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Home Grown Ponicsa„? Fish Food is a high quality extruded pellet that contains all natural ingredients that are highly digestible and contains 100% natural color enhancers. When setting up the submersible water pump, place pump inside of the tank and thread the flexible tube through the small circle in the back right-hand corner of the grow bed. Homoeopathy, the healing art, restores the sick to health, in a rapid, gentle and permanent way and is based on easily comprehensible principles.
Every article of food, which has some medicinal virtue, is capable of making variations in the original condition of the patient.. To see our content at its best we recommend upgrading if you wish to continue using IE or using another browser such as Firefox, Safari or Google Chrome.
This page forms part of our timeline of scientific research A» Radiotherapy is one of the cornerstones of cancer treatment; 40 per cent of people who are cured receive it and recent advances mean it can now be delivered with remarkable precision. Radiotherapy uses high energy x-rays that target human DNA: the very thing that goes wrong in the body when cancer develops.
These friends would be interested in this Share with these friends or you can search for other friends Know someone who would like this? Curcumin is the name of a chemical compound that is found in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa). Recently Western medicine and biomedical science has begun to study the possible biological and therapeutic activities of curcumin. In vitro (in a dish) assays performed on curcumin have shown that is a potent antioxidant.
The anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin have been demonstrated in animal models of inflammation as well. In patients, curcumin helped improve rheumatoid arthritis symptoms in a randomized, controlled trial.
On clinicaltrials.gov, the US database of clinical trials, there are 40 registered trials examining the effect of curcumin in various conditions. There has been great interest in the effect of curcumin on various neurological diseases, mainly those which would be considered neurodegenerative.5 A neurodegenerative disease is one in which nerve cells (neurons) die or the connections between them (synapses) are lost.
Part of the destruction that occurs in the brain during a neurodegenerative disease occurs because of abnormal protein aggregation (collection), inflammation, and destructive oxygen molecules and free radicals. Curcumin is an attractive choice for study in neurodegenerative diseases since it is known to block protein aggregation as well as act as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant.
While the laboratory, preclinical and limited clinical trial data on curcumin appear to be remarkably positive, there is an issue that is conceded by virtually all people that study this natural molecule.
Another problem with curcumin that is taken orally is that it runs into the blood-brain barrier. Because curcumin does not seem to reach blood and brain concentrations needed to cause the health benefits seen in lab studies, researchers at UCLA have developed a formulation of curcumin to help with absorption (other labs are working on similar processing in India8 and in Japan9). A commercially available preparation of curcumin that has been optimized and combined with a fatty carrier is called Longvida curcumin. In theory, though, any preparation of curcumin that can cause it to achieve high doses in the blood and brain is a significant improvement over natural curcumin.
As is mentioned by the UCLA group that helped develop Longvida curcumin, eating curcumin with a fatty meal would likely improve absorption of the molecule into the body. While there are at least 40 clinical trials (enrolling and completed) that examine the role of curcumin in various diseases (and the safety of the molecule in humans), there has not yet been a clinical trial looking at curcumin in Down syndrome.
Unfortunately, while the available information about curcumin as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotectant is promising (assuming blood and brain concentrations are high enough), the ability of these actions to influence Down syndrome is not as clear, based on current information. First, since it is an unfortunate consequence of Down syndrome that many of those afflicted eventually develop Alzheimer’s disease (and at an early age), any treatment for Alzheimer’s disease is of obvious importance in Down syndrome.
Second, a few small laboratory studies have shown that curcumin may improve memory and cognition and promote the growth of cells in the brain.
Your question about the fatty meal and the blood versus blood-brain barrier question is superb.
The Longvida approach is not really any better than the fatty meal approach except that the Longvida curcumin is definitely riding in fat whereas the fatty meal approach is slightly more random. Unfortunately it is always very difficult to determine what should and should not be used to treat Down syndrome. Another factor that has slowed the scientific study of curcumin is that there is no real ability to patent the molecule.
