would identify the many options available. Short term impacts of the dam removal itself can include increased water turbidity and sediment buildup downstream from releasing large amounts of sediment from the reservoir, and water quality impacts from sudden releases of water and changes in temperature.
Their argument is supported by the human body itself, which radiates infrared energy for the benefits of warmth and tissue repair.A 3.
Beyond Searsville Dam requested that the DSOD require this study and they have informed Stanford that the study should happen before the end of 2012. As part of the larger Searsville Dam removal and ecosystem restoration project, Stanford has an unprecedented opportunity to upgrade their water delivery and storage facilities with the benefit of available grant funding, eliminated safety liability, and ease of permitting. The altered and artificial ecosystem would be transformed to a self-sustainable and native one. The remaining, and historic, upper pond located west of Portola Road can continue to provide open-water wetland habitat.
As the dam and concrete continue to age, experience additional earthquakes, and as the reservoir fills in and transported sediment potentially scours the dam, the structural integrity is expected to be reduced over time. In addition, the upgraded water diversion and storage facilities can be designed to serve a critical secondary function of reducing flooding downstream by diverting and storing peak storm flows into collection basins as is being considered by the Joint Powers Authority in the watershed. This is the heat you feel penetrate your skin when you stand in the sun and miss when you walk into the shade. The active San Andreas Fault run adjacent to Searsville Reservoir, which can be seen as the oval blue shape near the center of the map, adjacent to the highest a€?Very-Violenta€? shaking severity level on the above image.
Such multi-objective funding and permitting opportunities are being jumped at by dam owners across the country. Dam removal can eliminate the dam failure risk identified by San Mateo County and extensive downstream inundation. When people do not receive adequate amounts of far infrared heat, they often can become ill or depressed.A 4. Searsville Dam is listed as a a€?High Hazarda€? dam by the US Army Corps, State of California, and San Mateo County (pg. Far infrared saunas are recognized by health practitioners worldwide as perhaps the most effective method of removing both chemical and heavy metal toxins from the body.
As noted in the above document, a High Hazard dam is defined as a dam whose failure would result in a€?probable loss of lives and significant property damagea€?. Far infrared saunas are thought to be 7 times more effective at detoxifying heavy metals such as mercury, aluminium, and other environmental toxins than conventional heat or steam saunas. Stanforda€™s own report, SPEAR3, cites an analysis that determined failure of Searsville Dam could release a a€?catastrophica€? flow of 60,433 cubic feet per second, or a€?about 6 times the 500-year peak flow of 10,500 cfsa€? (Section 7.1 Page 7). Stanforda€™s own report, SPEAR3,A  cites an analysis that determined failure of Searsville Dam could release a a€?catastrophica€? flow of 60,433 cubic feet per second, or a€?about 6 times the 500-year peak flow of 10,500 cfsa€? (Section 7.1 Page 7). For many chronically ill patients as well as people who are well and wish to stay that way by reducing their toxic burden, the far infrared sauna is the detox method of choice.A 6. In addition to geologic, aging, and seismic considerations, the dama€™s limited spillway design and operation and bypass flow drain pipe present additional safety challenges for dealing with dam overtopping during flood events and the ability to quickly drain the reservoir during an emergency. Bathing in a far infrared sauna in the early stages of a cold or flu has been known to stop the disease before symptoms occur.A 7. Far infrared heat can penetrate into the skin about an inch and a half to two inches deep and can have therapeutic benefits, such as helping to dissolve fat deposits under the skin.
Since toxins may be stored in the fat, the deep penetrating heat of a far infrared sauna can help eliminate them, especially toxins such as heavy metals and acidic compounds.A 8. The radiant heat of a far infrared sauna is efficient because it warms the sauna bather directly. The body absorbs as much as 93 percent of the heat, causing perspiration and producing a vast array of health benefits.A 9. Far infrared saunas can help clear cellulite, the gel-like lumps of fat, water and debris trapped in pockets beneath the skin. European beauty specialists routinely incorporate daily far infrared sauna baths in programs to reduce cellulite.A 10. Generally speaking, far infrared saunas are less expensive, easier to install, and require less maintenance than traditional saunas.
They come in many sizes and are often quite portable, making them a great choice when limited space is available.A 11.
Far infrared radiant heat provides all the healthy benefits of natural sunlight without any of the dangerous effects of solar radiation.A 12.
Far infrared saunas are more cleansing than conventional saunas because they are designed to generate more than two to three times the amount of perspiration. Unlike in traditional saunas where temperatures range from 140 to 220 degrees Fahrenheit (60 to 105 degrees Celsius), the temperatures of far infrared saunas typically range from 100 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit (38 to 60 degrees Celsius).A 14. This allows a person to perspire faster and to tolerate a longer period of time inside the sauna.
Typical sessions in a far infrared sauna last 20 to 30 minutes and can be repeated to maximize the benefits.A 15.
The lower heat range of far infrared saunas is safer for people with cardiovascular risk factors or fragile health because lower temperatures dona€™t dramatically elevate heart rate and blood pressure.A 16. Far infrared saunas have been used to treat sprains, bursitis, rheumatism, muscle spasms, neuralgia and hemorrhoids. The effects of toxin, chemical and pesticide poisoning can be greatly reduced by the far infrared saunaa€™s detoxification action.
People who work with chemicals, as well as home gardeners who frequently use fertilizers and pesticides, are advised to use far infrared saunas on a regular basis.A 18. Far infrared radiant heat is a form of naturally occurring energy that heats objects by direct light conversion.
Direct light conversion warms only the object and does not raise the temperature of the surrounding free air.A 19.
Far infrared sauna use can help promote rebuilding of injured tissue by having a positive effect on the fibroblasts, the connective tissue cells necessary for the repair of injury.
It also can help increase growth of cells, DNA syntheses, and protein synthesis, all of which is necessary during tissue repair and regeneration.A 21.
In the electromagnetic spectrum, far infrared wavelengths measure between 5.6 and 1,000 microns.
Wavelengths of between 6 and 14 microns are believed to be the most beneficial to humans and other living things on Earth.A  The human palm emits far infrared wavelengths of between 8 and 12 microns. The energy output from far infrared saunas so closely match the human bodya€™s radiant energy that nearly 93 percent of the saunaa€™s far infrared waves reach the skin.A 22.
