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admin 15.06.2015

Philip has had many articles published in veterinary journals and veterinary magazines.Most recently an article on Equine Herpes Virus was published in Veterinary Times on 20th February 2014. The impact of the outbreak, however, can affect horses and horse-related events and activities across a state where an outbreak has occurred.
In addition, track authorities suspended racing after the outbreak was announced to the public on January 22.
On January 26, Turf Paradise racetrack in Arizona closed its gates to horses that had been racing at Sunland Park in New Mexico. Also on January 28, the Illinois Bureau of Animal Health and Welfare received notification of laboratory confirmation of EHV-1 (neuropathogenic form) infection in horses being boarded at a private stable in that state’s DuPage County. State officials did not identify the breed or type of horses affected, but the stable has been placed under quarantine by state animal health officials. At the time of the initial notification, eight horses were affected with two being subsequently euthanized.
Also on January 28, Fox Valley Equine Practice in La Fox, Illinois reported a confirmed case of neurologic disease associated with EHV-1 in Kane County, which adjoins DuPage County. Illinois officials recommended the following procedures for exposed horses: "All exposed horses should have rectal temperatures taken twice daily (8-12 hours apart) and recorded in a log for at least 7 days after the date of potential exposure. The key to all outbreaks is the mingling of horses or contamination between horses by caregivers and equipment.
If you share your trailer, clean it thoroughly, inside and out, after other horses have been in it. Remember that a quarantine may affect not just the location of an infected horse, but every place an infected horse has traveled. Most of all, if you feel that rules--or adherence to rules--is too lax at your boarding barn or at a show, make your concerns known. Note: Tomorrow, February 2, a presentation on biosecurity, vaccine strategies and the health of the performance horse will be held at the Ocala Breeders Sales Company in Ocala, Florida. Fran Jurga keeps you up-to-date in this blog on news about horse health, care, equine science and research that affects horses. USDA Files Proposed Soring Rule Change for White House Approval: Will pad stacks be banned? The Oregon Department of Agriculture says four Oregon horses have tested positive for Equine Herpes Virus (EHV-1).
Quarantines have been put in place at the affected areas, but ODA says the infected horses were at a race with other horses at the Linn County Fairgrounds April 16 through April 19. Information on an outbreak of Equine Herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) in the western part of the United States hasn’t been updated for several days. Right now, veterinary health authorities are warning that the strain of the virus causing the outbreak is highly contagious and could be deadly to a horse.
States that have experienced an outbreak of the virus include: Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. Diagram illustrating the shapes and sizes of viruses of families that include animal, zoonotic and human pathogens.
This is an ultra-thin section of the brain of a mouse infected with Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) at six days post-infection when the mouse was moribund. Thin section and negative contrast electron microscopy of mouse tissue and purified virus. Thin section electron microscopy of infected cell culture and negative contrast electron microscopy of virus from cell culture. Ebola virus (image 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patienta€”this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. Ebola virus (image 1 colorized 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patienta€”this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. Ebola virus (image 1 colorized 2), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patienta€”this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. Ebola virions (image 2), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient a€” this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. Ebola virions (image 2 colorized 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient a€” this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976.


Ebola virions (image 2 colorized 2), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient a€” this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976.
Ebola virus infected Vero cell, with virions budding from the plasma membrane at 2 days post infection. Ebola virus infected Vero cell, with viral nucleocapsid inclusion bodies in massed array in its cytoplasm at 2 days post infection.
Thin section electron microscopy of infected mouse brain and negative contrast electron microscopy of purified virus.
The bottom line here is that this disease is a rapid spread and rapid fizzle virus with a high morbidity and mortality rate. This year, 2007, a number of racetracks, equine hospitals, and barns had outbreaks of EVH-1 across the country. EHV-1 virus is spread by direct contact of one horse to another, by contaminated hands, equipment, tack, and for a brief time through the air. The neurological form of EHV-1 causes inflammation of the blood vessels, the formation of clots, obstruction of blood flow in the circulatory system, and hemorrhage into the nerve tissues.
In late January, horses were newly affected in New Mexico, Arizona and Illinois, just as quarantines for previous cases were winding down in Pennsylvania and California.
The response is also very different based on whether affected horses were contained at a racetrack or training center, or if they were farm-based horses. It can also result in the travel restrictions for horses that reside in or that have competed in a state where an outbreak occurs.
Two days later, the track quarantined a group of three horses that had arrived from the same county in New Mexico where the outbreak there occurred. Horses whose rectal temperature registers higher than 101.5 degrees Fahrenheit are considered to be febrile. The California case, closed on January 26, concerned a single draft-cross that tested positive on January 6.
In this age of horses on the move, it is important to monitor the movement of horses to and from your property: If someone is arriving back from a show in the middle of the night, make sure that clear instructions are left to put that horse in the proper place, separate from other horses.
Ask your veterinarian to keep you informed of any news about diseases that might affect your horse at home or on the road, and of any changes in the timing of health certificates or vaccinations required for travel. However, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is collecting and publishing all the data along with the US Department of Agriculture as soon as it becomes verified. However, just because a horse becomes infected with the virus does not mean that it will display signs of neurological damage. This tab also contains the file for my 565 page eBook, with the same title, Foundations of Virology.
This tab also contains .pdf files of several of my old papers that are not available on the Internet. The virions are drawn to scale, but artistic license has been used in representing their structure. Virions have accumulated in the normally narrow spaces between neurons as a result of budding from the intracytoplasmic (Golgi) membranes and exocytosis via membrane fusion. This is an ultra-thin section of the salivary gland of an Aedes triseriatus (Say) mosquito, 21 days after infection, showing large numbers of virions within the lumen of an upstream divereticulum of the salivary space.
This image has been "borrowed" so often for various public uses that many people think that all Ebola virions look just like thisa€”indeed, in the film Outbreak every virion seen looked just like this. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a "bowl of spaghetti." Negatively stained virions. These inclusions may be dramatic in scale, beautiful in appearance, but this is "a terrible beauty" (Yeats). This is the same ultra-thin section of an infected cell in a cell culture as above, only colorized. Negatively stained virions showing surface projections which contain the receptors by which the virus attaches to host respiratory tract epithelial cells. This is an ultra-thin section of the brain of a mouse infected with La Crosse virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) at six days post-infection when the mouse was moribund.
Virions have been penetrated by the negative contrast stain; the fine surface projections and envelope (derived from Golgi membrane of the infected cell) that are characteristic of viruses like this (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) are clear, but viral nucleocapsids, which are very fine strands, are not.


