Energy costs of extracting metals by reduction,energy saving lamp working principle,low energy levels winter youtube - Good Point

admin 18.03.2016

In order to understand what solutions to our energy predicament will or won’t work, it is necessary to understand the true nature of our energy predicament.
The point that most analysts miss is that our energy problem behaves very much like a near-term financial problem.
In theory, we would expect extraction costs to rise as we approach limits of the amount to be extracted.
To make matters worse, the rapidly rising need for investment capital arises is other industries as well as fossil fuels. There is a huge increase in the amount of waste products that must be extracted and disposed of, as we move to lower grade ores (Figure 3). When we look at the inflation adjusted cost of base metals (Figure 4 below), we see that the index was generally falling for a long period between the 1960s and the 1990s, as productivity improvements were greater than falling ore quality. Since 2002, the index is higher, as we might expect if we are starting to reach limits with respect to some of the metals in the index.
There are many other situations where we are fighting a losing battle with nature, and as a result need to make larger resource investments. Some people say that the issue is one of falling Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI), and indeed, falling EROI is part of the problem. In the previous section, we talked about the rising need for investment capital, just to maintain the status quo. Because of the lack of short term substitutability, the need for oil for reinvestment tends to crowd out the possibility of growth. For oil importers, oil is a very high cost product, raising the average cost of energy products. If we look at a number of oil importing countries, we see that economic growth tends to be much slower in countries that use very much oil in their energy mix. It is striking when looking at countries arrayed by the proportion of oil in their energy mix, the extent to which high oil use, and thus high cost energy use, is associated with slow economic growth (Figure 5, 6, and 7).
Globalization no doubt acted to accelerate this shift toward countries that used little oil. Governments have recently attempt to fix both their own financial problems and the problems of their citizens by lowering interest rates to very low levels and by using Quantitative Easing. Globalization added approximately 4 billion consumers to the world market place in the 1997 to 2001 time period. We have two problems that tend to converge: financial problems that countries are now hiding, and ever rising need for resources in a wide range of areas that are reaching limits (oil, metals, over-fishing, deferred maintenance on pipelines). On the financial side, we have countries trying to hang together despite a serious mismatch between revenue and expenses, using Quantitative Easing and ultra-low interest rates. Even if debt does not dry up, oil companies are already being squeezed for investment funds, and are considering cutting back on drilling. Meanwhile, we know that investment costs keep rising, in many different industries simultaneously, because we are reaching the limits of a finite world. The physical amount of oil needed for all of this investment keeps rising, but oil production continues on its relatively flat plateau, or may even begins to drop.
With falling oil production, promised government programs will be far in excess of what governments can afford, because governments are basically funded out of the surpluses of a fossil fuel economy–the difference between the cost of extraction and the value of these fossil fuels to society. While it is clear that oil production will drop, with all of the disruption and a lack of operating financial markets, I expect natural gas and coal production will drop as well.
A rough estimate of the amounts by which energy supply will drop is given in Figure 9, below. One big issue will be the need to reorganize governments in a new, much less expensive  way. We will also need to begin manufacturing goods locally, at a time when debt financing no longer works very well, and governments are no longer maintaining roads. Electricity is likely to decline in availability almost as quickly as oil because of inability to keep up the electrical grid and other disruptions (such as failing governments, lack of oil to lubricate machinery, lack of replacement parts, bankruptcy of companies involved with the production of electricity) so is not really a long-term solution to oil limits.
Costs for extracting shale oil outside the US for shale oil are likely to be even higher than in the US.
On the other hand, if carbon taxes are levied on businesses, the taxes tend to encourage businesses to move their production to other, lower-cost countries.
Regardless of EROI indications, it is important to consider the likely financial outcome as well. Select your preferred way to display the comments and click "Save settings" to activate your changes.
With falling oil production, promised government programs will be far in excess of what governments can afford, because governments are basically funded out of the surpluses of a fossil fuel economy–the difference between the cost of extraction and the value of these fossil fuels to society. Whoa whoa wait a sec, are you saying it's not the uber rich 'job creators' who are the engine of the economy?? And to think, all this time I'd thought it was all them saudi entrepreneurs that made Dubai happen! I'm assuming that parabolic to vertical rise in "cost of production" includes all Green Energy R&D costs which allow for their ZERO % tax payments.
In Portugal, for example, more than 30% of energy production is renewables, mostly because historically the country built a lot of hydroelectrical power.
Beyond that, remember that if there is a resource the PIIGS (except Ireland) have a lot is sun, making it a pretty natural source of replacement energy (think concentrated solar power plants rather than solar panels). Did you know there are other ways, some actually more efficient, than semiconductor panels, to harvest solar energy? IOW, while these things are indeed possible, living a satisfying and meaningful live in this paradigm requires a massive shift for hi-consumption, hi-waste lifestyle of Americans. Which part of "think concentrated solar power plants rather than solar panels" was not clear?
There are very efficient ways of collecting solar power without solar panels, for example by using mirrors to focus solar light into a central pilar, thus melting salt which is then used to produce vapour and drive a turbine.
To manage these concerns, you need an integrated view of your entire mining and metals production and operations.
Working with industry-leading partners, Cisco can help you fully connect and integrate all of your operational environments. Our solution can enable lean, efficient, collaborative, safe, and highly secure operations, resulting in a fully connected and converged pit-to-port network.