Far infrared sauna therapy has helped people with cardiovascular conditions such as congestive heart failure and angina.
It enhances endothelial nitric oxide, lowering blood pressure and improving cardiovascular function.A 23. The radiant heat of far infrared saunas has been shown to be especially beneficial to people with sports injuries, fibromyalgia, arthritis, and other chronic pain conditions.A 24.
There are some definite advantages to using far infrared sauna thermal heaters, such as no high heat claustrophobic reaction and better air circulation. Far infrared heaters heat the body, not the air, so a bather is more comfortable and cooler.
Far infrared saunas require 90 percent less electrical energy than conventional saunas, and no plumbing is required for a far infrared sauna.A 26.


A 20 to 30-minute session in a far infrared sauna has been touted to burn as many calories as a six-mile run.A 27. Far infrared saunas are now used in health facilities for a range of health problems such as menopause, ulcers, insomnia, asthma, bronchitis, ear infections, and allergies.A 28.
You dona€™t have to worry about setting the sauna up on a waterproof floor or near plumbing, and you dona€™t have to worry about mildew.A 29. Unlike a traditional sauna, which requires a closed atmosphere to maintain heat levels required for therapeutic results, a far infrared sauna can be used with its door or window completely open if far infrared penetration is the only objective.A 30. Far infrared saunas benefit all your organs of elimination, from your lungs to your liver to your kidneys to your skin.A 31.
Infrared light lies between the visible and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared light has a range of wavelengths, just like visible light has wavelengths that range from red light to violet. Near infrared light is closest in wavelength to visible light, and far infrared light is closer to the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A far infrared sauna is usually warm within 10 or 15 minutes, whereas a conventional sauna can take more than an hour to reach optimal temperatures.A 33. Another option, although quite costly, is to use far infrared bulbs, which can provide warming and stimulating color therapy.A 34. In addition to hemlock, wood choices for far infrared sauna construction include basswood, birch, oak, poplar, spruce and western red cedar.
When a wood type is stated to be hypoallergenic, it means that the wood contains minimal allergens and is therefore less likely to cause an allergic reaction.
When far infrared heat penetrates a bathera€™s body, he or she can experience a refreshed mind, relaxed mood, reduction of aches and pains, improved metabolism, and systemic regularity leading to an overall feeling of wellness.A 37. Hemlock is a very strong wood that is quite able to withstand the heat of a far infrared sauna. It is also abundantly available, which means the end cost to the consumer is less than it might be for another wood type.A 38. Far infrared radiation is believed to be the only antidote to excessive ultraviolet radiation.A 39. Certain alternative healing practices such as palm healing, a practice with some 3,000 years of tradition behind it in China, rely on the human bodya€™s ability to emit far infrared radiant energy.A 40.
And weight gain, muscle loss, decreased libido, wrinkles in our skin, and a growing number of aches and pains are probably other distressing concerns.A Some people try to defy nature by undergoing cosmetic surgery, utilizing every a€?anti-aginga€? skin care product available, taking stress management or meditation courses, or relocating to less polluted areas. These actions may have merits worthy of consideration, but the fact remains that no one, no matter how determined he or she may be, can slow down the passage of time.
We start aging even before we are born, and the process does not stop until the day we die.A While our efforts may not influence time itself, they can, however, affect how our bodies respond to and endure it.
Qualified health professionals agree, for example, that regular exercise and good nutrition can have a long-term positive impact on a persona€™s quality of life. As well, avoiding the dangerous ultraviolet rays of the sun is universally regarded as an effective way to help maintain healthy, youthful skin. And leta€™s not forget how quitting smoking has been shown to improve respiratory health and reduce the risk of cancer in many vital bodily organs. A One activity that has been proven to be of great benefit to the lungs, heart, skin and other organs is far infrared sauna bathing. The rays from a far infrared sauna can help improve cardiovascular functioning, strengthen the bodya€™s immune system, reduce fat and cellulite, revitalize skin cells, improve muscle tone and strength, improve nutrition and production of brain chemicals, and much more.A Far infrared sauna bathing also helps to flush toxic chemicals, heavy metals and other destructive agents from our bodies. Exposure to this highly toxic substance can reportedly increase blood pressure and cause fertility problems, nerve disorders, muscle and joint pain, and memory or concentration difficulties. Researchers have also linked lead exposure to Alzheimera€™s disease, a debilitating condition akin to dementia that most people associate with aging.A Various sources likewise suggest a connection between Alzheimera€™s disease and mercury, the most toxic non-radioactive element on Earth.
By definition, red is the color with the longest wavelengths of visible light, and violet is the color with the shortest wavelengths of visible light. Among the types of invisible light or electromagnetic radiation that reside outside of the optical spectrum are infrared radiation (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Translated from Latin, a€?infraa€? and a€?ultraa€? mean a€?belowa€? and a€?beyond,a€? respectively, so infrared radiation, or infrared light, is literally a€?below red,a€? and ultraviolet light is a€?beyond violet.a€?The German-born astronomer William Herschel discovered infrared light while living in England in 1800, about 20 years after his historic first sighting of the planet Uranus. Measuring the heat from the optical spectrum, Herschel observed that the temperature in the colors increased as he went from violet to red.
He also noticed that the temperature continued to increase beyond the color red, into a region of invisible light that Herschel named a€?infrared.a€?Infrared light is divided into three distinct segments with precise ranges of wavelength measured by microns.
Far infrared light is sometimes called thermal radiation or thermal light, and its wavelengths measure between 5.6 and 1,000 microns.
The light or energy from sunlight and fire that we perceive as heat is far infrared.The far infrared radiation (FIR) emitted by the sun should not be confused with its deleterious ultraviolet radiation.
Chief among the consumer products utilizing the technology is the far infrared sauna or heat therapy room.
A key attribute of far infrared light is its ability to heat an object directly without elevating the temperature of the air surrounding the object.
This is called direct light conversion.A Direct light conversion is perhaps best demonstrated when youa€™re outside on a summer day and a big cloud moves in front of the sun. In the shade, you dona€™t feel as warm as when you were basking in the direct path of the suna€™s energy.
Yet, by positioning itself between you and the sun, the cloud has blocked the suna€™s far infrared rays from reaching you.