Current management measures involve reducing inflammation in the central nervous system and providing supportive care. All horses on the premises should also be monitored for neurologic signs (ataxia, posterior incoordination, weakness, recumbency with inability to rise, circling, head pressing, head tilt, bladder atony) during the home quarantine period.
New Mexico officials had some good recommendations, such as lot letting the tip of a hose touch a horse or the ground, picking up manure immediately, using one water bucket per horse, and remembering to disinfect yourself, by spraying your clothing, head to toe, with Lysol disinfectant. Britt Conklin of Boehringer Ingelheim will present the latest information, beginning at 6:30.
Many times, when horses develop neurological problems, it leaves them with an inability to stand, and as a result many have to be euthanized to relieve them of their pain. This is a 180Mb .pdf file, which takes about 2 minutes to download on my home computer, but it is the lowest resolution (smallest file) possible. In some, the cross-sectional structure of capsid and envelope are shown, with a representation of the genome; with the very small virions, only their size and symmetry are depicted. Virions have accumulated in the space between cells as a result of budding from the surface membrane of infected cells. In this infection large numbers of the 60 nm (nanometer) spherical virions crowd the salivary space, ready to be transmitted to the next vertebrate host when the mosquito seeks a blood meal. In fact, Ebola virions are extremely varied in appearance -- they are flexible filaments with a consistent diameter of 80 nm (nanometers), but they vary greatly in length (although their genome length is constant) and degree of twisting. In fact, Ebola virions are extremely varied in appearance a€” they are flexible filaments with a consistent diameter of 80 nm (nanometers), but they vary greatly in length (although their genome length is constant) and degree of twisting. Here, virion budding is occurring "perpendicular" to the plane of the plasma membrane -- in other instances budding has been seen to occur in "parallel" fashion, with the entire virion nucleocapsid first lying in contact with the inner face of the plasma membrane and budding occurring along its entire length.
Herpes simplex virus infection becomes latent, that is it becomes invisible after a fever blister episode, but the virus persists, in ganglia at the floor of the brain; when conditions are right the virus can re-emerge.
Adenoviruses replicate in the nucleus of cells and as seen here they may reach extraordinary concentrations. Rotaviruses replicate in the cytoplasm of cells, usually in association with granular inclusions ("virus factories") as shown here. Virions (100nm in diameter) are accumulating within intracytoplasmic (Golgi) vesicles as a result of budding. Since the change of seasons also coincides with a massive migration of horses from north to south in the United States, the problem is not limited to northern states.
It's important that owners or riders keep a list of the names, locations and contact information for anywhere their horses were stabled.
Rules for biosecurity at shows are up to the show management, until or unless a horse is ill. The highest resolution file, suitable for printing, is also available, but I would have to send it via Dropbox.
Classical negative contrast images of coronaviruses are really not the way they look when in their native state.
In this infection very large numbers of the 60 nm (nanometer) spherical virions are produced quickly and as quickly the cells are destroyed.
When isometric particles are crowded together they form six-fold, three-dimensional arraysa€”when such arrays are sectioned one sees various planes of section because the pseudocrystalline array is not perfect.
You may be interested to know that some shows have more strict--or more lax--rules from the ones you normally encounter at your shows.
Here, the top micrograph represents the classical image and the bottom micrograph the way coronaviruses look in their native state. Native virions are actually so heavily covered with peoplmers that virions might not be recognized if only the classical images are in mind. This is an ultra -- thin section of the small intestine of an infant mouse at two days post-infection when the mouse was moribund.
Virions have accumulated upon the plasma membrane of this intestinal epithelial cell as a result of transport from sites of virion production in the endoplasmic reticulum and exocytosis via membrane fusion -- the virions then stick to the outer surface of the cell.



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