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Most of the proteins exposed to the watery surroundings at the surface of cells are glycoproteins.
This image shows the primary structure of glycophorin A, a glycoprotein that spans the plasma membrane ("Lipid bilayer") of human red blood cells.
Two polymorphic versions of glycophorin A, which differ only at residues 1 and 5, occur in humans. Glycophorin A is the most important attachment site by which the parasite Plasmodium falciparum invades human red blood cells.
The sugars on glycoproteins have been placed there by glycosylation — a precise enzymatic activity that makes a product which would otherwise not function correctly. However, sugars can also spontaneously form covalent links to proteins (and lipids) — a process called glycation.
The "origin of life" (OOL) is best described as the chemical and physical processes that brought into existence the first self-replicating molecule. There are so many problems with purely natural explanations for the chemical origin of life on earth that many scientists have already abandoned all hopes that life had a natural origin on earth. The dominating scientific paradigm for the chemical origin of life was derived over 70 years ago at a time when the popular cosmology held that the universe, and essentially the earth itself, were infinitely old.4 Those trying to explain life in purely naturalistic terms liked having an infinite universe, for it made irrelevant any high improbabilities associated with the natural origin of life. OOL scientists thus assume there was a purely natural cause, though often there is no external scientific evidence for that cause, only philosophical assumptions. Modern geochemists know Miller was wrong to make these assumptions because the early earth probably had a non-reducing atmosphere that did not contain methane (discussed further on the next page).
The basic idea behind the chemical origin of life is that simple molecules became more complex molecules which eventually allowed the first auto-catalytic self-reproducing molecule to exist.
The touted sequence of events leading from a "random" explosion of matter and energy to DNA-based life. Most origin of life researchers would generally agree with such a diagram, although some add "extraterrestrial input" in varying amounts somewhere along the line. As noted, in the 1950?s, Stanley Miller appeared to have found a way to make some of the ingredients of the primordial soup by "zapping" a mixture of H2, HCN, H2O, CH4, CHO, and NH3 gasses with an electric spark.
Some folks have also done enantiomer enrichment experiments using clays and other minerals that are optically active that showed some promise. It should be noted that some critics of intelligent design have begun to perpetuate the claim that amino acids have been produced in the presence of oxygen or non-reducing atmospheres, thus allowing Miller-Urey Experiments to be relevant to atmosphere on the early earth. Many speculate that given a primordial soup, the chemical origin of life does not seem quote so improbable. Polymerization is the process by which "monomers" (simple organic molecules) form covalent bonds with one another to produce "polymers" (complex organic molecules).
To help, here's a little analogy which might give some understanding of the types of structures we're dealing with here: monomers are like the letters, polymers are the words, biochemical pathways are the sentences, cells are the paragraphs, biological systems are the chapters, and the organism is the whole book! If the origin of life took place in the pre-biotic soup, then it took place in an aqueous (i.e.
This would be under water and could not allow for polymerization through dehydration synthesis.
Organic material would still exposed to water, inhibiting polymerization (dehydration-synthesis).
Water prevents polymerization because polymerization cannot take place in the presence of water. This scenario encounters the same problems as the tide-pools?it must dry out the ?soup? through volcanic heat to allow polymerization.
Stanley Miller once said, "making compounds and making life are two different things."14 This is quite true, for life, by definition, must have the ability to self-replicate--a process requiring many enzymes and genetic biochemical molecules.
These purely speculative scenarios aren't bad on their own merits, but they are just another reminder of the philosophical presupposition driving this research in the first place: naturalism.
The theory then says that some unknown precursor of RNA turned into RNA through an unknown process.
But these molecules must be encapsulated within a "cell wall structure" or a small protective enclosure from the outside world. The transcription - translation process is the means by which the information in the DNA code creates protein--the molecules which do things in the cell. Another level of complexity in this process is how the tRNA get assigned to the right amino acids. Leaving the "chicken-egg" problem aside for a moment, how would we get the first cell-walls for these early replicating sets of molecules?
A proto-cell would need the protective cell wall to keep out harmful substances in the environment. Cells today have complex and specified ?glycoproteins? which can recognize and ?discriminate? between harmful and beneficial substances.
