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We have an collection of Herbs Alternative Medicine How To Information Page Ehow in various styles. TendinitisDefinitionTendinitis is a condition caused by the tearing of tendon fibers and subsequent inflammation in the tendon.
AIDSDefinitionAcquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). SeleniumDescriptionSelenium is a nonmetallic element with an atomic number of 34 and an atomic weight of 78.96. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritisDefinitionJuvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) refers to a number of different conditions, all of which strike children, and all of which have immune-mediated joint inflammation as their major manifestation. Here is some inspiring pictures about Herbs Alternative Medicine How To Information Page Ehow.
Tendons are the strong connective tissue that connect muscle to bone.DescriptionWhen a muscle contracts, it pulls on the tendon, which is composed of tissue that cannot stretch. Click image to get bigger picture, and if you find Herbs Alternative Medicine How To Information Page Ehow interesting, you might pin it to Pinterest.
The tendon then transmits that pulling force to the bone and moves the bone, producing movement.
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AIDS is the advanced form of infection with the HIV virus, which may not cause disease for a long period after the initial exposure (latency).
The European League Against Rheumatism, or EULAR, refers to the disorder as juvenile chronic arthritis, or JCA.DescriptionThe skeletal system of the body is made up of different types of strong, fibrous tissue known as connective tissue. Tendinitis usually results from excessive repeated demands placed on the tendon by the muscle. The material on this site is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified health care provider.
Infection with HIV weakens the immune system which makes infected people susceptible to infection and cancer.DescriptionAIDS is considered one of the most devastating public health problems in recent history.
An organic form of selenium, selenomethionine, is found in foods.General useThe role of selenium in human nutrition and other therapeutic applications has provoked intense controversy over the past two decades.
Bone, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons are all forms of connective tissue that have different compositions, and thus different characteristics.The joints are structures that hold two or more bones together. Tendinitis is not usually caused by a sudden injury; it is more commonly a result of a long period of overuse.
In 1996, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that one million persons in the United States were HIV-positive, and 223,000 are living with AIDS. In contrast to such major minerals as magnesium and calcium, neither selenium's benefits nor its toxic aspects are yet fully understood. Some joints (synovial joints) allow for movement between the bones being joined (articulating bones). Of these patients, 44% were gay or bisexual men, 26% are heterosexual intravenous drug users, and 18% were women.
Until very recently, selenium was considered a toxic element that was not necessary to human health. The simplest model of a synovial joint involves two bones, separated by a slight gap called the joint cavity. As a result, the body will initiate the injury repair process in the area and lay down scar tissue. In 1989, selenium was reclassified as an essential micronutrient in a balanced human diet when the National Research Council established the first recommended daily allowance (RDA) for it.
In 2002, the CDC reported 42,136 new AIDS diagnoses in the United States, a 2.2% increase from the previous year.
It is considered a minor mineral, or a trace element, as distinct from a major mineral such as calcium or phosphorus, or an electrolyte such as sodium or chloride.
Both the articular bones and the joint cavity are surrounded by a tough tissue called the articular capsule.
Inflammation increases the blood supply, bringing nutrients to the damaged tissues along with infection-fighting agents. The articular capsule has two components: the fibrous membrane on the outside, and the synovial membrane (or synovium) on the inside. The fibrous membrane may include tough bands of fibrous tissue called ligaments, which are responsible for providing support to the joints.
Since many cases of tendinitis result from chronic inflammatory conditions that develop from long periods of overuse, the inflammatory process is not as exaggerated as with an acute injury. Selenium currently has a variety of applications, ranging from standard external preparations for skin problems to experimental and theoretical applications in nutrition and internal medicine.Alternative medicineNaturopaths use selenium supplements to treat asthma, acne, tendinitis, infertility problems in men, and postmenopausal disorders in women.
