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Oil may be the first thing that jumps to mind when you think of energy usage, but coal is actually what powers China’s economy. What is surprising is that the trend of rising energy consumption has only just begun, when you compare China’s energy use on a per capita basis to other industrialized nations. Please consider carefully a fund’s investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses.
Gold, precious metals, and precious minerals funds may be susceptible to adverse economic, political or regulatory developments due to concentrating in a single theme.
Foreign and emerging market investing involves special risks such as currency fluctuation and less public disclosure, as well as economic and political risk. The Emerging Europe Fund invests more than 25% of its investments in companies principally engaged in the oil & gas or banking industries.
Because the Global Resources Fund concentrates its investments in a specific industry, the fund may be subject to greater risks and fluctuations than a portfolio representing a broader range of industries. Stock markets can be volatile and share prices can fluctuate in response to sector-related and other risks as described in the fund prospectus. At present, it seems unlikely that much of China’s renewable energy stimulus spending will go to American or other foreign firms. Nonetheless, greater use of renewable energy reduces the strain on utilities to build more thermal or nuclear power plants and reduces carbon emissions.
Please remember that you can keep track of news about these high profile government visits, the continuing economic challenges, and the situation in Xinjiang via the daily news updates section of the US-China Today magazine website. The summit will discuss China’s new national and provincial renewable energy policy and potential business opportunities.
An intensive nine-day equivalent of our "East Asia and New Media in My Classroom" professional development seminar for K-12 teachers employed outside of the greater Los Angeles area. A Chinese-produced film tracing the intermingling of native Tibetan culture with the influence of the outside world. Various scholars and community leaders will examine China's relationship with the U.S and the world. Please invite others to subscribe to USCI’s free email newsletter for regular updates on events and programs. Join us on Friday, April 22 for a day-long discussion of where China is, where it might be heading, and why it matters for the Chinese, the United States, and the world. The demand for electricity continues to grow in China as surging economic growth creates a rising middle-class. Coal remains the major source of fuel for China’s electricity generation followed by hydro power. From an investment perspective, China’s growing demand for electricity presents investment opportunities in Western companies that supply the technology, equipment and natural resources to China. China's energy use has more than doubled over the last decade to overtake the United States as the word's biggest user, according to preliminary data from the International Energy Agency. As the data from the IEA shows, China has gone from using 1,107 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 2000, to 2,131 Mtoe in 2008 and is estimated to have consumed 2,265 Mtoe in 2009. Meanwhile, US energy consumption was only marginally higher in 2008 (at 2,281 Mtoe) than it was in 2000 (2,270 Mtoe), and will actually be shown to have fallen last year (to 2,169 Mtoe). Last month First Solar (FSLR) achieved a milestone in the solar industry with its announcement of $1 per Watt reducing its production cost for solar modules to 98 cents per watt, thereby braking the $1 per watt price barrier.. In addition, Barron’s published an article (March 30, 2009)_ Nightfall Comes to Solar Land providing unique insight into the economics of solar PV suppliers. However, the PV panels typically represent approximately half the cost of a solar energy system. As illustrated in Figure 1, the panels represent a significant cost of installation, but the labor and support brackets for the PV panels are significant as well. In Figure 2 Green Econometrics is comparing PV efficiency as measured by watts per square meter versus cost per watt. A comparison of wind and solar energy costs is demonstrated by Detronics and offers a useful framework to compare wind and solar costs by kilowatt-hour (KWH). The Alternative Energy Pricing chart was base on research from Solarbuzz which is one of the leading research firms in solar energy. The bottom line is that despite the lower PV panel costs; we are still not at parity with hydrocarbon fuels such as coal and oil.
As illustrated in Figure 1, the precipitous fall in oil demand over the last half of 2008 is quite dramatic in comparison to historical price data.
While falling demand and rising oil prices during the 70’s and 80’s is an anomaly, we see from Figure 2, that currently there is significant correlation between falling oil demand and a subsequent decline in the price of oil. Perhaps the precipitous fall in oil prices can explain why demand for oil on a global basis has not declined as dramatically as in the US. The bottom line is the financial shock that hit global markets is dramatically impacting consumption. To calculate KWH, multiply the wattage of your lighting fixture x the yearly hours of operation for your facility divided by 1,000. Furthermore, as part of the same research from the EIA, most commercial buildings are not using energy efficient lighting. After your energy audit is complete and one knows their energy intensity the next step is to understand the efficiency of lighting systems. While lumen output is important in measuring brightness, color temperature, measured in degrees Kelvin, indicates the hue color temperature of the light and is also important in evaluating lighting systems because lighting systems operating near 5500 degrees Kelvin simulate sunlight at noon.
