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Qatar was the world’s fourth-largest dry natural gas producer in 2013 (behind the United States, Russia, and Iran), and it has been the world’s leading liquefied natural gas (LNG) exporter since 2006, with 31% of market share in 2014.2 Qatar is also at the forefront of gas-to-liquids (GTL) production, and the country is home to the world’s largest GTL facility. The state-owned Qatar Petroleum (QP) controls all aspects of Qatar’s upstream and downstream oil and natural gas sectors, including exploration, production, transport, storage, marketing, and sale of crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, liquefied natural gas, gas-to-liquids (GTL), refined products, and petrochemicals and fertilizers.
Qatar often focuses its natural gas development on integrated, large-scale projects linked to LNG exports or downstream industries that use natural gas as a feedstock. The Qatargas consortium includes QP, Total, ExxonMobil, Mitsui, Marubeni, ConocoPhillips, and Shell.
In the oil sector, while QP owns and operates the onshore Dukhan field and the offshore Maydan Mahzam and Bul Hanine fields, IOCs operate the remaining offshore fields via production sharing agreements (PSAs). In the wake of declining oil and natural gas prices, QP announced a restructuring program in June 2015 aimed at cutting costs and increasing efficiency.4 5 It is too soon to understand the long-term effects of the restructuring program, although the effects are expected to have a significant impact on how QP does business, both domestically and internationally in all energy sectors. Qatar’s crude oil production is the second lowest in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), but increasing production of noncrude liquids–most of which are a byproduct of natural gas production–is contributing to gradual growth in total liquids production. In 2012, Qatar’s noncrude liquids production surpassed its crude oil production for the first time in the country’s history.6 Recent growth in noncrude liquids is the result of the country’s robust natural gas production, which produces many heavier hydrocarbons in addition to natural gas. Oil exploration activity in Qatar is ongoing, although not to the degree seen in other oil-producing countries. Qatar’s noncrude liquids production has grown significantly over the past several years largely as a result of increased natural gas production in the country. Qatar was the third-smallest crude oil exporter among OPEC members in 2014, ahead of only Ecuador and Libya. Qatar does not import any crude oil and only occasionally imports petroleum products, because the country’s production and refining sectors more than meet domestic demand. In fact, because Qatar’s natural gas meets so much of Qatar’s energy demand, the country exports most of its crude oil and petroleum product production.
Qatar exports petroleum and petroleum products from three major export terminals: Umm Said (Mesaieed), Halul Island, and Ras Laffan. Qatar’s refining capacity exceeds domestic demand for petroleum products, thus enabling the country to export most of its refinery output.
There is currently a moratorium on new projects in Qatar’s North Field while operators continue to examine ways of sustaining high levels of output over the longer term. Qatar spent many years developing its natural gas resources–particularly in the North Field–and in 2013, Qatar was the second-largest dry natural gas producer in the Middle East and the fourth-largest producer in the world. Qatar’s natural gas production has increased its output of condensates and natural gas plant liquids, which are valuable byproducts of natural gas production. Nearly all of Qatar’s natural gas production comes from the North Field, which is part of the largest nonassociated natural gas field in the world. The $10.4 billion Barzan Gas Project should boost Qatar’s natural gas production from the North Field in the near term.
Although no one expects another discovery like the North Field in 1971, exploration in Qatar may still uncover commercially viable natural gas resources.
Faced with challenges resulting from declines in natural gas and crude oil prices, QP began restructuring in 2015 to better cope with the new environment and future challenges in oil and natural gas production.
Gas-to-liquidsQatar is a global leader in gas-to-liquids (GTL) technologies, and the country has two operational facilities.
Qatar’s Oryx GTL plant (QP 51%, Sasol-Chevron GTL 49%) came online in 2007, but because of initial problems, it was not fully operational until early 2009.
Qatar’s natural gas consumption continues to rise as the country’s overall energy demand rises along with its economy.
Historically, most of Qatar’s LNG exports were part of long-term, oil-indexed contracts, but over the past few years the country began to shift to more short-term contracts and spot-market sales. Qatar has more than 90% of its LNG production volumes committed as part of supply purchase arrangements (SPAs) between 2014 and 2021.27 LNG production growth elsewhere in the world over the next few years may challenge some of Qatar’s remaining spot volumes, although with most of its LNG already sold, the impact on Qatar’s natural gas exports should be limited in the near term. Rising electricity demand stemming from LNG expansions and economic growth has led to plans for significant growth in electricity generation capacity in Qatar. With one of the fastest growing economies in the world over the past few years, energy demand in Qatar has risen significantly, particularly electricity demand. To meet rising electricity demand, a result of LNG export expansions and economic growth, Qatar continues to invest in its electricity generation capacity.