This membrane produces a supply of synovial fluid that fills the joint cavity, lubricates it, and helps the articular bones move smoothly about the joint.In JRA, the synovial membrane becomes intensely inflamed. Therefore swelling, heat, and redness are not always visible in a tendinitis complaint because the inflammation is really at a low level.Recent research has found that tendinitis sometimes develops as a side effect of treatment with quinolones, which are a group of antibiotics frequently used to treat bacterial infections. In 2003, WHO cautioned that if treatment were not delivered soon to nearly 6 million people with AIDS in developing countries, there could be 45 million cases by 2010.Risk factorsAIDS can be transmitted in several ways. Usually thin and delicate, the synovium becomes thick and stiff, with numerous infoldings on its surface. The tendon most likely to be affected by these drugs is the Achilles tendon, and the tendinitis usually develops within the first few weeks of antibiotic treatment.DiagnosisSome common tendon injuries are superficial and easy to identify. When selenium is compounded with sulfur to form a sulfide, it has antibiotic and antifungal properties. The membrane becomes invaded by white blood cells, which produce a variety of destructive chemicals. These include lateral epicondylitis (commonly referred to as tennis elbow) and Achilles' tendinitis, which affects the tendon just above the heel of the foot. The cartilage along the articular surfaces of the bones may be attacked and destroyed, and the bone, articular capsule, and ligaments may begin to be worn away (eroded).
While tennis elbow occurs more often in workers than in athletes (in spite of its name), tendinitis affecting the Achilles tendon is almost always related to sports.
In the United States and Europe, most cases of sexually transmitted HIV infection have resulted from homosexual contact, whereas in Africa, the disease is spread primarily through sexual intercourse among heterosexuals.Transmission in pregnancy. These processes severely interfere with movement in the joint.JRA specifically refers to chronic arthritic conditions that affect a child under the age of 16 years, and that last for a minimum of three to six months. High-risk mothers include women married to bisexual men or men who have an abnormal blood condition called hemophilia and require blood transfusions, intravenous drug users, and women living in neighborhoods with a high rate of HIV infection among heterosexuals.
The selenium ions counteract the enzymes that are responsible for producing new epithelial cells, thus lowering the turnover of surface skin cells. JRA is often characterized by a waxing and waning course, with flares separated by periods of time during which no symptoms are noted (remission). Tendinitis will often develop when an individual suddenly increases his or her level of activity without adequate training or conditioning. The chances of transmitting the disease to the child are higher in women in advanced stages of the disease.
As a result, itching and flaking of the skin associated with dandruff and tinea versicolor is reduced.NutritionPrior to 1989, there were no established RDA values for selenium. There seems to be some genetic link, based on the fact that the tendency to develop JRA sometimes runs in particular families, and based on the fact that certain genetic markers are more frequently found in patients with JRA and other related diseases. Most tendons are near the surface of the skin and therefore can be easily palpated (touched or pressed in order to make a diagnosis), especially by practitioners of manual therapy who have highly developed palpation skills.
The use of zidovudine (AZT) during pregnancy and delivery, however, can decrease the risk of transmission to the baby.Exposure to contaminated blood or blood products.
Recent research has shown that several autoimmune diseases, including JRA, share a common genetic link.
With the introduction of blood product screening in the mid-1980s, the incidence of HIV transmission in blood transfusions has dropped to 1 in 100,000.Needle sticks among health care professionals.
The generally higher levels for males are related to the importance of selenium in producing vigorous sperm.The amount of selenium in the diet is influenced by its level in the soil. In other words, patients with JRA might share commongenes with family members who have other autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, multiple sclerosis, and others.Many researchers have looked for some infectious cause for JRA, but no clear connection to a particular organism has ever been made. In addition, the practitioner may ask the patient to contract the muscle attached to the tendon, usually against resistance, to see if this maneuver causes pain.TreatmentIce is often advocated for tendinitis when the tendon is in an irritated state. Present studies indicate that the risk of HIV transmission by a needle stick is about 1 in 250.
Most selenium is absorbed from food products, whether plants grown in the soil or animals that have eaten the plants.
Women exposed to HIV infection through heterosexual contact are the most rapidly growing risk group in the United States.
