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Next to food and maintenance products, the biggest cost of maintaining an aquarium is the energy consumption required to run the equipment.
Filters, lights, powerheads, heaters, protein skimmers, air pumps, water pumps, uv-filters etc., more or less constantly consume energy.
Based on a freshwater fish only aquarium at about 72 F, the total consumption for a small tank (10 Gallons) is about 150 kWh a year. The biggest consumption is used for the lighting system which accounts for approximately 45% of the total bill. The common fluorescent light bulb (15 – 40 Watts) that is provided with most hoods doesn’t significantly add much cost.
Water pumps start at 3 Watts and easily go up to 400 Watts depending on the gallon per hour (gph) rate.Some ball park rates are 10 Watts for 200 gph and 30 Watts for 300 gph. Powerheads, air pumps and filters are low in consumption starting at only 3 Watts and generally not exceeding 25 – 50 Watts for the heavy duty models. To save on the energy cost and consumption, lighting can be adjusted to more energy efficient bulbs and a change in lighting.
In many cases the heater can also be turned down by a degree or two without affecting the fish. Choosing energy efficient equipment and comparing them with other makes and models can yield substantial savings in the long and sometimes even short run. To calculate the energy consumption of your aquarium, you will need to know the watts per equipment and the overall running time. The exact usage of electricity for each piece of equipment can only be determined by actual readings using an ampmeter, which measures the actual energy used and not the energy based on the maximum output. This entry was posted by Rodney Campbell on February 7, 2011 at 12:10 pm, and is filed under FAQ, Fish, Freshwater, Saltwater.
Each source of renewable energy has unique benefits and costs; this page explores the many benefits associated with these energy technologies. Human activity is overloading our atmosphere with carbon dioxide and other global warming emissions, which trap heat, steadily drive up the planet’s temperature, and create significant and harmful impacts on our health, our environment, and our climate. According to data aggregated by the International Panel on Climate Change, life-cycle global warming emissions associated with renewable energy—including manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance, and dismantling and decommissioning—are minimal [3]. Increasing the supply of renewable energy would allow us to replace carbon-intensive energy sources and significantly reduce U.S. Generating electricity from renewable energy rather than fossil fuels offers significant public health benefits. Wind, solar, and hydroelectric systems generate electricity with no associated air pollution emissions.
In addition, wind and solar energy require essentially no water to operate and thus do not pollute water resources or strain supply by competing with agriculture, drinking water systems, or other important water needs. Biomass and geothermal power plants, like coal- and natural gas-fired power plants, require water for cooling. Throughout the United States, strong winds, sunny skies, plant residues, heat from the earth, and fast-moving water can each provide a vast and constantly replenished energy resource supply.
Estimates of the technical potential of each renewable energy source are based on their overall availability given certain technological and environmental constraints [8]. Compared with fossil fuel technologies, which are typically mechanized and capital intensive, the renewable energy industry is more labor-intensive. In addition to the jobs directly created in the renewable energy industry, growth in renewable energy industry creates positive economic “ripple” effects.
In addition to creating new jobs, increasing our use of renewable energy offers other important economic development benefits. Renewable energy projects therefore keep money circulating within the local economy, and in most states renewable electricity production would reduce the need to spend money on importing coal and natural gas from other places. Renewable energy is providing affordable electricity across the country right now, and can help stabilize energy prices in the future.
The costs of renewable energy technologies have declined steadily, and are projected to drop even more.
While renewable facilities require upfront investments to build, once built they operate at very low cost and, for most technologies, the fuel is free.
In contrast, fossil fuel prices can vary dramatically and are prone to substantial price swings. Using more renewable energy can lower the prices of and demand for natural gas and coal by increasing competition and diversifying our energy supplies. In addition, utilities spend millions of dollars on financial instruments to hedge themselves from these fossil fuel price uncertainties.
Wind and solar are less prone to large-scale failure because they are distributed and modular. For example, in 2012 Hurricane Sandy damaged fossil fuel-dominated electric generation and distribution systems in New York and New Jersey and left millions of people without power. The risk of disruptive events will also increase in the future as droughts, heat waves, more intense storms, and increasingly severe wildfires become more frequent due to global warming.
For example, coal, natural gas, and nuclear power depend on large amounts of water for cooling, and limited water availability during a severe drought or heat wave puts electricity generation at risk.
We can shift our nation away from dirty fossil fuels and toward cleaner, renewable sources of power—but not without you. Juliet Christian-SmithApril 29, 2016Why Would Congress Vote to Keep Carrots Out of Corner Stores? The Supreme Court's recent ruling on the Clean Power Plan is a speed bump, not a stop sign.
Therefore, proper insulation and ventilation is the first and most important energy saving measure.