And you can do all of this while connecting your teams and assets collaboratively around the world. The Cisco Secure Ops Solution is a next-generation cybersecurity, secure-access, and compliance solution for critical infrastructure. Cisco Secure Ops Solution: Learn how to more effectively manage cybersecurity risk and compliance requirements in your industrial automation environments. A multinational gold-mining company improves worker safety and reduces costs with Cisco technology. Despite this, it is expensive, largely because of the amount of electricity used up in the extraction process.Aluminium ore is called bauxite. Most solutions fail because analysts assume that the nature of our energy problem is quite different from what it really is.
As we move on to the difficult to extract resources, we find that the need for investment capital escalates rapidly. The way would expect the cost of the extraction of energy supplies to rise, as finite supplies deplete. In fact, the steep rise in oil prices in recent years is of the type we would expect, if this is happening. Historical oil prices in 2012 dollars, based on BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 data.
We have badly over-fished the ocean, so  fishermen now need to use more resources too catch the remaining much smaller fish.
The steepness of the curve comes from the rapid increase in energy products used for extraction and many other purposes, as we approach limits. In the crowding out of growth, the countries that are most handicapped are the ones with the highest average cost of their energy supplies.
This average cost of energy is highest in countries that use the highest percentage of oil in their energy mix.
There seems to almost be a dose response–the more oil use, the lower the economic growth.
These countries tended to use much more coal in their energy mix–a much cheaper fuel. Percent energy consumption from oil in 2004, for selected countries and country groups, based on BP 2013 Statistical Review of World Energy.
Average percent growth in real GDP between 2005 and 2011, based on USDA GDP data in 2005 US$. Average percentage consumption growth between 2004 and 2011, based on BP’s 2013 Statistical Review of World Energy. The financial systems of countries with slowing growth are especially affected, as are the governments. Governments are tempted to add programs to aid their citizens, because employment tends to be low. Furthermore, citizens of the country will cut back on discretionary goods, as the price of oil rises, because their cost of commuting and of food rises (because oil is used in growing food). We find ourselves with a long-term growth imperative relating to fossil fuel use, arising from the effects of globalization and from growing world population. My expectation is that the situation will end with a fairly rapid drop in the production of all kinds of energy products and the governments of quite a few countries failing. Spare parts for almost anything will be difficult to get, because of the need for the system of international trade to support making these parts. Governments will find that their finances are even more pressured than today, with calls for new programs at the time revenue is dropping dramatically. In some cases, countries will break up into smaller units, as the Former Soviet Union did in 1991. We will have to figure out new approaches, without the benefit of high tech goods like computers.
Most will not work well because the nature of the problem is different from what most people have expected. They are likely to be most useful for mechanical energy, such as pumping water or powering looms for cloth. This happens because the US has laws that enable production (landowner gets a share of profits) and other beneficial situations such as pipelines in place, plentiful water supplies, and low population in areas where fracking is done. If products are to be competitive in the world marketplace, electricity needs to be inexpensive, regardless of what the EROI calculations seem to say. Alternatively, connect pipes from all the politician's mouths and asses and burn, baby, burn! What fraction of fossil fuel usage is related to mining those minerals critical to solar panel production?
Also, mining and materials companies are often pursuing resources in remote, hazardous locations. We apply an integrated approach to converge your existing office IT network with this new, consolidated operational technology network. The solution provides a highly secure industrial automation and control systems environment to protect workers and remote mining locations in the Mining industry. The bauxite is purified to yield a white powder, aluminium oxide, from which aluminium can be extracted.The extraction is done by electrolysis. Analysts assume that our problem is a slowly developing long-term problem, when in fact, it is a problem that is at our door step right now.
This near-term financial problem is bound to work itself out in a way that leads to huge job losses and governmental changes in the near term. We were able to get around the problem in the 1970s, by adding more oil extraction, substituting other energy products for oil, and increasing efficiency. For example, high oil costs make vacations to Greece unaffordable, and thus lead to cut backs in their tourist industry. While the PIIGS (Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece, and Spain) are shown as a group, each of the countries in the group shows the same pattern on high oil consumption as a percentage of its total energy production in 2004. Governments find that tax revenue lags because of the lagging wages of most citizens, leading to government deficits. Once they became aware of all of the goods that people in the rich countries have, they wanted to join in, buying motor bikes, cars, televisions, phones, and other goods.