Thata€™s the reason you feel cooler even though the temperature of the air around you has not changed.A The value of far infrared light to human health and wellness must not be underestimated. Penetrating as deeply as three inches into our bodies, far infrared rays improve blood circulation, stimulate endorphins, destroy certain bacteria and parasites, lower lactic acid, and burn calories.Advocates of hyperthermia, also known as fever therapy, contend that employing such deep-penetrating far infrared energy to therapeutically induce higher body temperatures helps combat infections and even cancer.
Their assertion is supported by the human body itself, which emits infrared energy for purposes of warmth and tissue repair.A Saunas have long been a tried, tested and true source of health benefits. For centuries, traditional saunas have helped to improve cardiovascular function, promote body detoxification, maintain general health, and foster greater relaxation in sauna bathers around the world.
For many sauna enthusiasts, the traditional hot sauna a€“ the Finnish sauna a€“ remains the preferred route to renewed health and a rejuvenated spirit.A Sometimes called radiant heat saunas, soft heat saunas or heat therapy rooms, far infrared saunas offer most of the same benefits that traditional Finnish saunas do, but they do so at lower, more tolerable temperatures. While the air temperature in a typical Finnish sauna bath ranges from 170 to 200 degrees Fahrenheit (77 to 93 degrees Celsius), such temperatures arena€™t required in a far infrared sauna to induce optimal bather perspiration.A By penetrating the bathera€™s body and effecting a deep, satisfying heat of just 100 to 130 degrees Fahrenheit (38 to 55 degrees Celsius), the far infrared rays can create an enjoyably cleansing, detoxifying and revitalizing experience for the bather.
In fact, many sources claim that the volume of sweat produced during a far infrared sauna bath can be as much as three times greater than in a Finnish sauna bath.
The higher volume of sweat means a faster, more thorough, and thus more beneficial flushing of toxic chemicals and harmful heavy metals from the body.A Far infrared rays are a fundamental, indispensable part of life on Earth. And now, with far infrared heat therapy rooms and other infrared applications becoming increasingly common, we humans are wisely taking action to benefit from those rays and improve the quality of our own lives.A Benefits of Far Infrared Sauna UseThere are many benefits to be derived from proper and regular use of a far infrared sauna. Far infrared sauna bathing can improve autonomic functions of the nervous system.Further Applications of Far Infrared EnergyFar infrared saunas are just one example of the application of infrared energy in contemporary society. Other uses of infrared energy have resulted in infrared hair dryers, infrared foot massagers, infrared pillows, infrared underwear, and even infrared leg wraps for horses. There are far infrared ray-emitting paints and wallpaper that combat mold as well as fast-cooking far infrared ovens that reportedly kill E. Far infrared rays are being utilized to purify polluted air, promote growth in plants, keep newborn babies warm in hospitals, treat injured athletes, and even encourage new hair growth.Far Infrared Is Essential to LifeFar infrared rays are a fundamental, indispensable part of life on Earth. And now, with far infrared saunas and other infrared applications becoming increasingly common, we humans are astutely taking steps to benefit from those remarkable rays and improve the quality of our own lives. Similarly, you may not pay much attention to far infrared saunas, but these fantastic devices offer health benefits that you may not be able to afford to ignore any longer.A As time progresses, it seems that the world is becoming an increasingly dangerous place.
We live in an age of terrorist activities, nuclear weapons, dictatorships and religious fanaticism. Costly international conflicts show no sign of abating, and just about everyone feels more insecure and vulnerable than they did a decade ago. Even in our local neighborhoods, many of us worry about rising crime rates and growing threats to our personal safety.A And, as if those problems were not enough for us to worry about, many of us have major health issues with which we have no choice but to contend. Not helping matters are all the poisons and contaminants that have found their way into our environment and into our bodies.
Fortunately, though, we are not powerless against these mighty and malicious microscopic menaces.
In fact, we can start doing something about them right now - we can start fighting back with far infrared sauna detoxification therapy.A Far infrared saunas are revered by scientists and health professionals around the world for their ability to help flush out many of the toxic chemicals, heavy metals and other destructive agents that have accumulated deep within the bloodstream, skin and other vital organs of people from all walks of life.
For individuals affected by mercury toxicity, lead poisoning, and other life-threatening exposures, the far infrared sauna is often viewed as an essential component of detoxification therapy.A If you think that only people in high-risk occupations qualify for far infrared sauna detoxification therapy, youa€™re wrong. Exogenous toxins, which can be absorbed through the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract, are those not produced by the body itself, and examples include mercury, lead, zinc and cadmium. Sylver writes that a€?this category consists of waste produced by the body in the course of normal metabolic functioning and also pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites) and the waste they excrete.
Also known as chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS), CFS was once commonly referred to as the a€?yuppie flua€? after about 200 people, most of whom were white, wealthy, young females, come down with a strange illness in 1984. National Institutes of Health claim that, for some people, chronic fatigue syndrome can first appear after a cold, bronchitis, hepatitis or an intestinal bug; for others, it can follow a bout of glandular fever.
CDC and CFIDS Association of America announced in 2001 that stress may exacerbate but most likely does not cause the disorder.A On the polemical subject of CFS prevalence, Dr.
Buist asserts that toxins can impede muscle metabolism, causing the pain and fatigability of muscles felt by many fatigued people.A Addressing the Well Mind Association in Seattle, WA, Dr.
The affected persona€™s detoxification system is clogged up or destroyed, they get a backlog of chemicals, and their immune system goes down.a€?A Dr.
Edelson and Deborah Mitchell, authors of What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Autoimmune Disorders, put it like this: a€?The hallmark of CFIDS is overwhelming, persistent, incapacitating fatigue that leaves those afflicted unable to carry on their normal physical functions.
Schmidt writes, a€?Researchers at Uppsala University Medical School in Sweden reported that patients with chronic fatigue contain abnormal levels of mercury within their cells.