In hot regions, energy use for active cooling (air conditioning) can be minimised or even avoided if the construction is well-thought out. Try to minimise electricity use: its generation needs a lot of energy, mostly heat produced in coal, gas or nuclear plants.
Fluorescent tubes are even more efficient than compact fluorescent lamps, and last even longer (10,000-20,000h). Especially avoid halogen floor lamps, which typically have a power of 300W or more, produce lots of heat and are actually so hot (some 500° Celsius) that they can cause serious burns and start fires. They use two to 10 times less electricity for the same functionality, and are mostly higher quality products that last longer than the less efficient ones.
Remarkably, energy consumption by the most efficient refrigerator models is largely unrelated to their size.
These efficient refrigerators are about 5-15 percent more expensive to buy, but will save you loads of money and energy in use. Avoid refrigerators with a built-in frozen food compartment, if you have a separate freezer. Consider a 'hot fill' model which connects directly to your efficient gas-fired water heater.
If using a clothes dryer, make sure that your washing machine can spin at 1600 or even 1800 rpm. The most efficient washing machines save some 1,500 litres of water per year - a double gain! If line drying is not an option, first make sure that your washing machine can spin at 1600 or even 1800 rpm. There are two clothes-drying technologies that use far less energy: the gas-fired clothes dryer and the dryer with an electric heat pump.
Consider a 'hot fill' model which connects directly to your efficientgas fired hot water heater. Enable the power management function on your computer, the screensaver does not save energy. Use one large power strip for your computer, broadband modem, scanner, printer, monitor, and speakers.
A power strip is also the most practical way to switch of VCR, TV and DVD-player stand-by losses (you can cut off all three devices at once).

In the 15 countries of the EU in 2000, the total energy lost to standby in households was estimated at 94 billion kWh, or the equivalent of 12 large nuclear or coal power plants. A solar boiler can further halve that figure to1,900 kWh in a moderate climate zone (and even less in sunny regions) - for a total energy savings of about five times what the electric boiler uses. Hot water is the second most important area of energy use in a household, after space heating, and thus needs extra attention.
Using a water-saving shower head, combined with a solar boiler reduces energy needs to some 950 kWh heat (gas or oil), or almost 10 times less than when an electric boiler is used with a traditional shower head!
On a log scale, income per person correlates quite well with life expectancy around the world.
It's also clear on a global basis that greater access to energy correlates to greater life expectancy. For these reasons, from a humanitarian standpoint, we should welcome the developing world growing richer and increasing their access to energy, even as we work to find ways to reduce and reverse the environmental damage caused by current forms of energy use.
This entry was posted in Uncategorized and tagged economics, energy, The Infinite Resource. As indicated by their name, wind power generators make use of wind energy for generating electric power. Today windmills and wind powered generators are used all over the globe for producing electricity. In case you want to save some money by building wind power generators without using kits, you should spare some time for the project. In case the wind speed is ideal in your area, install wind power generators for getting free energy for your own use, while lending a hand for preventing the depletion of non-renewable energy sources. Virginia consumed over 2,356 trillion BTUs of energy in 2012, reflecting a decade-long decline in energy consumption. Investing in domestic energy production, energy efficiency and conservation practices, and clean energy sources can help close that gap and bring added economic benefits to the state. Virginia's energy use fell from an annual 347 million BTUs per person in 2005 to 308 million BTUs per person by 2009, due in part to decreased economic activity. Virginia's per capita consumption was lower than Tennessee (325) but higher than Maryland (236) and North Carolina (255). Virginia's electric power industry generates electricity from a variety of clean and renewable energy sources, including nuclear energy and renewables such as hydropower, biomass, and landfill gas. Patterns of reliance on clean and renewable energy sources vary over time and region based on market prices of feedstock fuels, differences in natural resource endowments, presence of nuclear power plants, technological changes, and public policies. Virginia plans to meet its energy needs by growing in-state energy production, increasing energy efficiencies, and expanding energy production from renewable sources. Virginia has also committed to improving the energy efficiency of existing state government buildings and adopting energy efficiency standards in new building design.
Switch to hybrid vehicles, and consciously engage in safe and prudent driving and car maintenance practices. See the Data Sources and Updates Calendar for a detailed list of the data resources used for indicator measures on Virginia Performs.
2013, Virginia's use of renewable energy for electricity production ticked up slightly, ranking the state 35th. A medium tank (30 Gallons) will run between 150 – 200 kWh per year, while a large aquarium (55 Gallons) needs 200 – 400 kWh per year. Furthermore, the lighting expenses can easily be controlled by the lighting time as well as the equipment we use.
Tank size will matter and add on cost, so will a more and more densely planted tank, a saltwater tank and ultimately the reef tank.