What can be said with confidence is that the potential health benefits of curcumin are extremely promising. At this point, though, it may be a bit premature to advocate the use of curcumin in the treatment of Down syndrome, based on the knowledge we have thus far.
Hi, if you want to contribute financially to say thank you or help us build this site up with even more content, just click the donation button below. Please note that due to increasing pressures and demands, that we are often unable to respond to individual emails. Guard Antimoss also has a preventive action: the active components fix themselves in the substrate and prevent the germination of parasitic vegetation. Guard Antimoss has residual effects that vary with location, and can last up to 2 to 3 years after application.
Guard Antimoss does not alter the surface's appearance and replaces common acid, chloride or alkaline-based detergents, all of which have negative effects on the substrate and the environment. We counted the number of mitotic cells in 10 high-power fields of the tumor area on hematoxylin and eosina€“stained slides representing 282 surgically resected HCCs. High mitotic index may be a novel predictor of DSS in patients with HCC and may have utility as an auxiliary prognostic factor in HCC. Surgically treated patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which represent a highly selected group, have higher survival rates compared to those of medically treated patients at a comparable stage [1]. High proliferation rate, a classic hallmark of cancer, is due to the self-sufficiency of growth signals, insensitivity to anti-growth signals, and limitless replicative potential [4]. In this study, we evaluated mitotic index as a possible prognostic marker in a large cohort of 282 patients with primary HCC who received long-term follow-up for 120 months. A total of 290 patients who were pathologically confirmed to have primary HCC and underwent curative resection at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between July 2000 and May 2006 were enrolled in this study.
Clinical parameters, including age, gender, date of surgery, serum I±-fetoprotein (AFP), and serum albumin, were obtained by reviewing the medical records.
During follow-up, serum AFP levels were monitored and three phase dynamic computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging was performed every 3 months after surgery.
Analysis of the association between mitotic index and clinicopathologic parameters was performed using the chi-square test, Fisher exact test, or Cochran Armitage test. The median patient age was 53 years (range, 17 to 76 years); 234 patients were males, and 48 were females. Associations between mitotic index and clinicopathologic parameters are summarized in Table 1. In univariate analysis, larger tumor size, Edmondson grade III, microvascular invasion, major portal vein invasion, intrahepatic metastasis, higher AJCC T-stage, higher BCLC stage, lower albumin level, and higher AFP level showed unfavorable influences on both RFS and DSS. Because AJCC T-stage and BCLC stage were associated with vascular invasion, to avoid potential bias we did not perform multiple analyses using these indices.
In the current study, we elucidated the prognostic significance of mitotic index in a large cohort of patients with primary HCC who received long-term follow-up. The most outstanding finding of this study is that subgroup analysis among patients with larger tumor size, microvascular invasion, intrahepatic metastasis, higher AJCC T-stage, and higher BLCL stage showed unfavorable influences of high mitotic index on DSS. Our data show, for the first time, that high mitotic index is an independent predictor of shorter DSS in surgically resected HCCs. Kaplan-Meier survival curves by log-rank test showing recurrence-free survival (A) and disease-specific survival (B) according to the mitotic index in 282 hepatocellular carcinomas. Kaplan-Meier survival curves by log-rank test showing disease-specific survival according to the mitotic index in subgroups by tumor size (A, B), microvascular invasion (C, D), intrahepatic metastasis (E, F), American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) T-stage (G, H), and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage (I, J).
Bend the flexible tube and nestle it into the "tube groove" to allow water to pour horizontally into the grow bed. Cancer is a disease where your DNA acquires errors – that might mean genetic duplication, reduction, mutations or chaotic reorganisation. Turmeric, and by extension curcumin, is a member of the ginger family and is indigenous to Southeast Asia.
This means that curcumin is able to scavenge and neutralize harmful reactive oxygen species and free radicals. There are ways to induce inflammation in laboratory animals—curcumin has been able to block this inflammatory response.