Because debt is widely used, the cost of everything from oil extraction to buying a new home to buying a new car is likely to rise. Given the squeeze, even more countries are likely to encounter slowing growth or contraction. The need for investment capital for wind turbines will compete with other needs for investment capital.
Promised incentive plans to help homeowners pay for solar panels can be expected to mostly fall through.
Smaller companies have somehow been able to put together financial statements claiming profits, based on hoped for future production and very low interest rates.
If countries decide to ramp up shale oil production, they are likely to run into similarly hugely negative cash flow situations. In theory, carbon taxes could be paired with a very high tax on imported goods made with coal, but this has not been done. Our real problem is lack of investment capital–something that is gobbled up at prodigious rates by energy generation devices whose costs occur primarily at the beginning of their lives. Safety is always a top priority, as companies strive to reduce harm to employees as well as the environment. You also need a solution that helps you take advantage of comprehensive, IP-enabled technologies in each environment. Delivered as a managed service, the Cisco Secure Ops Solution combines on-premises technology and processes to implement and maintain layered security controls.
This corresponds to an inflation-adjusted annual increase of 10% per year for the seven year period. This time, our options for fixing the situation are much fewer, since the low hanging fruit have already been picked, and we are reaching financial limits now.
We also need to invest increasing amounts in roads,  bridges, electricity transmission lines, and pipelines, to compensate for deferred maintenance and aging infrastructure. While in theory there is a possibility of substituting away from oil, at any given point in time, the ability to substitute away is quite limited. Use of Quantitative Easing also tends to blow bubbles in prices of stocks and real estate, helping citizens to feel richer. If exported goods are high priced as well, buyers from other countries will tend to cut back as well, further leading to layoffs and low wage growth. Statoil, the Norwegian company, is considering walking away from Greenland, to try to keep a lid on production costs.
The cost of repaying the government’s own debt will rise as well, putting governments in worse financial condition than they are today. All of these changes will result in a loss of most of the fossil fuel economy and the high tech renewables that these fossil fuels support.
The next challenge will be to try to get the governments to act in a somewhat co-ordinated way.
The question will become: what can we do with local materials, to get some sort of economy going again? Furthermore, whatever substitutions we make need to be with cheap local materials, if we expect them to be long-lasting. It is hard to see that these operations will save the world from its financial (and energy) problems.
If part of taxes consumers would normally pay to the government are levied on fuel for vehicles, the practice can encourage more the use of more efficient vehicles. They also overlook timing, so can indicate that an investment is good, even if it digs a huge financial hole for organizations making the investment. We need to be careful to use our investment capital wisely, not for fads that are expensive and won’t hold up for the long run. Finding source of energy as cheap as oil was for last 150 years is a different matter though.
Aluminium oxide has a very high melting point (over 2,000°C), so it would be expensive to melt it.
Strategies aimed simply at relieving energy shortages with high priced fuels and high-tech equipment are bound to be short lived solutions, if they are solutions at all. This means we need to remove more of the unwanted waste products, using more resources, including energy resources. Handy homeowners who can rewire the solar panels for use apart from the grid may find them useful for devices that can run on direct current. EROI calculations also don’t consider repairability issues which may shorten real-world lifetimes. Instead, it is dissolved in molten cryolite, an aluminium compound with a lower melting point than aluminium oxide. These goods can only be made using fossil fuels, or by technologies that are enabled by fossil fuels (such as today’s hydroelectric, nuclear, wind, and solar PV). The use of cryolite reduces some of the energy costs involved in extracting aluminium.Diagram showing cell for aluminium extractionThe diagram shows an aluminium oxide electrolysis tank. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Also, as governments reduce services and often fail, lenders will be unwilling to lend funds for new projects which would in theory improve efficiency. It probably will not be possible to make solar panels for very many years, as the fossil fuel economy reaches limits.
Both the negative electrode (cathode) and positive electrode (anode) are made of graphite, a form of carbon. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so.
Aluminium metal forms at the negative electrode and sinks to the bottom of the tank, where it is tapped off.Oxygen forms at the positive electrodes. This oxygen reacts with the carbon of the positive electrodes, forming carbon dioxide, and they gradually burn away.



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