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India was the fourth-largest consumer and fourth-largest net importer of crude oil and petroleum products in the world in 2013, after the United States, China, and Japan.
The high degree of dependence on imported crude oil has led Indian energy companies to diversify their supply sources.
India’s upstream petroleum liquids industry is still mainly owned by state-owned firms, although the sector is open for competition and attracts some level of private and foreign investment. Competition in the oil sector is now relatively open, particularly when it comes to the upstream market.
Indian and foreign companies are investing in more frontier developments and marginal fields to help offset production declines from mature basins.
India’s relatively small land-based resource endowment means companies require more upstream technical expertise to tap into offshore reserves, especially in technically challenging deepwater reserves. The government has encouraged companies to acquire overseas upstream assets as a way to shield the domestic energy sector from global price volatility. India has increased its total net oil imports from 42 percent of demand in 1990 to an estimated 71 percent of demand in 2012. The Indian Ocean historically has been a major transit route, bringing crude oil from suppliers in the Persian Gulf and Africa to markets in Asia. Supply disruptions in several countries, including Iran, Libya, Sudan, and Nigeria, in tandem with India’s growing dependence on imported crude oil, have compelled India to diversify its crude oil import slate. In 2005, the Indian Government decided to set up strategic storage of 37 million barrels of crude oil at three locations (Visakhapatnam, Mangalore, and Padur). ConceptGrasp what sustainable sanitation and water management actually means and how the water and the nutrient cycle are linked.
The UK has experienced significant changes in consumption of energy in the last three decades (Figure 9). Variable Speed Drives: Is it a viable energy saving solution for commercial and industrial users?
This blogpost will obviously not attempt to answer these questions fully, rather, it will take an example – heating in the domestic sector – in order to explain why more effort should be undertaken on reducing the energy consumption of existing buildings than that of new ones. While much popular attention is devoted to the reduction of emissions in electricity production – whether through wind turbines, solar panels, nuclear power stations or carbon capture and storage – this overlooks two very important aspects of the energy landscape: heat, and energy efficiency. Energy efficiency represents the most viable means of reducing carbon emissions, because of the lower greenhouse gas abatement costs involved; studies by both the International Energy Agency and McKinsey, have shown this. The pie chart below shows the latest available final energy consumption data for the UK, per sector. There are currently some 26 million dwellings in the UK, using an average of between 18,000 and 20,000kWh per year for heating, depending on the severity of the winter [1], [2], [3]. What this means in terms of the age of houses currently built is depicted in the graph below. In short, this all serves to highlight an important cultural aspect in the UK housing market: despite significant construction in the first 40 post-war years,  older properties seem to be valued above newer properties, explaining the combined phenomena of high proportion of retained pre-war properties in the housing stock and a lack of recent construction. In energy terms, however, this is not positive; older properties are typically very poor in terms of energy efficiency, and therefore require more energy (especially for heating). One study [6] calculates that there is a global potential to cost-effectively reduce emissions in the residential and commercial sectors by approximately 29% of the projected baseline emissions by 2020. So, this all indicates that while retrofit insulation measures are important and feasible up to a certain point, it is uneconomical or technically challenging to bring existing dwellings’ thermal performance to a standard similar to that of new build. Given that even these insulated existing dwellings will still have a greater heat demand than new build, the economic, energy and carbon performance of any potential future heating device is of relatively greater importance to the existing housing stock.
Hopefully, I have managed to convince you of the importance of retrofit to reducing emissions in the UK residential sector. This entry was posted in Energy efficiency, Greenhouse gas targets and tagged climate change, domestic, efficiency, energy, heating, housing, retrofit, targets.
To this end, Indian national oil companies (NOCs) have purchased equity stakes in overseas oil and gas fields in South America, Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Caspian Sea region to acquire reserves and production capability.