SERVICOS E NEGOCIOS DE TELEVISAO EM AMBIENTE DE CONCORRENCIA MBA – SERVICOS DE TELECOMUNICACOES U NIVERSIDADE F EDERAL F LUMINENSE.
CONVERGENCIA T ECNOLOGICA Definicao ? CONVERGENCIA TECNOLOGICA E UM TERMO UTILIZADO PARA DESIGNAR A TENDENCIA DE UTILIZACAO DE UMA UNICA INFRA-ESTRUTURA DE TECNOLOGIA PARA PROVER SERVICOS QUE, ANTERIORMENTE, REQUERIAM EQUIPAMENTOS, CANAIS DE COMUNICACAO, PROTOCOLOS E PADROES INDEPENDENTES. CONVERGENCIA Definicoes ? O PRINCIPAL INTUITO DA CONVERGENCIA TECNOLOGICA E FORNECER AO USUARIO ACESSO A SUAS INFORMACOES E APLICACOES EM QUALQUER LUGAR, DE QUALQUER REDE, POR QUALQUER CANAL DE COMUNICACAO, ATRAVES DE UMA INTERFACE HOMEM MAQUINA COERENTE (UNICA), COM QUALIDADE ADEQUADA E DE FORMA TRANSPARENTE, OU SEJA, TUDO QUE A SOCIEDADE DE INFORMACAO ATUAL NECESSITA. CONVERGENCIA Definicoes ? QUALQUER APLICACAO DE TECNOLOGIA DE INFORMACAO E COMUNICACAO QUE SE POSSA IMAGINAR, COMO POR EXEMPLO: TV DIGITAL, INTERNET MOVEL, VIDEO CONFERENCIA, TELEFONIA FIXA OU MOVEL, DIFUSAO INTERATIVA DE CONTEUDO, ETC, OU SEJA, TECNOLOGIAS QUE ENVOLVAM SETORES DE TELECOMUNICACOES, MEIOS DE COMUNICACAO E TECNOLOGIA DE INFORMACAO CONSTITUEM ELEMENTOS QUE SUPORTAM A CONVERGENCIA TECNOLOGICA.


CONVERGENCIA Definicoes ? CONVERGENCIA DE REDES: UMA MESMA REDE SUPORTA SERVICOS DISTINTOS. TV A NALOGICA Definicao ? E A MANEIRA COMO SAO CHAMADOS OS CANAIS DE TV GRATUITOS DISPONIBILIZADOS AO PUBLICO EM GERAL. TV ABERTA ANALOGICA Producao ? NA FASE DE PRODUCAO DO CONTEUDO OCORRE A TRANSFORMACAO DE UMA IDEIA EM UM PRODUTO AUDIOVISUAL A SER TRATADO PELO PROXIMO COMPONENTE DA CADEIA DE VALOR. TV ABERTA ANALOGICA Programacao ? A FASE DE PROGRAMACAO DEFINE UM DOS PAPEIS DE MAIOR DESTAQUE NA CADEIA DE VALOR, O DA PROGRAMADORA DE TELEVISAO.
TV ABERTA ANALOGICA Distribuicao, Entrega e Consumo ? A PROXIMA FASE ABRANGE AS ETAPAS DE DISTRIBUICAO DA PROGRAMACAO ENTRE AS RADIODIFUSORAS QUE INTEGRAM A MESMA REDE E A RADIODIFUSAO DOS CONTEUDOS PARA O CONSUMO DOS USUARIOS, SENDO QUE A FRUICAO DO CONTEUDO PODE SE DAR NO MESMO MOMENTO DA RECEPCAO OU POSTERIORMENTE, EM FUNCAO DA POSSIBILIDADE DO USUARIO ARMAZENAR ESSE CONTEUDO. TV ABERTA ANALOGICA Etapas e Papeis na Cadeia de Valor PAPAPAPA CRIACAO PRODUCAO PROCESSAMEN TO ARMAZENA MENTO ORGANIZACAO DISTRIBUICAOENTREGARECEPCAOFRUICAO Programadora Usuarios ESTUDIOS SERVIDORES DE CONTEUDO TRANSMISSAORECEPCAO (TV) Produtora de Conteudo PRODUCAO DE CONTEUDO Prestadora Telecom Repetidora Geradora Geradora Local Retrans- missora Distribuidora Radiodifusora PROGRAMACAOCONSUMODISTR.
