Cancer of the blood myeloma prognosis,ayurvedic treatment for psoriasis in thrissur,heal genital herpes fast,power consumption of all appliances - PDF 2016

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To help you understand what is happening when you have cancer, it helps to understand how your body works normally. White blood cells originate in bone marrow, some of which become antibody-producing plasma cells as seen in the top part of the drawing. Because they destroy bone, myeloma cells can cause stored calcium from the bone to be released into the bloodstream.
The symptoms of multiple myeloma may be much like those of other bone diseases or medical problems. September is National Blood Cancer Awareness Month and September 15 is Worldwide Lymphoma Awareness Day.
The Impact Of Blood Cancer:Every four minutes someone is America is diagnosed with blood cancer and someone dies from the disease every 10 minutes.
There are over 628,000 lymphoma survivors in the United States (nearly 475,000 of which are non-Hodgkin) and more than 74,000 new cases and 21,500 deaths annually. The economic impact of blood cancer is staggering, but it pales by comparison to the humanomic impact.
The Good News – Blood Cancer Research Is The Superhighway To Curing Cancer: Although blood cancer garners too little publicity and far too little is spent on blood cancer research, blood cancer research has provided the biggest bang for our research dollar.
Warning Signs And Symptoms: There are many signs and symptoms potentially suggestive of blood cancer. Potential Myeloma Symptoms: The most common sign of myeloma is bone fractures and bone pain without an apparent reason. Treatments: Through the investment in research, the armamentarium of treatments for blood cancers has grown, with more effective and less toxic treatments available for many sub-types.
It Starts With Awareness: Almost everyone knows someone impacted by blood cancer, but many people do not know what lymphoma, leukemia, and myeloma are or even that these are cancers. Scott SeamanCancer ExaminerScott Seaman is a partner and commercial trial lawyer at Meckler Bulger Tilson Marick & Pearson LLP. Leggings you can wear during Spring and SummerThe legging is one of the most comfortable and versatile styles you can wear this Spring and Summer. DisclaimerWhile I strive to provide the most up to date and accurate medical information this doesn't mean that any conclusions, treatment decisions or other medical decisions should be based on the information presented here. The immunological system in our body is based on many varied systems which interact with each other.
In an appropriate setting, diagnostic criteria have been defined for determining thr presence of multiple myeloma. This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics.
The aim was to determine the cancer incidence, mortality, survival rates and the trends for the island of Grand Bahama, Bahamas. It is cancer of the lymph system and white blood cells known as lymphocytes, which fight infection and disease.
Leukemia is cancer of the blood and bone marrow, the spongy center of bones where our blood cells are formed. Nearly 138,000 Americans are diagnosed annually with blood cancer, accounting for approximately 9 percent of new cancer cases diagnosed in the United States and 9.5% of the cancer deaths. There are nearly 260,000 leukemia survivors in the United States, with approximately 43,000 new cases diagnosed and 21,800 death a year from the disease.
Historical evidence establishes that blood cancer research has produced tremendous results that extend well beyond blood cancer. Solid tumors – such as prostrate cancer, colon cancer, and breast cancer often are readily treatable when localized. It is important to note, however, that many of these symptoms are general and do not necessarily mean the individual has blood cancer or any serious illness for that matter.
Lymph nodes are located throughout the body, but generally the ones patients can identify are located in the head, neck, under the arms, or in the groin area. Some forms of blood cancer may not require active treatment for a long time and some patients may never require treatment. They are hard to spell, sound strange, often involve generalized symptoms, and do not get nearly enough press or attention. Normal cells grow and multiply when the body needs them, and die out when the body does not need them.
For more information on this site, please read our Privacy Policy, and Terms of Service, and Ad Choices. There are two major types: Hodgkin’s disease and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and dozens of subtypes that range from indolent or slow growing to aggressive sub-types.
There are several forms identified by the areas of the body impacted and the rate of progression.
Blood cancer is the most common form of cancer in children, with leukemia causing more deaths in children and young adults under the age of twenty than any other cancer. Myeloma survivors in the United States are estimated to total more than 69,000, with over 20,000 new cases and 10,600 deaths a year. Surveillance or “watch and wait” (considered by some patients to be “watch and worry”) many times is an appropriate strategy in such cases. Medicine is an ever advancing science and someday, the information here will be probably be completely out of date. The most common types are acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CLL), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Most patients (about nine in ten) have multiple myeloma, meaning the disease is in multiple areas of the body by the time of diagnosis.
Leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma cause more than 54,000 deaths per year in the United States. While many forms of cancer have been declining, the rate of incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma has nearly doubled since the 1970s.
Chemotherapy, radiation treatment, stem cell transplantation, combination chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies (the smart drugs that target cancer cells and leave healthy cells alone), and other therapies used on blood cancers have proven to be successful with other forms of cancer.