A planted tank may do just as well running on a 100 Watt bulb instead of a 150 Watt bulb. The running time of the heater can either be observed in measuring the actual running time or by estimating. Other sources include non-hydropower renewable energy such as solar, geothermal, and wind power.
For more information on their potential impacts — including effective solutions to mitigate or avoid them entirely — see The Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Technologies. Renewable electricity generation from biomass can have a wide range of global warming emissions depending on the resource and how it is harvested. The air and water pollution emitted by coal and natural gas plants is linked to breathing problems, neurological damage, heart attacks, and cancer.
While geothermal and biomass energy systems emit some air pollutants, total air emissions are generally much lower than those of coal- and natural gas-fired power plants.
In addition, hydroelectric power plants impact river ecosystems both upstream and downstream from the dam. These diverse sources of renewable energy have the technical potential to provide all the electricity the nation needs many times over. In 2012, NREL found that together, renewable energy sources have the technical potential to supply 482,247 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity annually (see Table 1). Renewable Energy Technical Potentials: A GIS -Based Analysis”, National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
This means that, on average, more jobs are created for each unit of electricity generated from renewable sources than from fossil fuels. For example, in 2011, the wind energy industry directly employed 75,000 full-time-equivalent employees in a variety of capacities, including manufacturing, project development, construction and turbine installation, operations and maintenance, transportation and logistics, and financial, legal, and consulting services [10]. For example, industries in the renewable energy supply chain will benefit, and unrelated local businesses will benefit from increased household and business incomes [17].
Local governments collect property and income taxes and other payments from renewable energy project owners. For example, the average price of a solar panel has dropped almost 60 percent since 2011 [20]. Since hedging costs are not necessary for electricity generated from renewable sources, long-term renewable energy investments can help utilities save money they would otherwise spend to protect their customers from the volatility of fossil fuel prices. Distributed systems are spread out over a large geographical area, so a severe weather event in one location will not cut off power to an entire region. Renewable energy sources are more resilient than coal, natural gas, and nuclear power plants in the face of these sorts of extreme weather events. Wind and solar photovoltaic systems do not require water to generate electricity, and they can help mitigate risks associated with water scarcity.
Your generous support helps develop science-based solutions for a healthy, safe, and sustainable future. Sign up to receive critical updates and urgent action opportunities from the Union of Concerned Scientists.
It should, however, be noted that in moderate and cold climate zones, space heating takes up at least half of the overall energy use.
Compact fluorescents use four times less energy, and last eight times longer (8,000h instead of 1,000h) than incandescent light bulbs.
Only use tubes with a modern ballast starter that avoids flickering and lights immediately - good ones add another 20 percent efficiency. Clever use of reflectors, and directional lamps to get the light where you need it can save you another 50 percent energy cost and improve your comfort! To some degree, this can be a positive effect, as it can increase comfort and your well-being. In the EU, models are labelled A++ for the most efficient, then A+, A, B, C, D for subsequently less efficient models. In the paragraphs below, we provide some indication of the consumption of the most efficient appliances to use as a rough guide when shopping. In general, they are also high quality products that will last longer, will need less repairing and make less noise. The gas-fired dryer is the best alternative, especially for more intensive use: it uses 60 percent less energy (including the gas) and dries 40 percent faster. That way, gas is used to heat the water instead of electricity, thereby reducing electricity consumption by 50 percent, or even up to 90 percent for the top models.

Standby power consumption is mentioned in the product manual and can be checked before buying. The fast growth of inefficient ICT and multimedia applications could nearly double this in 10 years. Interestingly, centuries ago, people used mills that were powered by wind for drawing out the water and for pounding grain . It would also be helpful if you have some mechanical skills and aptitude for understanding how to make a wind powered generator easily. Since 2000, indigenous state energy resource production has decreased from 1,354 trillion BTU to 1,047 trillion BTU. A recent study by the Amerian Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE) estimates that increasing energy efficiency can result in a nearly 2-to-1 benefit-to-cost advantage -- and that these gains also produce new jobs. Despite a slight increase in 2010, the rate of energy consumption has been falling again -- down to 288 BTUs per person in 2012. Rhode Island again had the nation's lowest energy consumption at 173 million BTUs consumed per capita in 2012.
One result has been the sizable growth in the solar energy industry, which in 2014 employed twice as many workers as the coal industry. The state has created grants and incentives for growing green jobs in alternative and renewable energy sectors such as biofuels and waste-to-energy facilities and is sponsoring cutting-edge research and development in alternate transportation fuels, nuclear technology, coastal energy production, and carbon capture and storage at state universities. Virginia recently earned top honors from the Council for having the most LEED-certified new building space in the nation. A reef tank may even run on metal halides which run from 150 – 1000 Watts – and that will quickly add to the bill. Further, a tropical fish environment usually requires a higher water temperature making it more expensive to heat compared to non-tropical fish tanks.