TV ABERTA ANALOGICA Comentarios ? OBSERVA-SE QUE A CADEIA DE VALOR DO MERCADO DE TELEVISAO ABERTA NO BRASIL E BASTANTE VERTICALIZADA, OU SEJA, OS PARTICIPANTES QUE FORMAM AS REDES DE TELEVISAO CONCENTRAM VARIOS DOS PAPEIS DA CADEIA DENTRO DE SUAS ORGANIZACOES, PARTICIPANDO DAS VARIAS ETAPAS. TV ABERTA ANALOGICA Comentarios ? A DISTRIBUICAO PODE SER REALIZADA PELA REDE DE TELEVISAO, POR MEIO DE REPETIDORAS OU DE UMA PRESTADORA DE SERVICOS DE TELECOMUNICACOES (PARA TRANSMISSOES VIA SATELITE, CABO OTICO OU METALICO, OU AINDA VIA RADIO-ENLACE). TV ABERTA ANALOGICA Receita Publicitaria ? AINDA NA FASE DE GERACAO DE CONTEUDO, EXISTE A PRODUCAO DE COMERCIAIS DE TELEVISAO, NORMALMENTE REALIZADA PELAS AGENCIAS DE PUBLICIDADE, EM FUNCAO DE DEMANDAS DOS ANUNCIANTES POR PLANOS DE COMUNICACAO. The graphs and charts below feature statistics on Massachusetts electricitygeneration and consumption. For Massachusetts,looking at past consumption trends is one good indicator for projecting growthrates into the future. Source:Energy consumption by state is taken from the DOE Energy Information Administration State Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates (SEDS database). The portion of electricity consumed in the major energy consuming sectors can provide energy analysts an indication about where the greatest potential for savings lies. The fuel mix used by electric power companies to generate electricity points to the relative carbon intensity in the state electric power sector.
The graphs and charts below feature statistics on Utah electricitygeneration and consumption. For Utah,looking at past consumption trends is one good indicator for projecting growthrates into the future.
The growth in Qatar’s natural gas production, particularly since 2000, has also increased Qatar’s total liquids production, as lease condensates, natural gas plant liquids, and other petroleum liquids are a significant (and valuable) byproduct of natural gas production. Although Qatar is a member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), the country is the second-smallest crude oil producer among the 12-member group. These projects tend to include investment from international oil companies (IOCs) with the technology and expertise in integrated megaprojects, including ExxonMobil, Shell, and Total.
To increase production and reserves and to mitigate natural gas-related capital expenditures, QP offered more favorable terms for PSAs in recent years. With high levels of natural gas production expected to continue, Qatar’s noncrude liquids supply is also likely to remain high. The latest major discovery in Qatar came in 1994 (the Al Rayyan field), and any supply growth in the near term is likely to come from increased output at Qatar’s existing fields, particularly through the use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques.
QP’s offshore pipeline network brings crude oil from offshore oil fields to Halul Island where oil can be processed for export. The Qatar Land and Qatar Marine blends are both lighter crudes, while the Al Shaheen is slightly heavier. Qatar remains the world’s largest exporter of liquefied natural gas (LNG) although production has plateaued in recent years. The moratorium, initially scheduled to end in 2008, will run through at least 2015 after several extensions. With its relatively low domestic energy demand, Qatar is able to export nearly all of its natural gas production. Most of Qatar’s production comes from the North Field, although some smaller fields contribute production volumes as well. The project consists of both onshore and offshore developments, including offshore platforms, pipelines, and a natural gas processing unit. GTL technology uses a refining process to turn dry natural gas into liquid fuels, such as low-sulfur diesel and naphtha, among other products.
After initiating the second phase of development, Pearl GTL achieved full capacity in October 2012.
Natural gas consumption has grown quickly over the past several years, nearly tripling between 2003 and 2013. All of Qatar’s current generating capacity is natural gas-fired, although there have been some discussions on potential solar power projects over the past several years. Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects, analyzes, and disseminates independent and impartial energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.