Accordingly, it is important to seek medical attention when you are not feeling well, to avoid self-diagnosis or jumping to conclusions, to get regular physical examinations and routine blood work (many cancers are diagnosed this way), and to be on the look out for symptoms that persist. Keep in mind that it is common for lymph nodes to be enlarged while fighting a cold or infection. Various chemotherapies, biological therapies, monoclonal antibodies, radiation, combination chemotherapy and radiation, radioimmunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation are among the potential treatments.
There are several possible disorders and cancers in plasma cells where the most common one is multiple myeloma.
Of these cancers, 443 (81.3%) were diagnosed in the pathology department of the hospital with the median age at diagnosis of all persons being 52 years. This is an appropriate time to promote awareness and provide some basic information about blood cancer. The treatments, prognoses, and survival rates can vary significantly depending upon the type and stage.
For example, during clinical trials of Rituxin (a monoclonal therapy now used for most forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma) on blood cancer patients, it was discovered that it was efficacious in treating rheumatoid arthritis. In multiple myeloma a single line of plasma cells proliferates excessively in a pathological way.
Primarily, these protein have been shoen to activate osteoclast cells which are in charge of taking apart bone formations. Because the myeloma cells crowd the normal cells, there is not enough room for the bone marrow to make as many healthy cells. We will leave details about the subtypes, treatments, prognosis, and future progress for future articles. Accordingly, it is not enough to know someone has lymphoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoma – you need to know the sub-type. Many times, it is a broken bone that leads a patient to seek treatment and that results in the diagnosis.
The immune system plays a major role in understanding cancer, preventing cancer, treating cancer, and curing cancer. This may cause blurry vision, headaches, chest pain, abnormal bleeding, or shortness of breath. Whereas the majority of breast and cervical cancers were histologically diagnosed locally, those of prostate and lung were not. The problems of multiple myeloma derive primarily from the large volume of protein secreted by the myeloma cells.
The calium and the proteins themselves can both damage the tubules of the kidney, thus leading to progressive renal failure.
The multiple myeloma cells multiply and occupy the bone marrow with a resultant anemia developing.Staging of multiple myeloma, the Durie-Salmon systemAll cancers are classified by a severity index known commonly termed staging and grading. The data on cancer were not easily obtained and this may be improved if a cancer registry is established on this second most populated island of The Bahamas.
El objetivo fue determinar la incidencia de cáncer, la mortalidad, las tasas de supervivencia y las tendencias, con respecto a la isla de Gran Bahamas, Bahamas.
For this reason, Beta 2 microgloblin is taken as part of the routine workup of multiple myeloma. The capital city, Nassau, is on the island of New Providence, and so too the main Government acute-care institution, the Princess Margaret Hospital, which serves as the main referral centre for the rest of The Bahamas. On it is located the only other government acute-care institution the Rand Memorial Hospital (RMH) which has 86 beds.
It is said that for the Commonwealth of Bahamas almost 85% of the population is of African descent and 15% Caucasian (1). A preliminary report lists cancer as the second leading cause of death for all Bahamas in 2001, 285 (16.3%) deaths. A review of deaths on Grand Bahama (4) recorded cancer as the leading specific cause for the ten-year period of 1993 to 2002 with 250 deaths. Also, the risk of developing a cancer may be partly dependent on life-styles and behavioural changes that accompany socio-economic development. The gross national income of the Bahamas at US$ per capita of 16 400 in 2000 was second only to that of the USA in the Americas and the overall life-style is English Caribbean but influenced by the proximity to the USA.
Since then the Grand Bahama institution developed the capability for tissue processing, examination and reporting in its laboratory, and is the only one offering this service on the island.
It is based on the opinion of the demographic officer in the medical records department that a person has not migrated to the island just for healthcare and that the information provided is acceptable for establishing Grand Bahama as the usual residence.
The majority, about 80% of these persons, are born-Bahamians but others, about 8%, include immigrants from other Caribbean countries, particularly Haiti, Turks and Caicos and Jamaica, and from elsewhere such as North America and Europe. In addition, for this paper, mortality data are included, not only from the above, but also on others who have died from cancer but whose diagnoses may have been made clinically, from post mortem examinations, or were made elsewhere. The objective of this study is to better define the epidemiological profile of cancer, in general, and for few specific sites on the island. Incidence, mortality and survival rates will be assessed and some comparisons made, particularly with the data for all Bahamas. The histology ledgers of the laboratory were reviewed from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 2002 and cancer diagnoses extracted.
All the available patient medical records of the hospital were then retrieved and more information obtained for this report. In the absence of clinical records, and particularly from the private out-patient sources, only the information provided on the request forms were used (Group A). The first co-author had been collecting basic mortality data from the medical records department of the hospital from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2002.
The clinical records of those with cancer as the underlying cause of death, other than those from group A, were further reviewed for this report (Group B). In addition, the death register of that department was scanned to obtain other cancer deaths from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992 (Group C). It should be understood that it is in the records department of the RMH that deaths occurring on the island are first processed for certification and then registration.