If naturalistic theories are not bearing fruit for science, perhaps we feel justified looking outside the reigning paradigm for an answer to the origin of life.


Intelligent design theory begins with the observation that intelligent agents tend to produce large amounts of information when they create objects. The simplest known single-celled life forms contain over 400 genes,31 and are much more complex than any hypothetical pre-RNA world. It is a common misconception that some forms of life are ?primitive? and thus might be easily produced through natural chemical processes.
Description: Aqueous solution of a combination of mainly intracellular proteins, peptides and amino acids derived from a natural, specially-selected strain of yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae).
It differs from the "evolution of life" because Darwinian evolution employs mutation and natural selection to change organisms, which requires reproduction. As Hubert Yockey states, "even if life proves to be improbable, it will happen in such a[n infinite] universe."4 In other words, given infinite time, infinite things are possible. Science can never absolutely prove anything regarding these matters and thus any belief, no matter how scientific one may think it to be, requires some measure of faith.
However, the point is that there exists a materialistic philosophy inherent in OOL research which assumes that only natural causes were involved in the OOL in the first place. Many would define the chemical origin of life as the existence of a single molecule that was not only able to replicate on its own, but could produce any molecules necessary to facilitate that replication. Pre-biotic synthesis is the means by which sufficient quantities of all the ingredients thought to be necessary for life's natural origin were formed. The first time Miller got nothing but brown tar but after more experiments he has obtained (albeit often in very small amounts) at least 19 of the 20 amino acids upon which life is built.
Just as a baker adds the proper ingredients to bake a cake, so the researchers designed their pre-biotic synthesis experiments in such a way as to get the s ought-after organic molecules. These "pre-biotic chemicals" are formed only in very small amounts and degrade quickly into a tar-like substance.17, 18 Not only would UV radiation destroy any molecules that were made, but their own short lifespans would also greatly limit their numbers. If there was ever a soup, the earliest Precambrian rocks should contain high levels of non-biological carbon, for biologically produced carbon contains an excess of "isotopically light" carbon.
However, it would appear that the existence of the primordial soup itself may have been greatly improbable.
Monomers are thought be the constituents of the pre-biotic soup (amino acids, sugars, lipids, simple carbohydrates, nucleic acids), but polymers are chains--often very long chains--of monomers (peptides, phospholipids, RNA?, DNA?). Furthermore, organic compounds would quickly decompose if exposed to the high heat of deep sea thermal vents.
Experiments which have mimicked optimal heating and drying conditions near tide pools have only created small to modest amounts of polymers.
According to Le Chateliers principle, chemical reactions do not take place in the presence of large quantities of the product.
But even if dry monomers could exist in high concentrations under perfect temperature conditions (as occurs only in experiments), experiments suggests the resulting polymers are still too small to allow for the next steps in the origin of life.
According to Joyce (2002), molecules like RNA or DNA are too complex to have arisen out the soup (assuming it existed) so there must have been some other more simple precursor to RNA or DNA. Only when scientists assume there must be a natural explanation do they turn to completely unfalsifiable unverifiable and incomplete speculatory hypotheses.
This "RNA-world hypothesis" states that life then arose from a population of self-replicating RNA molecules. In part a, DNA in the cell nucleus is ?transcribed? into mRNA, which is then transported out of the nucleus to the ribosome.
For the DNA language to be translated properly, each tRNA codon must be attached to the correct amino acid. This is part of what gives a modern cell wall the special ability to act as a living filter for the interior of the cell. Its revitalizing capacity strengthens the skin's natural ability to protect itself against damaging environmental influences.
In fact, measuring the amount of glycation of hemoglobin is an important test for determining how well diabetes is being controlled.
Since there was no reproduction before the first life, no "mutation - selection" mechanism was operating to build complexity. In this "retroactive science," the hypothesis that life could have arisen naturally is not tested, it is assumed, and research proceeds from there.
Furthermore, it has been found that comets and carbonaceous asteroids, which are thought to have been constantly bombarding the earth early in its history, can contain appreciable amounts of organic molecules.
Methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3), were chosen not because they were actually thought to be a part of the early atmosphere but rather because they are essential to the production of the proper amino acids and gave the desired results. For example, at 100?C (boiling point of water), the half lives of the nucleic acids Adenine and Guanine are 1 year, uracil is 12 years, and cytozine is 19 days20 (nucleic acids and other important proteins such as chlorophyll and hemoglobin have never been synthesized in origin-of-life type experiments19). Ancient sedimentary rocks, however, do not reveal this signature,29 and thus there is no positive evidence for this soup.
For as second, let's reason like the scientists do: The primordial soup seems necessary for life's natural origin, life evolved naturally, therefore the primordial soup must have existed!


This step is basically the method by which you get bigger molecules from the smallest molecules. According to Le Chateliers Principle, one of the basic laws of chemistry, the presence of a product (in this case, water) will slow the reaction. One reason that the primordial soup was hypothesized is because in such an aqueous environment, there would be a high rate of random chemical interaction.
None have yet yielded candidates which could be stable replicators in an early earthlike environment that have the capacity to evolve into a more complex form. If this crucial step in DNA replication is not functional, then the language of DNA breaks down.
Hence, OOL theories cannot rely upon natural selection to increase complexity and must create the first life using only the laws of chemistry and physics.
All this looks promising at first when trying to build up an ancient storehouse of pre-biotic organic chemicals. As noted, Stanley Miller admits that he assumed that the atmosphere had methane and ammonia?he did not test that hypothesis. Such short-lived molecules could never be stockpiled, even if they could be produced naturally. If one tries to polymerize monomers into polymers in an aqueous solution (one where water is the solvent), it not possible to obtain any appreciable amount. In other words, molecules would always be bumping into new neighbors, increasing the odds that many chemical reactions could take place. Like a copy from the library, RNA has a complementary code to DNA and goes out to do the dirty work. They just wanted to see if they could produce the right molecules using various contrived mixtures of gasses. If the primordial soup is necessary for life's origin, but the soup didn't exist, than life didn't arise naturally. The bottom line, the polymerization step in the chemical origin of life could never take place in water?this step is impossible in the primordial soup.
Even if the necessary polymers could be produced, here they are outside of water and there will not be a high rate of random chemical interactions to further form complex molecules. Graham Cairns-Smith, hypothesized that clay crystals could have acted as a template which could allow for the continued creation and replication of organic material. A few types of RNA have been known to have auto-catalytic self-replicating abilities, however this scenario inevitably encounters a chicken and egg problem18.
These fundamental components form an irreducibly complex system in which all components must have been present from the start. Amazingly, these aaRSs themselves are coded for by the DNA: this forms the essence of an irreducibly-complex chicken-egg problem.
Many cosmologists opposed these ideas because they wanted an infinite universe where life's natural origin wasn't improbable.
Given the simple molecules they were trying to synthesize, these experiments are little more than simple exercises in organic chemistry and literally say nothing about the chemical origin of life.
But models for earth's formation indicate the earth was hot, meaning degradation would occur even faster!
Assuming, for a second, that the primordial soup did come to exist, we are now ready to analyze the second major step in the chemical origin of life: could the molecules in the soup have come together to make larger, more complex molecules.
However, since the polymerization step can't take place in water, the number of random chemical interactions would be almost infinitely reduced. Hypothetically this scenario could create a wide variety of organic molecules, however it lacks any experimental evidence. However, nothing even close to a complete scenario by which polymers can naturally form a self-replicating molecule has ever been put forth. How could self-replicating RNA arise naturally when it essentially is an irreducibly complex system that cannot functionally replicate without other distinct components. Instead of trying to make life in a liquid environment, you're now trying to make it in a more solid goo, which is much less congenial to random chemical interactions. As there are no experiments, there are no results to judge and no practical problems encountered. How could life originate if the proper molecules have such a small chance of even finding each other? Plasma Technologies for Reducing CO2 Emissions from Combustion Exhaust with Toxic Admixtures to Utilisable Products, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 61: 273-287 (2000).



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