Another trial in patients with anterior uveitis (inflammation of the front part of the eye) showed that curcumin could improve visual acuity and other associated symptoms.
In cystic fibrosis proteins that normally allow chloride to pass across cell membranes are not normal.
Since neurons are not replenished at anywhere near the same degree as cells in other organs of the body (twenty years ago researchers believed they did not replenish at all), cells that have died cause various neurological deficits. Alzheimer’s disease is typified by the collection of amyloid proteins and neurofibrillary tangles.


It has the ability to promote the clearance of beta-amyloid protein in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease and may limit the toxicity of this protein on brain cells. Even at doses as high as eight grams (8,000 milligrams) the side effects of curcumin are mild.
The difficulty with curcumin is that when it is taken orally, the amount that is absorbed by the gut is fairly low, even when 10 or 12 grams of nearly pure curcumin is administered.6 This is troubling when you consider that in order for patients to enjoy the health benefits of curcumin, it needs to be present in the blood in sufficient quantities.
While the blood-brain barrier protects the brain from all sorts of harmful chemicals and infections, it also makes some drug treatments ineffective since they cannot penetrate to the place where they are needed.
While the process is patented and information on the product is limited, essentially curcumin is wrapped in fatty acids and other materials to make it more soluble and protect it from metabolism in the liver. When given to animals, Longvida curcumin achieved 11-fold higher concentrations in the plasma (blood) and 4-fold higher concentration in the brain compared to curcumin that was not optimized.7 Longvida curcumin is a product of Verdure Sciences of Noblesville, IN. In fact, it can be argued that unmodified curcumin may not be able to achieve many of the health benefits seen in in vitro (in a dish) studies if it is not modified in some way—the plasma and brain levels are just too low.
Whether it would improve curcumin’s ability to cross the blood-brain barrier is another matter. There is simply too little information currently available to make strong recommendations about the use of curcumin in Down syndrome at this time.
Since many of the changes that take place in Alzheimer’s disease take place earlier in patients with Down syndrome, taking a natural product that can delay or prevent that disease progression can sustain memory and cognitive function. It gets right to the heart of the issue and is something that was not appropriately addressed in the JPET paper. Curcumin is good for dad, too, so if you were trying to see the maximum amount of curcumin that can be dissolved in milk and still taste okay, you can give it a try. There are so few things that help in the disease and medical treatments have failed to produce results that they have in other disorders.
As a result, private investment in curcumin research is unenthusiastic since the financial reward for all of the research and development would be small (nevermind that it might help cure human disease). If even a few of its many functions turn out to be possible at concentrations that are attainable in the plasma, it will be a wonderful addition to medical science (which is somewhat laughable since it is an ancient therapy).
Once destroyed, and thanks to the tensioactive components, parasitic vegetation becomes easy to remove and is then washed away by rain or light brushing. High mitotic index showed significant association with younger age, larger tumor size, higher Edmondson grade, microvascular invasion, major portal vein invasion, intrahepatic metastasis, higher American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) T-stage, higher Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, higher alpha-fetoprotein level, hepatitis B virus etiology, and liver cirrhosis. However, long-term prognosis remains unsatisfactory because of the high incidence of tumor recurrence and metastasis after hepatectomy [2,3]. A variety of methods, including analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, bromodeoxyuridine, argyrophilic nuclear organized regions, Ki-67 nuclear antigen, and phosphorylated histone H3, are used in evaluation of proliferative activity [5-7].
We also attempted to determine the cutoff value for mitotic index that showed the most significant prognostic role in HCC patients. Eight patients who received preoperative treatments, including transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, and radiation therapy, were excluded; therefore, 282 patients were included in this study.
Using the X-tile package, mitotic index was graded as low (4 or less mitoses per 10 HPFs) or high (5 or more mitoses per 10 HPFs) (Fig. In multivariate analysis, intrahepatic metastasis and lower albumin level were found to be independent predictors of both shorter RFS and shorter DSS.