While an autoimmune mechanism is strongly suspected, certain markers of such a mechanism (such as rheumatoid factor, often present in adults with such disorders) are rarely present in children with JRA.Joint symptoms of arthritis may include stiffness, pain, redness, warmth of the joint, and swelling. It may also be applied directly to the skin using an ice cube wrapped in a paper towel or ice frozen in a paper cup with the top portion of the cup peeled away to expose the ice. Selenium leaves the body in the urine and feces; males also lose some selenium through ejaculation of sperm. Bone in the area of an affected joint may grow too quickly or too slowly, resulting in limbs that are of different lengths. For unknown reasons, women with AIDS do not live as long as men with AIDS.AIDS in childrenBecause AIDS can be transmitted from an infected mother to her child during pregnancy, during the birth process, or through breast milk, all infants born to HIV-positivemothers are at risk. Selenium levels in soil vary widely, not only in different countries but also across different regions.
When the child tries to avoid moving a painful joint, the muscle may begin to shorten from disuse. If ice is applied to the skin without a barrier between the ice and the skin, the patient should be carefully monitored so that frostbite does not occur. As of 1997, it was estimated that 84% of HIV-positive women are of childbearing age; 41% of them are drug abusers. For example, in the United States the western states have higher levels of selenium in the soil than the eastern states. Between 15-30% of children born to HIV-positive women will be infected with the virus.AIDS is one of the 10 leading causes of death in children between one and four years of age worldwide. South Dakota has the highest rates of soil selenium in the United States, while Ohio has the lowest.Foods that are high in selenium contain the element in an organic form, selenomethionine. These compression wraps can be helpful, but they may also slow the healing process in the tendon if left on for long periods because they decrease blood supply in the area.Various types of soft tissue manipulation are very effective for treating tendinitis and may be employed by a variety of practitioners, including chiropractors, massage therapists, physical therapists, and osteopaths.
The interval between exposure to HIV and the development of AIDS is shorter in children than in adults.
This form of selenium is considerably less toxic than inorganic sodium selenite or elemental selenium. One of the most common methods of soft tissue treatment for tendinitis is a vigorous friction massage to the damaged tendon. Infants infected with HIV have a 20-30% chance of developing AIDS within a year and dying before age three. Good sources of selenium include brewer's yeast, wheat germ, wheat bran, kelp (seaweed), shellfish, Brazil nuts, barley, and oats. Other more general (systemic) symptoms are usually absent, and the child's growth usually remains normal.
In the remainder, AIDS progresses more slowly; the average child patient survives to seven years of age. Onions, garlic, mushrooms, broccoli, and Swiss chard may contain high amounts of selenium if they are grown in selenium-rich soil.
It is also thought to help produce a healthy and strong scar-tissue repair of the damaged tendon fibers. Selenium is also present in drinking water in some parts of the world and can be added to drinking water as a health measure. Practitioners of manual therapy are also likely to advocate a regular stretching program to help decrease tension in those muscles that may be pulling excessively on the tendon.Acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine are quite effective in treating tendinitis. Others have a serious inflammation of structures within the eye, which if left undiagnosed and untreated could even lead to blindness. Acupuncture may be used in the immediate vicinity of the tendinitis to help address muscular dysfunction.

In AIDS, immunodeficiency results from the way that the virus binds to a protein called CD4, which is found on certain white blood cells, including helper T cells, macrophages, and monocytes. However, many researchers whohave investigated Keshan disease, a form of heart disease in children, believe that it is caused by selenium deficiency. Acupuncture treatment may also use more distant points along the energy meridians to help address pain and reduce inflammation.
Once HIV attaches to an immune system cell, it can replicate within the cell and kill the cell.
The disease can be prevented but not cured with supplemental selenium; it responds to treatment with 50 g per day. Acupuncture may also have significant benefits in creating an optimum environment for healing of the tendon fiber to take place.Topical liniments and herbal preparations are often used to treat tendinitis. In addition to killing some lymphocytes directly, the AIDS virus disrupts the functioning of other CD4 cells. The symptoms of Keshan disease, which is named for the region of China where it was discovered, include enlargement of the heart and congestive heart failure. It is most common in children up to age three or after the age of 10, and affects girls more often than boys.
If the condition is chronic, treatment with moxibustion (burning a small amount of mugwort near the skin) may hasten the healing process.
Antibodies are specific proteins produced in response to exposure to a specific, usually foreign, protein or particle called an antigen. The researchers observed that the local Chinese treat Keshan disease with astragalus (Astragalus membranaceus), a plant that absorbs selenium from the soil.Selenium toxicity is still a matter of controversy.