There are some interesting perspectives on historical energy prices from several books including Security Analysis, 1940 edition by Benjamin Graham and David Dodd, The Great Wave, by David Hackett Fischer; and The Industrial Revolution in World History, by Peter Stearns. With the risk of oversimplification, our first figure shows there have been four distinct energy prices waves that have rippled through history. During the Medieval period in world history wood prices increased nearly threefold according to David Fischer in the The Great Wave. With advances in technology came improvements in coal mining and transportation that allowed coal to substitute for wood as an energy source. We can gleam from Figure 4 that coal prices peaked in 1810-to-1815 coinciding with the War of 1812 and the Napoleonic Wars.


Oil entered the picture with the drilling of the first oil well in northwestern Pennsylvania in 1859 and the Internal Combustion Engine in 1860 that facilitated the development of the oil industry. As oil emerged to become the dominant fuel of the 20th Century, it’s only recently that we face supply shortages. Figure 5 illustrates changes in the aggregate revenues of railroads in comparison to electric utilizes during the Great Depression.
To get an understanding of the impact that both structural and economic factors had in reducing the demand for oil is to look at oil import from 1978 to 1988. What’s missing from this analysis is the fact that during this period the US accounted for 27% of total world oil demand. The bottom line: don’t remain complacent, strive for energy efficiency and invest into alternative energies. It was the availability and access to coal that enabled the growth of Industrial Revolution by providing accessible energy. Oil, driven by rapid growth in automobile usage in the U.S, has replaced coal as the main energy fuel.
Figure 1 illustrates US historical oil imports, as measured by the Energy Information Administration in U.S. According to Solarbuzz, Germany leads the world in solar photovoltaic (PV) installations with 47% of the market while China increased its market share of PV production from 20% to 35%.
The bottom line is that the money spent on importing oil has a deleterious impact on our economy and continues our dependence on hydrocarbon fuels producing carbon and other harmful byproducts that negatively impact our climate and health of our children.
Using the latest data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA) , oil production remains significantly below historical levels achieved in ‘70’s and ‘80’s. Figure 1 illustrates US historical oil production, as measured by the Energy Information Administration in U.S. With the rancor of “drill baby drill’ heard as call to solve the energy crisis, energy technologies such as solar and wind energy solutions deserve greater emphasis. Energy storage enables the electric generated though solar photovoltaic devices or wind turbines to be used when it’s dark, cloudy, or calm. While hydrogen fuel cells offer future promise to our energy storage needs, battery technologies could provide some immediate results.
Lead acid: batteries are the oldest approach and are typically found under the hood of your car or truck. There are several issues in dealing with batteries such as environmental, economic, power, safety, and useful life. There are several issues with the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used in hybrid electric vehicles. One of the basic concepts in dealing with batteries is the measure of battery energy versus battery power. For home renewable energy projects such as solar or wind energy deployment, it is often recommended that a deep-cycle battery be used. Research conducted at Stanford University suggest the battery life of lithium-ion batteries could be extended through the use of Nano-technology.
As an example, back in the 1980’s, drilling activity in Alaska helped to ameliorate the oil crisis of the 1970’s. When we measure the supply and demand for oil, we find in the US, it is really a supply problem.
As energy and food prices set new world records, what can we do at home to avert the crisis?
Growing demand for oil and questions over Peak Oil suggesting even with oil prices rising to such an elevated level, production is rather anemic. According to the EIA The demand for oil in China is growing at an 8.1% CAGR over the last five years.
According to the American Wind Energy Association AWEA a turbine owner should have at least a 10 mph average wind speed and be paying at least 10 cents per Kilowatt-hour (KWH) for electricity. Cost wind systems will vary depending on model and installation costs will vary by your location. The economic value is expected to increase as costs decline and electric rates increase and we can expect significantly higher utility rates in the near future. Consumers should try to ameliorate the rising cost of energy by investing into solar and wind. The bottom line: energy and food prices are creating a crisis for consumers globally and there are several initiatives that could help minimize the pain. AP ImagesChina already accounts for 21 percent of global energy use driven by its industrial economy and fast growing middle class.
Despite the country's heavy investment in renewable energy, the sheer abundance of coal makes it the biggest source of energy for the country. But with per capita energy use still pretty low, China's energy consumption is expected to grow. This is the largest increase since 1973, which happened to be a memorable year in energy history. Although the country’s per capita consumption has begun climbing upward at a steeper pace around 2005, there is still a rather large gap to close before reaching developed world levels.
For this and other important information, obtain a fund prospectus by clicking here or by calling 1-800-US-FUNDS (1-800-873-8637).
The prices of gold, precious metals, and precious minerals are subject to substantial price fluctuations over short periods of time and may be affected by unpredicted international monetary and political policies. By investing in a specific geographic region, a regional fund’s returns and share price may be more volatile than those of a less concentrated portfolio. The risk of concentrating investments in this group of industries will make the fund more susceptible to risk in these industries than funds which do not concentrate their investments in an industry and may make the fund’s performance more volatile.