In well heated environments a heater might not even be necessary during the day or heating period.
15 minutes out of every hour (6 hours total per day) for lower temperatures or 30minutes out of the hour (12 hours total) for higher temperatures. The cost of one kWh should be calculated by adding up all the rates that end with “per kWh (that will include the transmission, distribution, and generation charges). Sustainably sourced biomass has a low emissions footprint, while unsustainable sources of biomass can generate significant global warming emissions.
For example, a 2009 UCS analysis found that a 25 percent by 2025 national renewable electricity standard would lower power plant CO2 emissions 277 million metric tons annually by 2025—the equivalent of the annual output from 70 typical (600 MW) new coal plants [4]. Replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy has been found to reduce premature mortality and lost workdays, and it reduces overall healthcare costs [6]. For example, both coal mining and natural gas drilling can pollute sources of drinking water. However, NREL's 80 percent by 2050 renewable energy study, which included biomass and geothermal, found that water withdrawals would decrease 51 percent to 58 percent by 2050 and water consumption would be reduced by 47 percent to 55 percent [7]. July 2012.Today, renewable energy provides only a tiny fraction of its potential electricity output in the United States and worldwide. More than 500 factories in the United States manufacture parts for wind turbines, and the amount of domestically manufactured equipment used in wind turbines has grown dramatically in recent years: from 35 percent in 2006 to 70 percent in 2011 [11, 12]. These revenues can help support vital public services, especially in rural communities where projects are often located.
The cost of generating electricity from wind dropped more than 20 percent between 2010 and 2012 and more than 80 percent since 1980 [21]. Remarkably, a properly insulated house, which only needs a third of the heat to keep you warm, will not be more expensive to build. A US household uses three times more electricity for lighting, and twice as much in refrigerators than in the EU. For example, a typical 75W incandescent bulb will be replaced by an 18W compact fluorescent.
But it can also lead to wasting light, such as leaving lamps on when there is no need to (e.g. Lists of brands and models and where to find them are country-specific and so cannot be listed here, but check the links on this page for more detailed information.
Of course, you should always compare energy consumption ratings, pay attention to energy efficiency labels (see above), and look for Greenfreeze technology. So don't buy a freezer that is larger than you need, especially if you live close to the store. It also, almost invariably, correlates with high access to food, medicine, shelter, and education, and low levels of disease and violence.
But windmills that can be used for generating electricity were built only in the later part of the 19th century. But remember, if you want to use wind power generators for producing electricity, you should first check the speed of the wind in your area. As a result, the Commonwealth has been importing significant amounts of energy to meet its needs.
This rate is lower than the national average of 303 million BTUs and ranked Virginia 22nd among U.S. However, the enormous growth in hydraulic fracturing to tap unexploited shale gas deposits has dramatically increased U.S. However, it is important to note that not all of this technical potential can be tapped due to conflicting land use needs, the higher short-term costs of those resources, constraints on ramping up their use such as limits on transmission capacity, barriers to public acceptance, and other hurdles. But numerous studies have repeatedly shown that renewable energy can be rapidly deployed to provide a significant share of future electricity needs, even after accounting for potential constraints [9].
Owners of the land on which wind projects are built also often receive lease payments ranging from $3,000 to $6,000 per megawatt of installed capacity, as well as payments for power line easements and road rights-of-way. In areas with strong wind resources like Texas, wind power can compete directly with fossil fuels on costs [22]. Even if some of the equipment in the system is damaged, the rest can typically continue to operate.
The extra investments in insulation, ventilation and high-efficiency glazing, can be offset by a smaller and cheaper heating system. Another 10 percent is lost in electricity lines and transformers before theelectricity even reaches your home.
Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory explored the feasibility and environmental impacts associated with generating 80 percent of the country’s electricity from renewable sources by 2050 and found that global warming emissions from electricity production could be reduced by approximately 81 percent [5]. The cost of renewable energy will decline even further as markets mature and companies increasingly take advantage of economies of scale. An efficient house will also be healthier and more comfortable to live in - it avoids 'cold radiation' (as from windows), the differences of temperature between heated and non-heated rooms is less, and it can be more efficiently ventilated. As we will explain, there are high efficiency appliances that consume two to 10 times less electricity for an equal functionality, and that are most often also of higher quality. Keep in mind that the cost of wasted standby energy over a model's lifetime can be higher than the cost of buying it! This is a very easy method suitable for beginners, but it will be costlier than building the wind powered generator from scratch.
Once you have acquired the blades, you will have to attach them together by using a hub or a centerpiece.
Similarly, farmers and rural landowners can generate new sources of supplemental income by producing feedstocks for biomass power facilities. The blades should be placed with equal spacing between them, as it helps in harnessing more power.

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