This type of JRA usually affects the small joints of both hands and both feet, although other large joints may be affected as well.
Some oral herbal preparations may also be used in order to create the optimal healing environment for the tendon and address any underlying problems.
In this case, the body produces antibodies that bind to blood platelets that are necessary for proper blood clotting and tissue repair.
It is a known fact that humans can tolerate higher levels of selenium in its organic form (selenomethionine) than in its inorganic forms.
Some patients with arthritis in their knees will experience a different rate of growth in each leg. Practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine may also use a special form of acupressure massage called tui-na.Allopathic treatmentPain and anti-inflammatory medications (aspirin, naproxen, and ibuprofen) will help and are often used to treat tendinitis along with ice, compression wraps, and activity modification, as mentioned earlier.
Once bound, the antibodies mark the platelets for removal from the body, and they are filtered out by the spleen. Humans can show symptoms of selenium toxicity after doses as low as 1 mg of sodium selenite.
On the other hand, some researchers speculate that the organic forms of selenium may accumulate in the body and interfere with the functioning of sulfur molecules in the body, or that they may cause genetic mutations. Injections of anti-inflammatory medication, such as cortisone, often relieve chronic tendinitis, but they should be used with caution.
The symptoms may include fever, fatigue, muscle aches, loss of appetite, digestive disturbances, weight loss, skin rashes, headache, and chronically swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy). Others with polyarticular JRA will have other symptoms of a systemic illness, including anemia (low red blood cell count), decreased growth rate, low appetite, low-grade fever, and a slight rash. Research has indicated that cortisone may have detrimental effects on the healing of connective tissues and may, in fact, weaken them in the long run. Approximately 25-33% of patients will experience a form of meningitis during this phase, in which the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord become inflamed. In addition, researchers disagree about how much selenium will produce symptoms of toxicity.
This side effect would make the person susceptible to a greater injury in the future.If tendinitis is persistent and unresponsive to non-surgical treatment, the afflicted portion of the tendon can be removed through surgery.
Acute retroviral syndrome develops between one and six weeks after infection and lasts two to four weeks, sometimes up to six weeks. It has been suggested that toxicity can result from a daily intake of 2 mg in people who already have body stores of 2.5 mg of selenium or higher.
Some of these children will test positive for a marker present in other autoimmune disorders, called rheumatoid factor (RF).
Surgery is also performed to remove the calcium buildup that comes with persistent tendinitis.Expected resultsGenerally, tendinitis will heal if the activity that provokes it is stopped.
Another measurement suggests that selenium toxicity may occur wherever the food or water regularly contains more than 5 or 10 parts per million of selenium.
During latency, the virus continues to replicate in the lymph nodes, where it may cause one or more of the following conditions.PERSISTENT GENERALIZED LYMPHADENOPATHY (PGL). Children who are positive for RF tend to have a more severe course, with a disabling form of arthritis that destroys and deforms the joints. Some tendinitis complaints may last for a long time because they are not given adequate healing time before the individual returns to a vigorous level of activity.PreventionIf given enough time, tendons will strengthen to meet the demands placed on them.
Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, or PGL, is a condition in which HIV continues to produce chronic painless swellings in the lymph nodes during the latency period.
People living in areas of selenium-rich soil sometimes develop heart, eye, or muscular problems.
The lymph nodes most frequently affected by PGL are those in the areas of the neck, jaw, groin, and armpits.