On one hand, two state-owned companies, the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) and Oil India Limited (OIL), control the majority of production and refining activity in India. In recent years, major discoveries in the Barmer basin in Rajasthan and the offshore Krishna-Godavari basin by smaller companies such as Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation and Andhra Pradesh Gas Infrastructure Corporation hold some potential to diversify the country’s production.
India’s demand for crude oil and petroleum products is projected to continue rising, barring a serious global economic recession. Tanker sea lanes pass near Indian waters between major chokepoints such as the Strait of Malacca and the Strait of Hormuz. Saudi Arabia is India’s largest oil supplier, with a 20 percent share of crude oil imports. The Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Limited (ISPRL), a special purpose legal entity owned by the Oil Industry Development Board, would manage the proposed facilities, which are expected to be completed by 2015.
To assure the strategies, optimise water and minimise costs, it is important to assess current water use and set goals. Source: UNEP (2002)Adapted from GROBICKI (2008)There is incredible competition between the water needs of agriculture, industry, and the growing number of people in our world, and there are severe and increasing freshwater shortages in many areas.
We will therefore first look at some energy consumption statistics, then compare a few studies, in the hope of convincing you that retrofit technologies are far more important than efficient new build, when it comes to meeting carbon emissions reduction targets. Heat, meanwhile, is the single largest use of energy in developed (OECD) countries, claiming 37% of total energy consumption, as shown on the pie chart above. The domestic sector, which represents just under a third of total UK energy consumption, uses 84% of its energy to provide heat, of which the vast majority is for space or hot water heating.
This shows, for England, the proportion of houses that were constructed in a specific period (blue line), and a cumulative curve showing the total percentage of homes built during or before a specific period (red line).
For example, they are more likely to have uninsulated cavity or solid walls and single glazing (never mind draughts and leaking roofs!). Moreover, for only a few percent of the total cost of residential buildings, thermal envelope (the part of the building shell responsible for insulation) improvements can reduce heating requirements by a factor of two to four [6]. And because there will be many more old, inefficient dwellings than new ones, even by 2050, the opposite is true as well: the existing housing stock should be of greater importance to future heating technologies. Modelling the UK residential energy sector under long-term decarbonisation scenarios:  Comparison between energy systems and sectoral modelling approaches. However, the majority of imports continue to come from the Middle East, where Indian companies have little direct access to investment. Most reserves are found in the western part of India, particularly the Western offshore area near Gujarat and Rajasthan. Oil import dependence will continue to climb if India fails to achieve production growth equal to demand growth. The majority of Indian oil ports are located on the country’s western side to receive shipments of crude oil that passes through these routes. In total, approximately 62 percent of India’s imported crude oil came from Middle East countries. The government unveiled plans to add another 91 million barrels to the state’s crude oil capacity to protect India from supply disruptions by 2017. It is this UK domestic sector, which predominantly uses energy for heat purposes, which we will use as an example to explain why the retrofit market is so important. A review of 5 different residential sector energy models [4] suggests that between 85% and 97% of the dwellings already built in 2006 will remain in 2050. Using this curve as representative of the whole UK, we can see how 84% of UK dwellings were built before 1985, of which 24% were built in the 20 year period between 1965 and 1984, and the remaining 60% are at least a half-century old (give or take). This leads to the following obvious fact: these properties are shown to be too difficult and expensive to retrofit to new build standards.
Nevertheless, two building energy models calculate that even in 2050, existing houses will have a combined space and water heating demand that is more than twice as large as that for new houses [4], with space heating energy use only reducing by 40% [5]. So, heating systems such as heat pumps, biomass boilers or combined heat and power systems have to be specifically designed for the technical challenge that retrofit properties pose.

The Assam-Arakan basin in the northeastern part of the country is also an important oil-producing region and contains more than 23 percent of the country’s reserves and 12 percent of the production.
Also, ONGC, OIL, and RIL have taken stakes in gas plays in Mozambique, shale gas assets in the United States and Canada, and oil and gas assets in Myanmar, and the companies are actively pursuing other overseas upstream deals. The second-biggest source of imports is the Western Hemisphere (19 percent), with the majority of that crude oil coming from Venezuela.
Also, Indian refiners are trying to reduce crude oil import costs by purchasing less expensive crude oil. The country anticipates having crude oil stocks to cover 90 days of the country’s oil demand by 2020. B Lab is a non-profit organisation, which certifies 'B Corporations' the same way TransFair certifies Fair Trade coffee. What’s more, by considering the amount of new build that is expected to occur between 2006 and 2050, these studies predict that between 66% and 74% of the 2050 housing stock has already been built by 2006.
Similarly, it shows how some 40% of UK dwellings were built before the end of the Second World War and that there has been limited recent construction; only 15% of dwellings were built in the last 25 years. While retrofit is often considered cost-effective low-hanging fruit, its hassle factor is high (i.e. In 2011, several government agencies agreed to establish a sovereign wealth fund that could also aid in financing overseas energy acquisitions.
Prices of Middle Eastern crude oil grades in the past year have been high relative to prices of oil from the Western Hemisphere, prompting Indian companies to import more crude oil from Latin America, primarily from Venezuela, Colombia, and Mexico.
The B Corp impact assessment addresses social and environmental impact and is free and open to all.
This factsheet provides an overview of how to save and use water more efficiently in industries. After agriculture, the two major users of water for development are industry and energy (20% of total water withdrawals), which are transforming the patterns of water use in emerging market economies.
If your industry is looking for assistance, support or recognition for going green B Labs is a great group to partner with. Large-scale deployment will therefore require business models that can get around or deal with this issue, as well as residents who are open to the idea and understand that they stand to gain in both comfort and financial terms! As industrialisation in developing nations increases, industrial water use could potentially increase by a factor of five.Why Is It Important to Optimise Water Use in Industries?Optimisation of water use by industries is important because it can lower water withdrawals from local water sources thus increasing water availability and improving community relations, increasing productivity per water input, lowering wastewater discharges and their pollutant load, reducing thermal energy consumption and, potentially, processing cost. Most industries generate pollutants as by-products of their producing activities, the major pollutants being nutrients, pathogens, heavy metals, organic and inorganic chemicals, oil sediments and heat (see also water pollution and pathogens and contaminants). Heat as a thermal pollutant occurs if the water discharges of the industry change the ambient temperature of the water body. Training programmes can be evaluated to determine effectiveness and continually improve the protocol. Several for-profit companies and universities are designing competitions and feedback mechanisms to make users aware of water and energy use in real time (see also MELTON 2012).Educate Employees and Set Up a Water Conservation ProgrammeAdapted from CONSERVE WATER GEORGIA (2009)Build understanding among employees and co-workers about the importance of water conservation. Use the information gathered through the assessment process to develop water reduction goals.
To achieve significant water savings, a greywater treatment system can treat process water to allow internal reuse. Not all products have such labelling and it is best to compare expected water use with current water use of existing equipment.

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