Of patients with chronic fatigue, 45 percent showed mercury hypersensitivity and 49 percent showed lead hypersensitivity. When the metal burden was removed from the body (in many cases, by removing mercury-containing silver dental fillings), 77 percent of patients reported improved health.a€?A If these conclusions are correct, how can sufferers retaliate after the damage of toxic build-up has manifested itself as chronic fatigue syndrome? Lyon recommend far infrared sauna therapy.A a€?For the chronic fatigue patient, a consistent program of infrared sauna therapy will assist the problem of autonomic dysregulation, which is common to the condition,a€? states Dr. These symptoms are reduced, as regular sauna therapy induces normal autonomic functioning.A a€?Through extensive research, it has been shown that saunas greatly assist in the elimination of accumulated toxins,a€? Lyon adds. It has become well known that people who take regular saunas (2-3 per week) reduce their incidence of colds and influenza by over 65% (a study by the British Medical Association). While many people use saunas primarily for relaxation and stress reduction, the other health benefits are increasing the popularity of saunas. An often agonizing muscle disorder in which the thin film or tissue holding muscle together becomes thickened or tightened, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal aches, pains and stiffness, soft tissue tenderness, mild to incapacitating fatigue, and disturbed sleep.A The pain of fibromyalgia is typically felt in the neck, back, shoulders and hands, but it is not exclusive to those areas. Based on criteria set in 1990 by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), a diagnosis of fibromyalgia requires a patient to have experienced widespread pain for a minimum of three months in 11 of 18 tender muscle sites. Among those 18 sites are the hips, knees and rib cage.A Other symptoms of fibromyalgia include allergies, anxiety, carpal tunnel syndrome, depression, dizziness, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, numbness, and tender skin. Most sufferers of fibromyalgia are women of childbearing age, but it has also been known to strike men, children and the elderly.As for what causes fibromyalgia, many theories exist.
The Alternative Medicine Guide to Chronic Fatigue, Fibromyalgia and Environmental Illness states that a€?post-traumatic fibromyalgia is believed to develop after a fall, whiplash or back strain, whereas primary fibromyalgia has an uncertain origin.a€? However, in her book Detoxify or Die, Dr. Nenah Sylver extols the sauna for its ability to increase cardiovascular activity and white blood cell, enzyme, and norepinephrine, beta-endorphin and possibly thyroxin production.
As they, in turn, help to enhance circulation, increase waste removal and nutrient absorption, raise metabolism, and promote the elimination of toxins, foreign proteins and microbes, Dr. Sylver deems the aforementioned benefits of proper sauna use crucial in helping people with fibromyalgia. She notes a€?there are actually very few health problems that cannot be helped (or would become worse) with sauna therapya€? but advises patients nevertheless to consult with their health providers before beginning sauna therapy.A Dr. Rogers and other health professionals insist that the far infrared sauna, radiant heat sauna or heat therapy room is of greater benefit to fibromyalgia sufferers than the traditional hot Finnish sauna because of a fundamental difference between the two styles of sauna. Rogers calls the far infrared sauna a€?infinitely more tolerable,a€? particularly for people with fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome or multiple sclerosis, because it can function effectively at a much lower temperature than a conventional Finnish sauna.A a€?Ia€™m convinced that the far infrared sauna is something that everyone should do to restore health,a€? declares Dr.
That such an effective detoxification tool exists should be welcome news to anyone suffering the ill effects of excessive lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic or aluminium in his or her body.
A Not everyone may believe they have sufficient reason to worry about heavy metal and chemical toxicity, but many experts are urging the skeptics to think again. Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which can produce a wide range of adverse health effects.
In adults, lead can reportedly increase blood pressure and cause fertility problems, nerve disorders, muscle and joint pain, irritability, and memory or concentration problems. A Because their brains and central nervous systems are still being formed, young children under the age of six are especially vulnerable to leada€™s harmful health effects. National Safety Council (NSC), a€?Even very low levels of exposure can result in reduced IQ, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorders, behavioral problems, stunted growth, impaired hearing, and kidney damage. Lead can also be found in automobile exhaust, pesticides, hair dye, ink, and some glazed dishware.Mercury, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that can be found in tuna and swordfish, latex paint, dental amalgams, vaccines, cosmetics, contact lens solution, fabric softener and tap water, has also been classified by researchers as posing a grave threat to human health. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared that no level of mercury can be considered to be safe, as it is the most toxic non-radioactive element on Earth.A In their book What Your Doctor May Not Be Telling You About Autoimmune Disorders, Dr.
Like so many other heavy metals, cadmium can be found in air, water, soil and food.A Noting that the highest contributor to cadmium toxicity is cigarette smoke, the Center for Environmental and Integrative Medicine (CEIM) in Knoxville, TN, states that a€?cadmium can weaken the immune system and allow bacteria, viruses, yeast and parasites to proliferate. Cadmium may also promote skeletal demineralization and increase bone fragility and fracture risk. Department of Health and Human Servicesa€™ Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Eating food or drinking water with very high cadmium levels severely irritates the stomach, leading to vomiting and diarrhea, and sometimes death.