Eating foods containing high amounts of selenium over a long period of time increases the risk of tooth decay. Boys and girls are equally affected, and diagnosis is usually made between the ages of five and 10. It is thought that the selenium may compete with the fluoride in teeth, thus weakening their structure. Stretching the muscles that are associated with problematic tendon will also help decrease overuse of the tendon.ResourcesBOOKSBeinfield, Harriet, and Efrem Korngold. Other symptoms associated with high levels of selenium include a metallic taste in the mouth, garlic-like breath odor, dizziness, nausea, skin inflammation, fatigue, and the loss of hair or nails. HIV also may cause a combination of food malabsorption, loss of appetite, and increased metabolism that contribute to the so-called AIDS wasting or wasting syndrome.OTHER ORGAN SYSTEMS. The symptoms of acute selenium poisoning include fever, kidney and liver damage, and eventual death.Internal medicineSelenium is most widely recognized as a substance that speeds up the metabolism of fatty acids and works together with vitamin E (tocopherol) as an antioxidant. Some children experience other complications, including inflammation of the sac containing the heart (pericarditis), inflammation of the tissue lining the chest cavity and lungs (pleuritis), and inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis). Antioxidants are organic substances that are able to counteract the damage done to human tissue by oxidation (the breakdown of fatty acids). HIV infection of the nervous system leads to general loss of strength, loss of reflexes, and feelings of numbness or burning sensations in the feet or lower legs.Late-stage AIDSLate-stage AIDS usually is marked by a sharp decline in the number of CD4+ lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), followed by a rise in the frequency of opportunistic infections and cancers. Selenium's antioxidant properties have been studied with respect to several diseases and disorders. Symptoms of actual arthritis begin later in the course of systemic onset JRA, and they often involve the wrists and ankles. Doctors monitor the number and proportion of CD4+ lymphocytes in the patient's blood in order to assess the progression of the disease and the effectiveness of different medications. In addition to its antioxidant properties, selenium also appears to work as an anti-inflammatory agent in certain disorders.CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
Many of these children continue to have periodic flares of fever and systemic symptoms throughout childhood. About 10% of infected individuals never progress to this overt stage of the disease.OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS.
It is thought that the antioxidant properties of selenium can help prevent atherosclerosis (narrowing and hardening of the arteries) by decreasing the formation of fatty deposits in the arteries. The arthritis occurs in the knees and ankles, moving over time to include the hips and lower spine. It does so by soothing the inflamed arterial walls and binding the free radicals that damage the tissues lining the arteries. Fungal infections include a yeast infection of the mouth (candidiasis or thrush) and cryptococcal meningitis.Protozoa.
The most common parasitic disease associated with AIDS is Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP).
The healthy lens requires adequate levels of three antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Glutathione peroxidase in the human eye is dependent on selenium, which suggests that a selenium deficiency speeds up the progression of cataracts.CANCER.
The arthritis usually progresses to become a serious, disabling problem.As of 2003, there is some disagreement among specialists about the classification of JRA.
Cancers of the respiratory system and the gastrointestinal tract seem to be especially sensitive to the level of selenium in the body. In 1997, the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Durban and issued a new classification system for JRA known as the Durban criteria, in an attempt to standardize definitions of the various subtypes of JRA. In a recent study, patients with histories of skin cancer were given 200 g of selenium per day. Results indicated that the patients had a reduced incidence of rectal, prostate, and lung cancers as well as a lower rate of mortality from all cancers.
MAC infections are caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, and occur in about 40% of AIDS patients.Bacteria. In addition, cervical dysplasias (abnormal growths of tissue) in women are associated with low levels of selenium in the patient's diet. Some nonspecific indicators of inflammation may be elevated, including white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a marker called C-reactive protein. AIDS patients are likely to develop bacterial infections of the skin and digestive tract.Viruses. In animal studies, as little as 1–4 parts per million of selenium added to the water or food supply is associated with a decreased incidence of cancer.
AIDS patients are highly vulnerable to cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. Children with an extraordinarily early onset of the adult type of rheumatoid arthritis will have a positive test for rheumatoid factor.TreatmentOne of the best natural therapies for JRA is resistance exercises, according to a 1999 study at the University of Buffalo in New York. Some researchers believe that it may prevent mutations or decrease the rate of cell division, particularly on the outer surfaces of the body. In the study, children did lower body exercises three times a week for an hour per session. A recent study of the effects of a selenium compound on mammary tissue indicates that selenium may inhibit the growth of tumors in deeper layers of tissue, not just cancers arising from the epithelium.As of 2002, selenium is being studied as a possible chemopreventive for prostate cancer. After eight weeks, the children had a 40–60% increase in muscle strength, speed, and endurance.