The mortality statistics for the 15-year period are derived from combining groups B and C with the deaths from group A. The incident numbers are obtained by combining all of group A with those persons of group B whose dates of diagnoses were known to be within the 15-year period.
The statistical method of analysis was by SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). This number included 61 keratinocytic skin cancers but not in-situ malignancies (which were seen in the cervix uteri, breast, ovary and skin). Approximate dates of diagnoses within the 15-year period were obtained for 68 (70.1%) males.
This implies that the other 65 (37 males, 28 females) for which the subsequent data apply, either had diagnoses of cancer prior to 1988 or that the diagnoses were not made in the local laboratory. Thus, in the 15 years, at least 545 (187 males, 358 females) cancers were diagnosed in the residents of Grand Bahama. To the end of 2002, persons in group A had a median survival of 3 years (range 0–14) years. In addition, from groups B and C, another 18 women had died from breast cancer at a median age of 58 years, 57 and 63 years respectively. Therefore, in the 15-year period, there were 68 deaths from cancer of the female breast. Approximately 16% had lived for 14 years, 26% for 10 years, 57% for 5 years (Fig 3) and 65.5% for three years. In addition to the 14 of group A, another 4 persons from groups B and C had died from cervical cancer at a median age of 63 years.
From groups B and C, another 44 men had died at a median age of 75, 76 and 70 years respectively, with the diagnoses made at an estimated median age of 74 (range 63–87) years for those from group B.
Twenty-two (56.4%) of these had died at a median age of 60 (range 37-88) years, all within four years of diagnosis. All persons diagnosed were living with cancer at a median of two (range 0–12) years. Approximately 44% were alive after three years, 23% after five years (Fig 3), 10% after ten years and 8% after twelve years. The median age at death for the additional 12 from groups B and C persons was 58 (range 31–69) years with a similar estimated median age at diagnosis.
Kitts and Nevis, males have higher rates than females as is also seen in Grand Bahama (6). Although average rates for the 15 years are used in comparisons, it should be appreciated that there was great annual variation both in total and by gender in the incident and mortality rates for Grand Bahama. Similarly, most cancers of lung, larynx, pancreas, gall bladder and bile ducts and oesophagus were otherwise diagnosed. We believe that most of these were diagnosed in Nassau and reflects the relative unavailability of services on GBI for what may be considered the more inaccessible anatomic sites, and would also partly explain the gender difference between cancers diagnosed locally and those abroad.
These were followed by cancers of epidermal basal cell, oral cavity, non-basal cell, skin, stomach, reticuloendothelial system, prostate, oesophagus and colon. Within that period, the crude cancer mortality of all Bahamas for 1977 was 68 per 100 000 accounting for 14.1% of deaths.
Then, and as also noted in this study, the incidence to mortality ratio was greater in women than men because of the larger numerator and perhaps also the better prognoses of the more frequent womenA’s cancers. Ganz (10) has also reported that breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, about one third of all incident cancers of women in the USA; but it was not the most common cause of mortality among women (which was cardiovascular disease).
In this study, breast cancer in Grand Bahama was also the most common incident cancer of women, about 47% of cancers, and although likewise not the most common cause of death, was responsible for just over 38% of deaths from cancer in females.
We can offer no explanation why deaths in groups B and C occurred at a later median age than in group A, even though diagnosed at an earlier age. One cannot state with certainty the effect of these modalities on cancer incidence but there is the apparent increasing and decreasing trends of breast and cervical cancers respectively since their introduction on Grand Bahama. A note of interest is that within this study period, 184 cases of intra-epithelial cervical neoplasias were histologically identified and that none was known to advance to cancer.
The statistics presented here cannot therefore be considered to represent the totality for the residents of Grand Bahama. Also, although the laboratory at the RMH is the only one on the island that offers histological services, many persons who enter the health system are referred elsewhere based on the clinical impressions, before full medical investigations partly because of the absence of experts or expertise on the island for the considered problem.
This applies particularly to paediatric tumours, tumours of the central nervous system and bones and haematological malignancies. A blood film examination may have suggested a haematological problem but such a record was not usually available in the laboratory ledgers. This however was started in 2000, and from then to the end of 2002, 8 leukaemias were diagnosed. This latter number was at least 26 for the last two years of this report, based on the obituaries in the newspapers.
A more major limitation of the incident data stems from the fact that persons not diagnosed in the local laboratory during the study period and who did not die would not have been captured in the incident numbers. Although there is a difference between the groups, using group A as an example where 33% of those diagnosed had died, then by extrapolation, the 214 deaths of groups B and C could have been from possibly 649 diagnoses.
Finally, it is hoped that the data provided in this study may serve as a template for future comparisons on cancer.
Profound gratefulness is extended to Mrs Hilda McDonald and Ms Kimberly Susie Parker for typing and retyping the manuscript and to Mr Arnold Davis for the use of his computer technology skills.



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