We attempted to establish a cutoff value for mitotic index that showed the most significant prognostic role in HCC patients. Counting mitotic cells is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive method which can be routinely performed in daily practice. Its chemical name is dipheruloylquinone (also known as diferuloylmethane) and is the main polyphenol in this dietary spice.1 Turmeric is best known as a spice common to Indian cuisine and as a main component of curry.
Curcumin is able to decrease the oxidation of LDL cholesterol (the so-called bad cholesterol).
Curcumin has shown positive results in animal models of pancreatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis. Studies in patients have been favorable in pancreatitis, arthritis, and various gastrointestinal disorders. Abnormal chloride channels in the organs lead to serious lung and gastrointestinal problems, among other deficits.
The neurological deficit caused by the neurodegenerative disease depends on the region of the brain that loses neurons. Parkinson’s disease causes collections of a protein called ?-synuclein and makes dopamine neurons susceptible to oxidative stress (and die). The standard molecule of curcumin has this blood-brain barrier problem.7 Not only is it poorly absorbed and has poor bioavailability, curcumin does not seem to cross the blood-brain barrier very well. Therefore it crosses the gut, survives breakdown by the liver and putatively crosses the blood-brain barrier more easily.
In fact, the paper by Begum (senior author Frautschy) is about a metabolite of curcumin called tetrahydrocurcumin.7 The information on Longvida curcumin is mentioned in the discussion and not cited from another study. Although in regions where curry and turmeric (and by extension curcumin) are eaten on a regular, daily basis, the rates of Alzheimer’s disease are lower than in non-curry eating countries. Parents and caregivers of people with Down syndrome have been reporting good and even dramatic results of curcumin in this disease. Some of these findings may help explain why people are seeing some benefit in loved ones with Down syndrome.
In truth, the fatty meal approach is best for helping absorption across the gut and raising plasma levels.
It may help with the taste and increases the chances that curcumin is dissolving into the fat.
It also seems that medical science moves frustratingly slow when it comes to studying new therapies and treatments.
Therefore research into the health benefits of curcumin is dependent of federal and non-profit research funding. Since it is there are no clinical trials in Down syndrome, one has to guess at a dose from those used in other diseases and hope for the best. Curcumin is likely to be safe, even at high doses and in kids, so the risk of side effects is small if you choose to use it. However, the practical utility of mitotic index as a predictor of prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been determined. Thus, identification of markers of poor prognosis is important in order to provide the opportunity for timely intervention. Curative resection was defined as complete resection of all tumor nodules with clear microscopic resection margins and no residual tumors on computed tomography scans performed 1 month after surgery. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was measured from the date of surgery until detection of tumor recurrence. After counting the mitoses in the hot spot, the count was extended to adjacent non-overlapping fields. Low mitotic index was defined as four or fewer mitoses per 10 HPFs, and high mitotic index as five or more.
Prospective studies are needed to further investigate the role of mitotic index as a prognostic factor in HCC. Prevention of recurrence after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma: a daunting challenge. Mitotic index is the best predictive factor for survival of patients with resected hepatocellular carcinoma. Apoptosis and proliferation in relation to histopathological variables and prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. The expression of HSP27 is associated with poor clinical outcome in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Histological grading and prognosis in breast cancer: a study of 1409 cases of which 359 have been followed for 15 years. Ovarian low-grade and high-grade serous carcinoma: pathogenesis, clinicopathologic and molecular biologic features, and diagnostic problems. Predictable factors for estimating prognosis of patients after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Fibrosis and inflammatory activity in noncancerous tissue and mitotic index of cancer tissue in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: relationship to clinicopathological factors and prognosis after hepatic resection. Characteristics of multicentric hepatocellular carcinomas: comparison with intrahepatic metastasis.