It is unclear whether it is caused by the direct effects of the virus on the brain or by intermediate causes. The researchers hope to learn more about the mechanisms by which selenium slows the progress of an established cancer as well as discover a preventive strategy that makes use of selenium.PERIODONTAL DISEASE. AIDS dementia complex is marked by loss of reasoning ability, loss of memory, inability to concentrate, apathy and loss of initiative, and unsteadiness or weakness in walking. Selenium appears to speed up the healing of fragile gum tissue as well as opposing the actions of free radicals, which are extremely damaging to gum tissue.RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
Selenium may be useful for treating several autoimmune diseases, especially lupus and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
In a related study, researchers found exercise decreased inflammatory agents while increasing anti-inflammatory compounds in the body, thereby improving immune function. Patients in late-stage AIDS may develop inflammations of the muscles, particularly in the hip area, and may have arthritis-like pains in the joints.ORAL SYMPTOMS. Selenium is necessary for production of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which reduces the production of inflammatory substances in the body (prostaglandins and leukotrienes) as well as opposing free radicals. A strict vegetarian diet low in fats and free of glutens can also be helpful, as well as an allergy elimination diet. Although supplemental selenium by itself has not been shown to cause improvement in RA, selenium taken together with vitamin E appears to have measurable positive results.OSTEOARTHRITIS. A number of autoimmune disorders, including JRA, seem to have a relationship to food allergies. Hairy leukoplakia is a white area of diseased tissue on the tongue that may be flat or slightly raised.

Recent research in Germany indicates that selenium is beneficial in the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), particularly OA resulting from physical wear and tear or structural problems in the patient's joints. Identification and elimination of reactive foods may result in a decrease in JRA symptoms.Alternative treatments that have been suggested for arthritis include juice therapy, which can work to detoxify the body, helping to reduce JRA symptoms.
Some recommended fruits and vegetables to include in the juice are carrots, celery, cabbage, potatoes, cherries, lemons, beets, cucumbers, radishes, and garlic. Patients with late-stage AIDS may develop Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a skin tumor that primarily affects homosexual men. A topical 2.5% solution of selenium sulfide is available for the treatment of tinea versicolor.
Tomatoes and other vegetables in the nightshade family (potatoes, eggplant, and red and green peppers) are discouraged.
It is characterized by reddish-purple blotches or patches (brownish in African-Americans) on the skin or in the mouth. Massage oils include rosemary, benzoin, chamomile, camphor, juniper, eucalyptus, and lavender.
KS appears to be caused by a herpes virus.The second most common form of cancer in AIDS patients is a tumor of the lymphatic system (lymphoma).
Some naturopaths recommend taking selenium together with vitamin E on the grounds that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects.
Several alternative medicine doctors suggest there may be some benefit in taking cartilage supplements, although no definitive studies have been done on this treatment.
There are at present no definitive studies on the positive effects on health of selenium taken as a dietary supplement.PrecautionsTopical preparationsPersons using selenium compounds to control dandruff or tinea versicolor should be careful to avoid applying the product to damaged or broken skin.
The physician will use the CDC list to decide whether the patient falls into one of these three groups:definitive diagnoses with or without laboratory evidence of HIV infectiondefinitive diagnoses with laboratory evidence of HIV infectionpresumptive diagnoses with laboratory evidence of HIV infectionPhysical findingsAlmost all symptoms of AIDS can occur with other diseases.
The general physical examination may range from normal findings to symptoms that are closely associated with AIDS.
This process is known as percutaneous absorption and can cause selenium toxicity if the preparation is used for a long period of time. One study showed 1,800 International Units (IU) of vitamin E a day could be helpful in relieving symptoms. Patients should wash their hands carefully after applying the selenium product to affected areas. Other nutrients that assist in detoxifying the body, including methionine, cysteine, and other amino acids, may also be helpful. When the doctor examines the patient, he or she will look for the overall pattern of symptoms rather than any one finding.Laboratory tests for HIV infectionBLOOD TESTS (SEROLOGY). Doing so will minimize absorption through small breaks in the skin of the hands.Nutritional supplementsIt is difficult to assess the effectiveness of dietary supplements containing selenium because there is little agreement on standards for interpreting selenium levels in human blood.
Constitutional homeopathy can also work to quiet the symptoms of JRA and bring about balance to the whole person.Allopathic treatmentTreating JRA involves efforts to decrease the amount of inflammation, in order to preserve movement.
