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admin 01.03.2016

Modern external beam radiotherapy to the prostate relies on intensity modulated technologies (IMRT), technology that can alter the “fluence” across the radiation field during treatment, thereby allowing the most exact deposition to the contours of an individual’s prostate (bespoke conformity), at the edge of which the dose gradient gives a sharp “fall-off” in dose. CT scanning is used to plan the treatment and daily CT verification scan (low dose scan) ensures accuracy of patient positioning.
Unlike most other IMRT techniques, Tomotherapy accuracy does not depend and does not require implanted fiducials into the prostate, giving it a real advantage over other IMRT techniques.
Axial CT scan through pelvis with an IMRT isodosimetric plan superimposed and the high dose regions dose-washed in turquoise and red.
There is no risk of incontinence following radiotherapy and two thirds of men maintain potency (but not fertility). Elderly patients and those with capsular breach (T3 disease) are usually advised to receive this therapy. Treatment options for colorectal cancer depend on multiple factors like type o cancer, the stage of cancer, side effects and preferences of the patient along with his overall health.
Surgery: Surgery is the process of removal of tumor and the tissue around that area with the help of an operation. There may also be patients in whom the liver or the lungs may also be involved and as a result these may also be subject to surgery. Radiation Therapy: In radiation therapy high energy x-rays are targeted towards the affected area. In some cases intraoperative radiation therapy where a high single dose of radiation is given at the time of surgery, brachytherapy where radioactive seeds are placed inside the body may prove useful in case of smaller tumors that could not be removed with surgery. Chemotherapy may cause a number of side effects like nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, a sore mouth, hair loss, fatigue and a tingling sensation in the hands and feet. Targeted Therapy: This type of therapy targets particular genes or proteins that may be responsible for growth on cancerous cells in the body.
Washington, May 22 : Mathematicians at South Dakota State University have built a mathematical model to strategize an innovative cure for cancer. Assistant professor Matt Biesecker from SDSU's Department of Mathematics and Statistics said the project has to do with Mayo Clinic Cancer Center physicians' plan to use a modified measles virus against some forms of cancer. Mayo researchers have used bioengineering techniques to make a modified measles virus that will preferentially infect cancer cells instead of the cells the virus would ordinarily target.


The SDSU role so far has been helping Mayo researchers adjust their working mathematical model to simulate treatment plans. The mathematical model could help researchers in the process of designing viruses to target cancer. Surprisingly, the model also predicts that it is less costly to treat larger tumors than small ones. In the next mathematical model, Biesecker said, SDSU scientists hope to simulate the behavior of individual cells, giving Mayo scientists greater insight into how viruses can be used against cancer. Where the rectum is intruding into the prostate volume, IMRT allows a concavity in the high dose volume to the prostate to minimise collateral damage to the rectum.
Tomotherapy has been used for all prostate radiotherapy treatments at the BUPA Cromwell Hospital for the last eight years. Note the ability of the IMRT technique to cause a concavity in the high dose region such that the rectum (pink) is spared from the high dose radiotherapy. The patient lies on the treatment couch, the position is verified by CT and then treatment delivered. Those with T3 disease, usually have anti-hormone therapy first (for 1-3 months) to shrink the tumour back inside the gland prior to radiotherapy and often continue the anti-hormone therapy after radiotherapy for two years.
In the case of colorectal cancer, a multidisciplinary team of doctors comprises of a gastroenterologist, a surgeon, physician oncologist and a radiation oncologist. Making treatment decisions becomes easy when one has knowledge of the various options available and complete information about the same. In this a surgical opening is made, the colon connected to the abdominal surface with the objective of providing an exit to the waste in the body. Radiofrequency waves may also be used to heat the tumors in these areas in order to treat them. The radiation oncologist decides on the number of sittings that a patient requires over a period of time. Chemotherapy may also be given at the same time as radiation therapy in order to increase efficacy of the treatment. Medicines are available to counter various side effects decreasing the level of discomfort a patient feels.


Before targeted therapy can be offered a patient would be required to undergo a series of tests in order to determine the nature of therapy to be given to a patient. That work can help Mayo scientists figure out timing of treatments, for example, and how large or small doses of virus affect the growth of tumors. For example, it could help them understand how likely a particular virus is to infect a tumor cell versus a normal cell, how quickly the virus would replicate within an infected cell, and how quickly an infected cancer cell would die.
External beam radiotherapy is also treatment of choice in the elderly, as it is the least invasive method of curing the cancer and has equivalent cure chance. The treatment is not “sensed” by the body and after the treatment is over (10 minutes)the patient departs hospital unaware of any therapy related effects. In this article we discuss some of the colorectal cancer treatment options that are available for patients diagnosed with bowel cancer.
Parts of the healthy colon, rectum and lymph nodes in the surrounding areas may also be required to be removed. It is best to discuss the side effects of chemotherapy with the care team and be prepared for it rather than be taken by surprise. The part where cancer is affected is treated with rays that are the affected part is burned so that the germ does not stay deep and does not do any sort of cell division and multiply its own existence. However, towards the end of the 7.5 weeks, urinary frequency and slowing occur and often some tiredness and increased call to stool. The surgery can be performed by both a general surgeon and a specialist surgeon (surgical oncologist) specializing in colorectal surgeries. Pharmacists are constantly into the research to invent new drugs which can be applied in the therapy and keep the patient alive for a longer time.
A specific number of cycles as decided by the oncologist are given after an interval of time and a patient may receive a single drug or a combination of drugs at one point of time.



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