Breathing air with lower levels of cadmium, or eating lower levels of cadmium, over long periods of time can result in a build-up of cadmium in the kidneys. This has been seen mostly in workers exposed to arsenic at smelters, mines, and chemical factories, but also in residents living near smelters and arsenical chemical factories. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have all classified inorganic arsenic as a known human carcinogen.A Since arsenic is found naturally in the environment, humans risk exposure to it when they eat food, drink water, breathe air, or come in contact with contaminated soil or water. The same can be said for aluminium compounds.A People may also be exposing themselves to aluminium compounds when they ingest medicinal products like certain antacids, laxatives and buffered aspirin or have skin contact with aluminium metal, antiperspirants, or other substances that contain aluminium or aluminium compounds. Mercola asserts that aluminium has been linked to serious illnesses such as osteoporosis, extreme nervousness, anemia, headache, decreased liver and kidney function, speech disturbances, and memory loss. He also contends that people who have died from Alzheimera€™s disease have been found to have up to four times the average amount of aluminium accumulated in the braina€™s nerve cells.A Offering its view on the subject, the ATSDR states that exposure to aluminium is usually not harmful but notes that some people who have kidney disease store a lot of aluminium in their bodies. In these children, the bone damage is caused by aluminium in the stomach preventing the absorption of phosphate, (which is) required for healthy bones.a€?Lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and aluminium are just five of an intimidating number of toxins capable of severely compromising your health. Among the other heavy metals most often found at unacceptable levels in the body, according to Edelson and Mitchell, are nickel and tin. Sherry Rogers writes, a€?The lungs, urine, stool and sweat are the main vehicles the body has for getting rid of nasty chemicals, but by far sweat is the most efficacious. And Mayo Clinic studies show that (utilizing) far infrared energy is the safest way to induce healing sweata€¦ Far infrared sauna technology is the only proven, most efficacious way of getting rid of stored environmental chemicals.a€?A A far infrared sauna has been cited as the best place to sweat because, whereas bathing in a conventional hot air sauna produces perspiration that is composed of approximately 97 percent water and three percent toxins, soaking in a far infrared sauna has been shown to produce sweat composed of about 80 percent water and 20 percent toxins. As well, far infrared saunas can produce up to three times the sweat volume of a conventional hot air sauna while operating at a considerably cooler air temperature range of 110 to 130 degrees versus 180 to 235 degrees for hot air saunas. Ita€™s worthwhile to also note that, according to author and sauna historian Mikkel Aaland, a 15-minute far infrared sauna session can execute the same heavy metal excretion that would take the kidneys 24 working hours. In other words, sweating in a far infrared sauna can be a very efficient method of detoxification.A Even though sweating is a natural function of the human body, many people do not perspire properly because their skin has been damaged or deactivated by, among other culprits, chemicals in bath water, lotions, soaps and deodorants. Fortunately for these people, far infrared sauna therapy can greatly help to restore the skina€™s eliminative powers. Ita€™s just one more way far infrared saunas work to heal bodies compromised by harmful chemicals.A If you are concerned about how harmful chemicals and heavy metals can affect your health, consider the many benefits of owning a far infrared sauna.
Most people have a casual understanding of each of those three, but it is the mercury included in the periodic table of elements that demands greater public contemplation. For if contemporary society placed more of an emphasis on the pernicious effects of mercury exposure, perhaps fewer people would be victimized by related illnesses and diseases.A Mercury is the most toxic non-radioactive element on Earth, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has proclaimed that no level of mercury can be regarded as being safe.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced in a 2001 study that one in every 10 American women of childbearing age is at risk for having a baby born with neurological problems due to mercury exposure.A There are three principal types of mercury, and each type presents a serious health hazard to humans. The first type, elemental mercury, is a liquid that gives off mercury vapor at room temperature. Elemental mercury can also enter the bloodstream by permeating the skin.A Inorganic mercury compounds, the second type, can also be inhaled as well as pass through the skin. Unlike elemental mercury, though, inorganic mercury compounds can also be absorbed through the stomach if swallowed.
Elemental mercury, if swallowed, is not absorbed and usually exits the body without causing any harm. Many inorganic mercury compounds are irritating or corrosive to the skin, eyes and mucus membranes.A The third type of mercury, organic mercury compounds, can enter the body by way of all three routes a€“ lungs, skin and stomach. Exposure to any form of mercury on a repeated basis, or even a very high single dose, can lead to chronic mercury poisoning.
According to the New Jersey State Department of Health, chronic mercury poisoning is characterized by three major symptoms:Gum problems. People with chronic mercury poisoning frequently experience wide mood swings, becoming irritable, frightened, excited or depressed very quickly for no apparent reason. Some people may become extremely upset at any criticism, lose all self-confidence, and become apathetic. Memory loss, hallucinations, and inability to concentrate can also occur.Nervous system impairment. The earliest and most frequent symptom of chronic mercury poisoning is a fine tremor of the hand. A person with chronic mercury poisoning may also experience difficulty balancing and walking.A In What Your Doctor May Not Be Telling You About Autoimmune Disorders, authors Dr. Research has demonstrated that the bodya€™s tissues, especially in the brain, kidneys, jaw, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and liver, absorb and store mercury.a€?A With such research findings having caught the publica€™s attention, some people have begun insisting that their dentists use composite fillings, also known as a€?white fillings,a€? as a non-toxic alternative to amalgam fillings. As well, some dental patients are demanding that their existing amalgam fillings be removed and replaced with composite fillings.A In her book Detoxify or Die, Dr. Rogers writes, a€?Autoimmune disease, heart disease, high cholesterol and triglycerides, chemical sensitivity, allergies, antibiotic-resistant infections, depression, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, leukemia and just about any symptom you can think of have improved once sufficient accumulated mercury was removed from the teeth and body.a€?Going a step further, Dr. Daniel Royal, member of the Nevada State Board of Homeopathic Medical Examiners, states, a€?While removal of amalgam fillings stops further poisoning from mercury fillings, you still need to detoxify the body to eliminate the residual effect from mercury that remains behind in the body. Royal calls the sauna a useful adjunct to safe mercury removal because it induces profuse sweating.
One reason is that far infrared saunas, also known as radiant heat saunas or soft heat saunas, can effectively function at temperatures lower than those characteristic of traditional hot Finnish saunas.
The findings of this study make a strong case that far infrared saunas are simply better detoxification devices than conventional hot saunas.A Before you begin a sauna detoxification program, or if you suspect that you suffer from mercury poisoning, you should discuss your plans or share your suspicions with a qualified health professional.
And if you decide to purchase a far infrared sauna for any of its many therapeutic properties, be sure to research your choices thoroughly, as satisfied sauna buyers are typically well-informed sauna buyers.A Opening the Sauna Door to Better Healthby Pertti Olavi Jalasjaa You may think of a home sauna as being little more than a luxury, an object that offers pleasure and comfort but is ultimately inessential to your well-being. However, the results of decades of research may just convince you of what sauna enthusiasts have believed for centuries a€“ that regular sauna bathing offers significant, perhaps even life-saving, health benefits.A A chief objective of any sauna bath is to make you perspire, and perspiration is a natural, necessary function of the human body. Ita€™s a means by which the body can rid itself of extra heat and water and eliminate harmful toxins that have, over time, built up inside it. Included among these toxins are mercury, lead, cadmium and aluminium.A The health benefits of sauna bathing, however, go beyond aiding detoxification. As your body increases sweat production to cool itself during a hot sauna bath, your heart increases blood circulation. Heart rate, cardiac output and metabolic rate all increase, while diastolic blood pressure decreases, helping to improve overall cardiovascular fitness.A Sauna bathing may also contribute to healthy weight loss.