Risk factors contributing to early and late phase intrahepatic recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy. X-tile: a new bioinformatics tool for biomarker assessment and outcome-based cut-point optimization. In addition to its role in food flavoring and coloring, curcumin has been used in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years to treat many different and varied diseases such as upset stomach, urinary tract infection, and liver disease. Further, researchers are trying to identify compounds that can affect iNOS and TNF? as future anti-inflammatory drugs and related medications.


In a few clinical trials, curcumin appears to have a modest protective effect in certain cancers namely pancreatic, cervical, and esophageal.
Since neurons that die are lost more or less permanently, most scientists are looking for treatments that protect against neurodegeneration.
For example, curcumin was shown to increase fragmentation of DNA which would make it a potential mutagen (causing genetic mutation); however the dose at which this effect was seen may not have any relevance to human use. This would suggest that dietary curcumin, when prepared and consumed with fatty meals, helps brain absorption.
Therefore conclusions about curcumin are based on the successes that people have been kind enough to share with others and by extrapolating the results found in other, related diseases.
Certainly more anecdotal reports are needed regarding its effect in many diseases, including Down syndrome.
The cost of curcumin preparations vary, but for ones that have enhanced bioavailability, like Longvida curcumin, the cost can be as high as 60 cents per dose. It may require doses as high as two grams (2,000 milligrams) of curcumin per day or higher in order to see a benefit. In contrast, the mitotic index, which is a useful and simple method for analysis of cell proliferation, can be easily applied to routine clinical practice [5].
When the tumor was larger than 3 cm in size, at least four sections were taken for the pathologic examinations and the mean number of blocks was one for 1 cm of tumor diameter. Disease-specific survival (DSS) was defined as the interval between the date of surgery and the date of HCC-related death, which was defined as: (1) the tumor occupying more than 80% of the liver, (2) portal venous tumor thrombus proximal to the second bifurcation, (3) obstructive jaundice due to the tumor, (4) distant metastases, and (5) variceal hemorrhage with portal venous tumor thrombus proximal to the first bifurcation [18].
If no hot spot could be found and mitoses were sparse and randomly scattered throughout the lesion, a representative mitosis was chosen and the count began with that field and was extended to adjacent fields. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to assess the association between clinicopathologic factors and survival time. Larger tumor size and high mitotic index (p=0.004) were found to be independent predictors of shorter DSS.
High mitotic index showed correlation with larger tumor size, higher Edmondson grade, microvascular invasion, major portal invasion, intrahepatic metastasis, higher AJCC T-stage, higher BCLC stage, higher AFP level, hepatitis B virus etiology, and liver cirrhosis. They reported that longer survival periods were observed in some patients with larger tumors if the mitotic indices were low.
In addition, the free radical scavenging ability of curcumin may protect against neurodegenerative processes that affect the brain and the retina. A growing literature seems to indicate that the Indian spice derivative may be able to inhibit cancer cell growth, even at the stage at which a normal cell turns cancerous. First, the molecule must be absorbed by the intestine in order for it to enter the bloodstream.
Since people in India have a lower Alzheimer’s Dz rate, the argument is that curcumin must be getting into the brain somehow.
When you combine these two pieces of information, it is still difficult to make a strong statement. With medications like Longvida, which are curcumin wrapped in a microparticle with other materials, the actual milligram dosage is about five-fold different (i.e.
The prognostic role of mitotic index in patient survival has been confirmed in several cancers. According to the criteria of mitotic figures defined by Baak [19], mitotic cells were counted only if there was complete concordance between the two pathologists using a multi-head microscope. Significant prognostic factors identified by univariate analysis were entered into multivariate analysis.
By applying the Breslow test, which attributes greater weight to earlier events, patients with high mitotic index had shorter RFS (p=0.003). Patients with high mitotic index were more likely to suffer from disease-specific death compared to those with low mitotic index (hazard ratio, 1.818) (Table 3). In addition, patients with high mitotic index had shorter DSS and tended to have shorter RFS. Treatments are constantly being fine-tuned, making radiotherapy more effective than ever before. On the other hand, the molecule actually potentiated (improved) the effect of some cancer chemotherapy drugs, too.