Medications that can be used for this include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (such as ibuprofen and naproxen). At present, patients who are being tested for HIV infection usually are given an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for the presence of HIV antibody in their blood. In addition, most of the selenium in the body is not carried in the blood but is stored in tissue. Oral (by mouth) steroid medications are effective, but have many serious side effects with long-term use. Positive ELISA results then are tested with a Western blot or immunofluorescence (IFA) assay for confirmation. The combination of the ELISA and Western blot tests is more than 99.9% accurate in detecting HIV infection within four to eight weeks following exposure. In the absence of a useful test, people who wish to take supplemental selenium should first find out whether they live in an area that already has high levels of selenium in the drinking water and soil. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test can be used to detect the presence of viral nucleic acids in the very small number of HIV patients who have false-negative results on the ELISA and Western blot tests. Other drugs that have been used to treat JRA include methotrexate, sulfasalazine, penicillamine, and hydroxychloroquine.
In 2003, a one-step test that was quicker and cheaper was shown effective for detecting HIV in the physician office setting.
Physical therapy and exercises are often recommended in order to improve joint mobility and strengthen supporting muscles.
However, further research was ongoing as to its effectiveness in replacing current tests as a first check for HIV.OTHER LABORATORY TESTS.
Both topical products and megadoses of selenium taken by mouth can cause selenium toxicity. Occasionally, splints are used to rest painful joints and to prevent or improve deformities.The FDA approved a new drug, etanercept, marketed under the brand name Enbrel, in 1999. In addition to diagnostic blood tests, there are other blood tests that are used to track the course of AIDS. The symptoms of selenium toxicity include nausea, vomiting, tiredness, abdominal pain, a garlicky breath odor, and the loss of hair and fingernails. A study by Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, released in 1999, showed the drug was effective in 75% of children with severe JRA. Tissue biopsies, samples of cerebrospinal fluid, and sophisticated imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography scans (CT) are used to diagnose AIDS-related cancers, some opportunistic infections, damage to the central nervous system, and wasting of the muscles.
Patients should remove all their jewelry before applying the shampoo or lotion.With regard to dietary supplements, there is some evidence that vitamin C inactivates selenium within the digestive tract. The drug eases joint pain, reduces swelling, and improves mobility.In 2003, a group of Japanese researchers noted that the blood serum of patients with JRA contains elevated levels of interleukin-6, a cytokine (nonantibody protein) that is critical to regulation of the immune system and blood cell formation. Because interleukin-6 is also associated with inflammation, the researchers think that compounds inhibiting the formation of interleukin-6 might provide new treatment options for JRA.Expected resultsThe prognosis for pauciarticular JRA is quite good, as is the prognosis for spondyloarthropathy. AIDS patients also are given blood tests for syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases.Diagnosis in childrenDiagnostic blood testing in children older than 18 months is similar to adult testing, with ELISA screening confirmed by Western blot. Younger infants can be diagnosed by direct culture of the HIV virus, PCR testing, and p24 antigen testing.In terms of symptoms, children are less likely than adults to have an early acute syndrome.
RF-positive polyarticular JRA carries a difficult prognosis, often with progressive, destructive arthritis and joint deformities. They are, however, likely to have delayed growth, a history of frequent illness, recurrent ear infections, a low blood cell count, failure to gain weight, and unexplained fevers. Systemic onset JRA has a variable prognosis, depending on the organ systems affected, and the progression to polyarticular JRA. Children with AIDS are more likely to develop bacterial infections, inflammation of the lungs, and AIDS-related brain disorders than are HIV-positive adults.TreatmentAIDS patients turn to alternative medicine when conventional treatments are ineffective, and to supplement conventional treatment, reduce disease symptoms, counteract drug effects, and improve quality of life.
Because alternative medicines may interact with conventional medicines, it is important for the patient to inform his or her doctor of all treatments being used.A report released in 2003 showed trends in increased use of alternative medicine among HIV-positive individuals. Based on 1997 figures, the study reported that 79% of those seeking alternative therapy to help with AIDS treatment or symptom relief were men and 63% were women. One study found that 250 micrograms of selenomethionin daily for one year showed no improvement in CD4 cell counts or disease symptoms. Greater than 1,000 micrograms daily is toxic.Vitamin C has antioxidant and antiretroviral activities. One study found that treatment caused a trend to decrease viral load.DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) is commonly used by AIDS patients to counteract wasting. However, a 2002 study found that it was associated with a significant increase in measures that indicate mental health improvement.Vitamin A deficiency is associated with increased mortality. One study of pregnant women with AIDS found that 5000 IU of vitamin A daily led to stabilized viral load as compared to a placebo group. Excessive vitamin A during pregnancy can cause birth defects.Beta-carotene supplementation for AIDS is controversial as studies have shown both beneficial and detrimental effects. Beta-carotene supplementation has led to elevation in white blood cell counts and changes in the CD4 cell count.