A letter in a 1981 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association asserted that a€?a moderately conditioned person can easily a€?sweat offa€™ 500 grams in a sauna, consuming nearly 300 calories, the equivalent of running two to three miles. A heat-conditioned person can easily sweat off 600 to 800 calories with no adverse effects. While the weight of the water lost can be regained by rehydration with water, the calories consumed will not be.a€?A Most irrefutable are the claims that regular sauna bathing helps to relieve stress and promote relaxation.
It has been demonstrated time and time again that spending just a few minutes in a hot sauna bath can reduce anxiety levels, sooth nerves and warm tight muscles. Not only has sauna bathing been shown to encourage deeper, more restful sleep, far infrared sauna therapy has proved effective in alleviating pain associated with arthritis, backache, bursitis, fibromyalgia, headache, sprains, strains and other muscular and skeletal ailments.A a€?I am convinced that the far infrared sauna is something that everyone should do to restore health,a€? contends Dr. And while the condition known as Raynauda€™s disease has perhaps not received as much attention as those previously mentioned, credible sources suggest that sauna bathing can benefit its sufferers as well.A Raynauda€™s disease is a condition that causes some areas of your body, such as your fingers, toes, ears, cheeks, tongue, and the tip of your nose, to feel numb and cool in response to cold temperatures or stress.
Named after Maurice Raynaud, the French physician who first described it in 1862, it is a disorder of the blood vessels that supply blood to your skin. During a Raynauda€™s attack, these arteries narrow, limiting blood flow to affected areas.A Accurately discussing Raynauda€™s can be challenging for some people, as two types of it exist, and each type has two names. What most laymen generically call Raynauda€™s disease could be either primary Raynauda€™s or secondary Raynauda€™s.A Primary Raynauda€™s, the most common form of the disorder, is what physicians and medical textbooks correctly refer to as Raynauda€™s disease. Although anyone can develop the condition, primary Raynauda€™s mainly affects women between the ages of 15 and 40.
Ita€™s also more common in people who live in colder climates.A Secondary Raynauda€™s, also known as Raynauda€™s phenomenon, is caused by an underlying problem like scleroderma, Sjogrena€™s syndrome (both connective tissue diseases), lupus (an autoimmune disease), rheumatoid arthritis (an inflammatory disease), hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid gland), diseases of the arteries (such as atherosclerosis and Buergera€™s disease), carpal tunnel syndrome, nerve damage, or chemical exposure. As well, people in certain occupations, such as those who operate vibrating tools, may be more vulnerable to secondary Raynauda€™s.A Most typically, cold temperatures provoke Raynauda€™s attacks. Just taking an item out of your freezer, putting your hands in cold water, or exposing yourself to cold air could trigger one. For some people, however, cold is not even necessary; emotional stress is enough to instigate an episode. In both cases, the body seems to exaggerate its natural response of trying to preserve its core temperature by slowing blood supply to its extremities. During an attack, which can last from less than a minute to several hours, affected areas of your skin usually first turn white. As your blood circulation improves, the affected areas may turn red, throb, tingle or swell.
Raynauda€™s attacks may grow more severe over time.A If the condition becomes severe, blood circulation to your extremities could permanently diminish, resulting in deformities in affected areas like your fingers or toes.
Also, skin ulcers or gangrene could develop if an artery to an affected area becomes completely blocked.A Depending on the cause and severity of symptoms, treatment can take many forms. Medications may include alpha blockers, calcium channel blockers, or vasodilators, all of which help relax blood vessels.
For example, during a session in either type of sauna, the bathera€™s heart responds to the sauna heat by increasing blood flow and perspiration production to cool the bathera€™s body. In this way, sauna bathing is a form of cardiovascular exercise.A Perspiring in a sauna, especially a far infrared sauna, also helps the body rid itself of harmful toxins that have built up over time. With experts having already drawn the connection between nicotine, secondhand smoke and Raynauda€™s, this benefit is certainly noteworthy.A As anyone who has stepped into a sauna seeking relief from muscle aches, sports injuries or ailments such as arthritis or fibromyalgia should already know, sauna bathing also offers a proven way to alleviate pain.
A clinical study conducted at Sunnybrook and Womena€™s College Health Science Centers at the University of Toronto confirmed that far infrared therapy can bring about significant improvements in both subjective measures of pain and discomfort associated with Raynauda€™s disease.A Lastly, sauna bathing fosters relaxation and stress relief. To those Raynauda€™s sufferers whose attacks are caused by emotional stress, as well as to the innumerable Raynauda€™s sufferers whose emotional stress is understandably caused by their attacks, this news is likely very welcome.A If you think you may be suffering from Raynauda€™s disease or Raynauda€™s phenomenon, be sure to discuss your concerns with a qualified health professional.
Meanwhile, youa€™d be wise to investigate the many ways a home sauna, be it a traditional Finnish sauna or a far infrared sauna, can improve your health and happiness.A Insomnia and the Far Infrared Saunaby Pertti Olavi JalasjaaYoua€™ve wisely avoided sleeping pills, but it seems as if youa€™ve tried almost everything else to get a better nighta€™s sleep.
The comforting heat of a sauna works to induce healthy perspiration, assist respiratory function, benefit blood pressure, stimulate endorphins, cleanse skin, and relieve sore, tired muscles.
By raising your body temperature in a sauna bath right before bedtime, you compel it to normalize itself afterwards, and ita€™s this temperature readjustment following the sauna bath that helps to improve the quality of your sleep.A Of course, other effects of the heat bath can certainly contribute to improvements in your sleep.
Regular sauna bathers routinely report that soaking in a hot sauna helps them rid their minds of the anxieties, frustrations and worries that may have been plaguing them prior to bathing. And by helping to alleviate any existing physical pain like headaches, muscle strain or joint stiffness, a sauna bath can effectively disarm many of the aggravations that might have impeded truly restful sleep.A Home saunas are available in many styles and sizes. Around the globe, doctors, researchers and other professionals have discovered the tremendous value of using sauna heat to help increase the human bodya€™s white blood cell count, stimulate its immune system, facilitate detoxification, and produce a state of general relaxation that is vital to the healing process.A In many countries, experts continue to research the therapeutic properties of the sauna. Chuwa Tei, professor of medicine and chair of the department of internal medicine at Japana€™s Kagoshima University, and his colleagues have demonstrated saunasa€™ usefulness in treating heart patients.A In one study, Tei and his colleagues compared 25 men with at least one risk factor for heart disease, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol or smoking, with a group of 10 healthy men. Each study participant spent 15 minutes in a 140-degree Fahrenheit (60-degree Celsius) dry sauna, followed by 30 minutes in a bed covered with blankets, once a day for two weeks.