While parents would spare no expense to improve the lives of their children, they want to spend their money on something they know will work.
Special preparations like Longvida curcumin are better for absorption and bioavailablity than regular curcumin supplements; however, the same effect may be possible by preparing and consuming curcumin with a fatty meal. We examined the proportional hazard assumption graphically to determine whether variables in the Cox proportional hazard model were constants that do not depend on time.
Multivariate analysis of RFS with mitotic index could not be performed, because the survival curves according to mitotic index were crossed and the proportional hazard assumption was violated. The mean time gap between recurrence and death in the high mitotic index group was significantly lower than in the low mitotic index group (30.5 months vs.
Safety studies of curcumin have been very favorable, especially compared to most prescription pharmaceuticals. Much of the curcumin that is taken orally may indeed pass in the feces (though this may be good news for esophageal and colon cancers).
The real way to get stuff across the BBB is to change the molecule itself (without reducing the biological activity). In addition, mitotic index has been incorporated in the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) seventh tumor staging system for malignant melanoma, gastrointestinal tumor, and neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract [10].
The X-Tile statistics package (Yale University, New Haven, CT) was used to determine the optimal cutoff value with the highest level of statistical significance related to patient survival [20]; cases were dichotomized into low and high mitotic index groups based on the established cutoff value. Seventeen of the 29 deaths were due to hepatic failure; eight were due to non-hepatic causes, and four were due to unknown causes. The curcumin that manages to be absorbed by the intestine is metabolized immediately by the liver, turning it into other related molecules like curcumin glucuronide and curcumin sulfate. Do not be too quick to attribute some change in behavior or performance to curcumin if you are not sure that the ability was not present before you started the drug. In HCCs, previous studies indicated a potential role of high mitotic index as an adverse prognostic indicator in cohorts of fewer than 200 patients [5,6,11,12]. Intrahepatic metastasis and multicentric occurrence were determined according to the criteria of the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan [14].
Treatment modality after recurrence did not differ statistically between low versus high mitotic index group (p=0.38) (Supplementary Table 1). They also reported a highly significant correlation between mitotic index and Ki-67 labelling index (r=0.870).
It is unclear whether these metabolites (a chemical that the body transforms a drug into) have any biological effect. Perhaps your doctor can provide you with a neuropsychological test that can be administered before treatment begins and after a certain period of treatment to see if there is an improvement.
However, the practical utility of mitotic index as a predictor of prognosis in patients with HCC has not been determined.
It is assumed that the high mitotic index group had poorer response to the salvage treatment after recurrence than the low mitotic index group. If curcumin does not work for you after a reasonable amount of time, stop using it and save your money for other supportive care or treatments. HCC recurrence within the first two years following surgery is mainly due to intrahepatic metastasis, whereas late recurrence usually results from multicentric occurrence [15]. Using 2 years as a cutoff, tumor recurrence was classified as either early recurrence or late recurrence [16]. They also found a significant association of high mitotic index with vascular invasion, poor histologic differentiation, and recurrence rate.
All patients were staged according to the AJCC staging system [10] and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging classification [17]. Interestingly, the criteria of mitotic index used in previous studies are the same as those applied in our study, which were determined statistically for the strongest prognostic effect. But from 2018, it will be offered to 1,500 cancer patients a year at hospitals in London and Manchester.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to show that high mitotic index is an independent predictor of shorter DSS. HCC recurrence within the first 2 years following surgery is mainly due to intrahepatic metastasis, whereas recurrence after 2 years following surgery usually results from multicentric occurrence of HCC [15]. It is assumed that the high mitotic index group did not show shorter RFS after 48 months following surgery, because recurrence after 48 months following surgery was mainly due to newly developed HCC.



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