The Overall Morningstar Rating for a fund is derived from a weighted-average of the performance figures associated with its three-, five- and ten-year (if applicable) Morningstar Rating metrics. As always, the newsletter offers a comprehensive list of China-related events and exhibitions throughout North America.
The focus of the visit is promoting innovation in and use of cleaner and more efficient energy technologies.


Locke praised China for planning to invest 40% of its $586 billion economic stimulus in “green projects.” Many analysts dispute this figure, but in any event, Sec. Foreign news organizations say that ethnic tensions remain, but the Chinese press describes the situation in Xinjiang now as calm and yesterday highlighted the Urumqi opening of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince as evidence of a return to normalcy.
Rockefeller 3rd's exceptional collection of Asian art, as well as that of their adviser Sherman E. If you would like your event considered for inclusion in the USCI calendar, please click here to submit event details. With the largest population in the world, naturally the growing number of middle-class Chinese consume more energy. Wood prices rose with scarcity and peaked in 1320 as impact of the Bubonic Plague began to kill a quarter of Europe’s’ population. Illustrates the rapid rise in the demand for wood as the growing world populations benefited advances in science and agriculture from the Renaissance period. Crude Oil Field Production (Thousand Barrels per Day) that dates back to 1920 juxtaposed against U.S.
Nickel metal hydride batteries are heavy, bulky, require large storage space in the vehicle, and don’t offer great acceleration.
In addition, the erratic weather patterns around the world may be just a prelude to climate changes due to the impact of carbon dioxide on climate, which may cost us much more in the long run.
This is expected to increase further as popultion increases and countries become industrialised - particularly India, China and Far Eastern countries.
Asia Pacific consumption has grown by 62% in 13 years and is the global driver of increasing consumption. Note China's big increase in consumption sinec 2001 and it's slowdown in 1997 after the Asian financial crisis - China is the global "driver". There has been a huge increase in Nuclear power consumption from 1970 to 1990, but environmental concerns stifled the growth in the 1990s.
We drew on a Goldman Sachs report by Abby Joseph Cohen and Rachel Siu to create the ultimate guide to Chinese energy use and where it's headed. For current information regarding any of the funds mentioned in these presentations, please visit the appropriate fund performance page. South Korea, whose path many think China will follow, saw its per capita energy usage increase five-fold in less than two decades as the country industrialized.
Regardless, China will likely consume a record level of energy and commodities for the foreseeable future and this keeps us long-term bullish across the whole natural resources spectrum.
A portion of this income may be subject to state and local income taxes, and if applicable, may subject certain investors to the Alternative Minimum Tax as well. For current information regarding any of the funds mentioned in such materials, please visit the fund performance page. The United States and China are the world’s two largest consumers of energy and the world’s largest emitters of greenhouse gases.
Locke is hopeful that American firms will be able to attract some of that business and other “green business” going forward. The event is sponsored by the City of Los Angeles and the Jiangsu Provincial government and features presentations by top California and Jiangsu officials along with industry specialists. This is especially true with electricity since higher sales of consumer electronics, household appliances increases power demand. Wood is used for just about everything and prices climb as more land is used for agriculture leading to deforestation exacerbating the wood shortage. If global GDP averages 3%, energy consumption would normally increase by 60% of the GDP number - approximately 2% in this example.
Also notice that Russia has decreased after heavy industry closed after the collapse of the Soviet Union in late 1980s. The dip in 2004 was cuase by Japanese nuclear plant being shut down due to maintenance concerns - these have since been bought back online. France's production has also expanded significantly - they are now the second biggest producers in the world. The Near-Term Tax Free Fund may invest up to 20% of its assets in securities that pay taxable interest. For each fund with at least a three-year history, Morningstar calculates a Morningstar Rating? This website should not be considered a solicitation or offering of any investment product or service to investors residing outside the United States. SunTech, the world’s largest producer of solar panels, is a Jiangsu giant and will be represented at the summit. In addition to demand from consumers, China’s industrial sector also drives the demand for electricity higher. Europe has declined - driven by stable Western European consumption along with the decline of eastern European and Russia heavy industry. The USA has grown slightly, but less than trend GDP growth of some 3% per annum - this suggest conservation and less reliance of energy intensive industry. Income or fund distributions attributable to capital gains are usually subject to both state and federal income taxes. We need to conserve existing energy use and invest into energy technologies that foster the development of alternative energies, thereby, limiting our dependence on oil period.
India's consumption has doubled in the last ten year - and is expected to keep growing like China at high rates for the foreseeable future. The tax free funds may be exposed to risks related to a concentration of investments in a particular state or geographic area.
These investments present risks resulting from changes in economic conditions of the region or issuer.



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