The researchers then measured how well the participantsa€™ blood vessels expanded and contracted, a sign of the health of the vessels. The researchers also found that the sauna therapy lowered participantsa€™ blood pressure slightly. The results of the study should be encouraging to anyone concerned about blood vessel diseases like atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and erectile dysfunction.In earlier studies, Tei and his colleagues demonstrated that sauna therapy improved the blood vessel function in hamsters with chronic heart failure.
The hamsters that received sauna therapy also lived about three weeks longer than those that didna€™t receive sauna therapy.A German researchers recently studied 22 kindergarten children who took weekly sauna baths and compared them to a group of children that did not take any sauna baths.
Both groups were followed for 18 months and closely monitored for any occurrence of ear infections, colds, or upper respiratory problems. The researchers found that the children who did not take the weekly sauna baths took twice as many sick days as their counterparts.A Other findings suggest that it may be more than the heat of a sauna that is so advantageous to human health.
Tests have indicated that the practice of tossing or splashing water on heated rocks in a traditional Finnish sauna produces a high quantity of negative ions in the air. Research has concluded that air abundant with negative ions offers great benefits, while a lack of negative ions or a higher ration of positive to negative ions in the air we breathe can cause physical harm.And while a June 2001 edition of The St. Lying above the 60th parallel, the southern boundary of the Arctic Circle, northernmost Finland receives little sunlight during the winter, which typically begins in November and lasts at least until May. Throughout all of Finland, winter days are remarkably short, with the sun low on the horizon even at midday. In the far north, the period known as a€?kaamosa€? or polar night, during which the sun never rises above the horizon, is nearly two months long.A Light deprivation is a serious concern during Finnish winters, particularly in areas where continuous darkness stretches several weeks. Many experts believe it could explain why Finland has one of the worlda€™s highest suicide rates. Each year, 14 percent of northern populations reportedly experience the a€?winter blues,a€? and another six percent suffer from the more serious Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), a type of clinical depression that, by definition, afflicts people only at certain times of the year. A In addition to depression, common symptoms of SAD include anxiety, fatigue and low energy, irritability, increased sleeping, difficulty concentrating, and changes in appetite, most notably carbohydrate cravings.A For many people, Seasonal Affective Disorder is a seriously disabling illness that prevents them from functioning normally without continuous medical treatment. For others, it is a mild but debilitating condition that causes discomfort but not severe suffering. This milder form of SAD, called Subsyndromal Seasonal Affective Disorder, is what most people perceive to be the aforementioned winter blues.A Yet another form of SAD is Reverse Seasonal Affective Disorder (RSAD), and it typically strikes during the late spring or early summer and lasts throughout the warmer months.
Also known as summer depression, RSAD is characterized by decreased sleep, weight loss, poor appetite, and other symptoms.
Because treatment options can differ for SAD and RSAD, ita€™s important to note that the information in the following paragraphs pertains specifically to SAD a€“ in other words, winter depression.A According to the American Academy of Family Physicians, treatments for Seasonal Affective Disorder include monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOs), psychotherapy, and light therapy.
Certain sources claim that, in addition to being used to treat SAD, insomnia and jet lag, light therapy can also be beneficial for people suffering from skin conditions such as acne, eczema, psoriasis and vitiglio.A For treating Seasonal Affective Disorder, the most commonly used phototherapy equipment is a portable lighting device known as a light box.
The patient sits in front of the box for a prescribed period of time that can be as brief as 15 minutes or as long as several hours. The duration and frequency of light therapy sessions often depend on the patienta€™s physical needs and lifestyle. As one might surmise, light therapy sessions for SAD typically begin in the autumn months and continue throughout the winter, sometimes even into the early spring.A The light box may be mounted upright to a wall or slanted downwards and set on a table. The light from a slanted light box is designed to focus on the table upon which it sits, so patients may look down to read or enjoy other sedentary activities during their phototherapy sessions.
Patients using an upright light box must face the light box, although they dona€™t need to look directly into the light. As for the brightness of the light utilized, the light sources in these light boxes typically range from 2,500 to 10,000 lux (units of illumination). In comparison, average indoor lighting typically ranges from 300 to 500 lux, and a sunny summer day is roughly 100,000 lux.A Before undergoing any light therapy treatments for Seasonal Affective Disorder, be sure to discuss your concerns and options with a qualified health professional. If you believe that you suffer from SAD, it is vital that you receive a proper diagnosis from a physician experienced in treating mood disorders. As well, certain risks (like potential eye strain, hypomania and headache, among others) are associated with phototherapy, especially for people who are photosensitive, so consulting with your doctor and an ophthalmologist could prevent additional problems from arising during or after your treatments. If you decide to pursue light therapy treatments without the assistance of a qualified health professional, be aware that different companies hold decidedly different stances on exactly what constitutes light therapy.
A Among the health-related companies that are now making light therapy part of their business are manufacturers and retailers of home saunas. It is a logical development since far infrared sauna therapy has repeatedly been proven to be an effective form of light therapy. The light found in a far infrared sauna is, of course, far infrared light, a type of invisible light located below the optical color red in the electromagnetic spectrum.A An indispensable part of life on Earth, far infrared light has long been used by humans to purify polluted air, keep newborn babies warm in hospitals, promote growth in plants, and more. Little did the early sauna bathers of Finland realize centuries ago that their beloved heat baths might someday become a source of hope and healing, not just for the people of their own country but for everyone who finds the dark days of winter hard to weather.A Sweat and Far Infrared Saunas- Here's the Skinnyby Pertti Olavi Jalasjaa For whatever reason, most people feel uncomfortable talking about perspiration.