AIDS patients took a tablet that contained 31 herbs that was based on the formulas Enhance and Clear Heat. Recommended dose is one quarter to one half teaspoon twice dailyBoxwood extract (SPV-30) has antiviral activity. Recommended dose is one capsule thrice daily.Garlic concentrate (Allicin) helped reduce bowel movements, stabilized or increased body weight, or cured Cryptosporidium parvum infection in affected AIDS patients. However, a 2002 National Institutes of Health study cautioned that garlic supplements could reduce levels of a protease inhibitor that is used to treat AIDS patients, so patients should discuss using garlic supplements with their physicians.Tea tree oil (Malaleuca) improves or cures infection of the mouth by the yeast Candida. Tea tree oil is available as soap, dental floss, toothpick, and mouthwash.Marijuana is used to treat wasting. Studies have found that patients who use marijuana had increased food intake and weight gain. The active ingredient delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is licensed for treating AIDS wasting.Psychotherapy and stress reductionMany therapies that are directed at improving mental state can have a direct impact on disease severity and quality of life. The drugs are used in combination with one another and fall into four classes:Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. These drugs work by interfering with the action of HIV reverse transcriptase, thus ending the virus replication process.
Protease inhibitors are effective against HIV strains that have developed resistance to nucleoside analogues, and often are used in combination with them. These compounds include saquinavir (Fortovase), ritonavir (Norvir), indinavir (Crixivan), amprenavir (Agenerase), lopinavir plus ritonavir (Reyataz), and nelfinavir (Viracept).Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Three are available, nevirapine (Viramune), efavirenz (Sustiva), and delavirdine (Rescriptor).Fusion inhibitors.
Department of Health and Human Services revised its guidelines for the use of these agents to help clinicians better choose the best combinations.
This treatment often is complicated by the development of resistance in the disease organisms. AIDS-related malignancies in the central nervous system usually are treated with radiation therapy. Cancers elsewhere in the body are treated with chemotherapy.Prophylactic treatment for opportunistic infectionsProphylactic treatment is treatment that is given to prevent disease. The three drugs given are trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, dapsone, or pentamidine in aerosol form.STIMULATION OF BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION. Because many patients with AIDS suffer from abnormally low levels of both red and white blood cells, they may be given medications to stimulate blood cell production.
Patients with AIDS-related lymphomas of the central nervous system die within two to three months of diagnosis; those with systemic lymphomas may survive for eight to ten months. In America, the successful treatment of AIDS patients with HAART has actually led to a growing number of people living with HIV. A recent study shows that HAART therapy substantially reduces risk of AIDS-related pneumonia (PCP), although PCP still remains the most common AIDS-defining illness among opportunistic infections.
Other recent studies show that these protease inhibitors may result in high cholesterol and put AIDS patients at eventual risk for heart disease. Further research must be done, since long-term effects of HAART treatment are just now being studied.
Most clinicians would say the benefits outweigh the risks anyway.PreventionAs of 2000, there is no vaccine effective against AIDS. Several vaccines to prevent initial HIV infection and disease progression are being tested.
The vaccine is composed of up to 32 HIV gene fragments that can induce a number of immune responses.
In the same year, the British government worked with five African countries in a trial to find an effective gel that would protect women against HIV during sex. The study leaders believed if they could find a lotion that could be applied before intercourse that would help prevent HIV transmission, they would give women the ability to better protect themselves from HIV. If treated aggressively and early, the development of AIDS can sometimes be postponed indefinitely. If HIV infection is confirmed, it also is vital to inform sexual partners.ResourcesBOOKSAbrams, Donald I.
Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 1994.The Global AIDS Policy Coalition.

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