You can compare these graphs for Massachusetts with whichever states you choose using the maps below. You can compare these graphs for Utah with whichever states you choose using the maps below. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that Qatar earned $38 billion from net oil exports in 2014. Natural gas meets most of Qatar’s domestic energy demand, so the country is able to export most of its liquid fuels production.
The Qatargas Operating Company Limited (Qatargas), which operates four major LNG ventures (Qatargas I-IV), and Ras Laffan Company Limited (RasGas), which operates three major LNG ventures (RasGas I-III), lead Qatar’s LNG sector. The two LNG companies handle all upstream to downstream natural gas transportation themselves, while the Qatar Gas Transport Company (known as Nakilat) is responsible for shipping Qatar’s LNG. Qatar’s electricity sector has several important entities, including the Qatar Electricity & Water Company (QEWC), which owns and manages the country’s electric and desalinization plants.
Qatar’s crude oil and lease condensate production ranks 17th in the world, with most of the country’s production sent abroad as exports.
Meanwhile, production of crude oil has declined in recent years as mature oil fields experienced natural decline. Operators have used EOR techniques in several fields, including Al-Shaheen, Dukhan, Bu Hanine, and Maydan Marjam.
The Qatar Marine and Al Shaheen streams have high sulfur content, while the Qatar Land’s sulfur content is slightly lower.
The combined output is more than enough to meet Qatar’s domestic demand.12 That surplus output enables Qatar to export refined products, and both refineries are near major oil export terminals, one at Umm Said and the other at Ras Laffan.
As such, Qatar has been the world’s leading exporter of LNG since 2006, and is a member of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF). Qatar is one of only three countries–with South Africa and Malaysia being the others–to have operational GTL facilities, although pilot projects in a number of other countries are underway.
This growth rate tracks closely with overall natural gas production, which more than quadrupled over the same period. O RESULTADO E A INTEGRACAO DE VIDEO, DADOS, VOZ, IMAGEM DE FORMA UNICA E TRANSPARENTE AO USUARIO. DENTRO DE CADA UMA DESSAS ETAPAS, E POSSIVEL RELACIONAR DIVERSOS PAPEIS, COMO POR EXEMPLO, ROTEIRISTAS, DIRETORES E ARTISTAS.
NA ORGANIZACAO OCORRE A INSERCAO DOS COMERCIAIS, PRINCIPAL FONTE DE RECEITAS DAS REDES DE TELEVISAO ABERTAS COMERCIAIS. However, India is not well endowed with conventional energy resources like oil gas or uranium.Coal is abundant but regionally concentrated and of low calorie and high ash content, it said.
Given its small population, Qatar’s energy needs are met almost entirely by domestic sources. The Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation owns and operates the country’s electricity and water distribution networks. Qatar’s oil production comes from just a few fields, led by Al Shaheen, Dukhan, and Idd al-Shargi, which combined account for more than 85% of the country’s crude oil production capacity. Qatar is participating in the Gulf Cooperation Council’s efforts to link the power grids of member countries. PROFESSOR E COORDENADOR DO CURSO DE GRADUACAO DE ENGENHARIA DE TELECOMUNICACOES DA UFF COM POS-GRADUACAO EM FORMACAO HOLISTICA DE BASE PELA UNIPAZ. The electricity and water (desalinization) sectors account for most of the natural gas consumption in Qatar.
COORDENADOR DOS CURSOS DE POS-GRADUACAO LATO SENSU DA UFF, MBA – SERVICOS DE TELECOMUNICACOES, ESPECIALIZACAO EM COMUNICACOES MOVEIS E MBA EM TV DIGITAL, RADIODIFUSAO & NOVAS MIDIAS DE COMUNICACAO ELETRONICA. Among renewable energy sources,bio-energy or biomass based power generation was a huge area of exploration, as there was a huge amount of biomass potential in India. Theyalso predict electricity consumption will grow over this same period at a rate of 0.8% per year. Among biomass resources, the tree-based Dendro power generation is far superior due to high Gross Calorific Value and high combustibility, it said. In Tamil Nadu alone there are 13-15 biomass power plants, with an installed capacity of 120 to 160 MW, as against the potential of 480 MW.
Biomass power generation plants face severe constraints as the power is found to be costliest of all renewable energy due to non-availability of quality raw material, lack of site specific tree cultivation models, unorganised supply chain and lack of cooperation among stake holders, the release said. The workshop will discuss and deliberate various aspects and generate viable ideas to salvage biomass power generation, the release added.



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