For example, ita€™s not unusual to hear someone remark that he or she a€?sweateda€? over an academic assignment, a€?worked up a sweata€? on the tennis courts, or a€?lost a pint of sweata€? while awaiting an important decision. But these are simply colloquial expressions that many of us utilize to make a point about our mental or physical stress or exertion related to a particular undertaking or event.
After all, to do so, polite society decrees, would be in poor taste.A And yet much could be gained if people felt free to discuss the natural biological process of perspiration without fear of judgment or reproach. When we perspire in a far infrared sauna, we help our bodies rid themselves of the countless toxins like mercury, lead, cadmium and other contaminants that have accumulated within us over time.
As well, by intensely sweating in a far infrared sauna we benefit our hearts, lungs, kidneys and other organs that are essential to our survival.
Far infrared sauna bathing has also been proven to promote pain relief, muscle relaxation, and emotional tranquility.A For people suffering from certain skin diseases, far infrared sauna bathing can be particularly therapeutic. As the far infrared heat induces an increase in blood circulation to the skin, the bodya€™s defence against chronic skin conditions like acne, eczema and psoriasis is considerably bolstered. As well, thorough sweating helps unclog the skin of whatever unhealthy remnants of soap, lotions, deodorants or makeup may be unnecessarily lodged in its pores. Dead skin cells are also effectively flushed away by a good sweat in a far infrared sauna.A Increased blood flow and decreased toxins and foreign material in our skin mean more natural nutrients and fewer reasons for irritations and disease.
Elasticity, texture, tone and color can all noticeably improve after just a few sessions in a far infrared sauna. These benefits are available even if your skin has suffered harsh damage from excessive exposure to the sun.A You dona€™t have to talk about perspiration if you dona€™t want to. If you live a mostly sedentary lifestyle and therefore dona€™t perspire much on a regular basis, you must take action for the sake of the health of your heart, lungs, skin and other vital organs. People face stress at home, at work, at school a€“ anywhere opportunities to react to internal or external stimulation exist.A That stimulation can come from a disagreement with a spouse, a conflict with a co-worker, criticism from a teacher, bad news from a doctor, and so on.
And the stimulation need not be negative; people often become stressed when they start new jobs or enter into new relationships. Even a big, surprise win at the casino can cause stress.A A little stress isna€™t necessarily a bad thing. Stress during a job interview can help you give the best answers to the people asking the tough questions. These hormones are not harmful in moderate amounts, but cortisol is secreted excessively in response to chronic stress and is extremely toxic in these larger amounts.A a€?Cortisol actually kills and disables your brain cells,a€? says Dr. Chronic exposure to cortisol causes the mental haziness, forgetfulness and confusion that is associated with aging.a€?A People under stress may also be at higher risk of developing coronary heart disease. Stress causes arteries to constrict and blood to become stickier, increase the probability of an artery-clogging blood clot. As well, people who regularly experience sudden increases in blood pressure caused by stress may, over time, develop injuries in the inner lining of their blood vessels.A Studies suggest that chronic stress may increase a persona€™s chances for developing infections, having strokes, experiencing flare ups of multiple sclerosis, and suffering gastrointestinal problems like peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Chronic stress has also been linked to the development of insulin resistance, a key factor in diabetes. And ask anybody who has ever suffered from headaches, insomnia, skin disorders or sexual dysfunction if they believe that stress was at least partly to blame for their woes, and then construct your own conclusions about how damaging stress can be to onea€™s health and well being.A If you think you have a serious condition that has been caused or made worse by certain stressors in your life, you should discuss your concerns with a qualified physician. If, however, youa€™d like to improve the quality of your life by learning how to better cope with stress, many options exist. Perhaps your first focus should be on discovering the remarkable benefits of relaxation.Relaxation decreases blood pressure, respiration and pulse rates, releases muscle tension, and eases emotional strains. In their quests for greater relaxation, some people choose biofeedback while others opt for massage therapy. Studies indicate that soaking in a hot sauna bath can help improve respiratory function, increase cardiovascular strength, reduce and remove body toxins, strengthen the bodya€™s immune system, relieve headaches, and cleanse and beautify skin.
Sauna bathing can also increase blood circulation, relaxing tight, tired or aching muscles by providing them with more oxygen.A If youa€™re searching for a healthy way to alleviate the stress in your life, consider purchasing a home sauna. Residential saunas are available in a range of styles and sizes, from pre-cut Finnish sauna kits to outdoor barrel saunas and far infrared heat therapy rooms. Seemingly ubiquitous advertisements and TV commercials for antiperspirants continue to convince generations of consumers that perspiration is an undesirable, offensive bodily function.
While no one would dispute that sweat can be quite unwelcome in important social and business situations, it would be imprudent not to acknowledge the necessity of perspiration and understand the critical role it plays in human health.A Sweating is an essential function of the human body, as essential as eating, breathing and sleeping.
Skin is sometimes called a€?the third kidneya€? for this very reason.A Your body eliminates various toxins through a variety of metabolic processes, one being urination and another being perspiration.
The kidneys filter waste materials from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. The temperature in a traditional Finnish sauna is usually between 180 and 200 degrees Fahrenheit (80 and 95 degrees Celsius). The two types of sauna operate differently, but, at their respective temperature ranges, working up a sufficient sweat in either type should be achievable for even the most inexperienced sauna bather.A Using high heat to induce perspiration has a great number of benefits. In addition to decreasing the amount of toxins and heavy metals, such as cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc, in your body, an intense sweat bath in a sauna can help cleanse it of other impurities like cholesterol, nicotine, sodium, and sulfuric acid. By improving blood circulation, regular sauna bathing can help draw the skina€™s own natural nutrients to the surface, leading to better tone, texture and elasticity.
Thata€™s why sauna bathing is being increasingly included in high-intensity treatment programs for skin ailments like acne, eczema and psoriasis. Some beauty specialists in Europe even claim the sauna can be quite a powerful weapon in the war against cellulite.A As beneficial and therapeutic as sweating in a soothing hot sauna may be, however, it is imperative that bathers not allow the experience to dehydrate them.
As well, be sure to discuss your plans and expectations with your personal physician before you take to the sauna for the first time, as he or she should know of any existing conditions or limitations that pertain specifically to your health and might impact your sauna use.A As for all those advertisements and TV commercials that say sweating is bad, forget about them, and start doing what you know is best for your health.



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