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Genital herpes is an infection of the genitals (penis in men, vulva and vagina in women) and surrounding area of skin. Genital herpes is usually passed on by skin-to-skin contact with someone who is already infected with the virus. The first time you are infected with genital herpes simplex it is called the primary infection.
Asymptomatic -Most people never develop any symptoms when they are infected with the virus.
A first episode of symptoms, you may feel generally unwell with a mild fever, and aches and pains. If it is painful when you pass urine, it is often less painful if you pass urine whilst sitting in a warm bath or with water flowing over the area. Anaesthetic ointment that you can buy at pharmacies (such as lidocaine 5%) may relieve itching or pain. An ice pack (ice wrapped in a tea towel) placed over the sores for 5-10 minutes may be soothing. You should avoid sharing towels or any sponges or face cloths with other people, as this may pass on the infection. When you resume sexual activity after an episode has cleared, a lubricant may help, as some people find the friction of having sex may trigger a recurrence. A specialist will normally advise about what to do if you develop genital herpes whilst you are pregnant, or if you have recurrent genital herpes and become pregnant. If you develop a first episode of genital herpes within the last six weeks of your pregnancy, or around the time of the birth, the risk of passing on the virus to your baby is highest (there is about a 4 in 10 chance). Therefore, in this situation your specialist is likely to recommend that you have a Caesarean section delivery. However, if you decide against a Caesarean and opt for a vaginal birth, the specialist is likely to recommend that you be given antiviral medication (usually aciclovir). If you develop a first episode of herpes infection during the first stages of your pregnancy, there is a risk of miscarriage. As long as there are two months between your catching the virus and the birth of your baby, a normal vaginal delivery is likely to be safe for the baby.
However, there is some debate as to what is best if you do have a recurrent episode of sores or blisters during childbirth. Another debatable point is whether antiviral medication should be taken in the last four weeks running up to childbirth. If you already know your diagnosis, you may search for the health topic alphabetically here. Disclaimer: This health video may contain graphic material and viewer discretion is advised. At least 85% of the world population have serological evidence of having had a herpes simplex infection. Herpes simplex infections can be primary- the first infection in a previously seronegative patient – or recurrent. Follows direct contact with an infected individual, either with active disease or shedding viral particles during a latent phase. Trigger factors include minor trauma, febrile illnesses, ultraviolet light and possibly stress.
Complications include: Erythema multiforme (65% of attacks are triggered by a herpes simplex recurrence within the preceding two weeks), eczema herpeticum, persistent ulceration in the immunocompromised and keratoconjuctivitis. These are transmitted sexually, and begin to appear at puberty or are spread from a mother’s genital tract infection to a newborn child.
The median recurrence rate is about one attack every 3 months for HSV-2 infections (and far less often for genital HSV-1 infections). Prevention is difficult because the virus is ubiquitous and spread by people with no obvious active infection.
Those looking after patients with atopic eczema should stay away if they have cold sores because eczema herpeticum is so serious.
Suppressive long-term antiviral therapy may be needed for particularly frequent or severe relapses. The decision to use oral antiviral therapy for recurrent facial herpes simplex depends on the frequency and severity of relapses and the damage being done to the quality of life.
Long-term suppressive therapy can be considered in genital herpes relapsing more than 5 times per year.
Objective: To describe the prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) infection among males in six major cities of Pakistan. Methods: A cross sectional behavioural and biological survey of urban male population aged 16-45 years was conducted in Rawalpindi, Lahore, Karachi, Faisalabad, Peshawar and Quetta to measure the prevalence of five sexually transmitted infections and assess sexual behaviours. Conclusion: Empirical evidence from this study suggests that there is city wise variation in the prevalence of HSV-2 infection across the major cities in Pakistan. Globally Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 (HSV-2) is amongst the most common sexually transmitted infections.1 HSV-2 seroprevalence studies show variation in infection by geographic location.
Till recently, we did not have either national or city wise prevalence estimates for HSV infection in Pakistan.
The main component of the study was a cross-sectional behavioural and biological survey of 2400 men carried out in six major cities of Pakistan from June to August 2007.
City selection was based on inclusion of the four provincial capitals of the country, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta and Karachi as well as two other larger cities, Rawalpindi and Faisalabad.
The structured survey questionnaire was developed taking into consideration existing questionnaires developed on this topic by previous studies such as Behavioural Surveillance Survey.8 Separate informed consent was obtained from the participants for conducting both the behavioural questionnaire and obtaining biological specimens.
The entire study was approved by the Ethical Review Boards of the Population Council in New York, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and HOPE (Health Oriented Preventive Education), a Pakistani research NGO which has its own ethical clearance board.
Of a total of 83 respondents, 12 were positive for HSV-2 infection and were also diagnosed with syphilis.
In Table, the multivariate analysis shows that HSV-2 infection was significantly associated with age greater than 27 years (27 years was selected as the cut off since it was the median age of the respondents in the overall sample).
According to Corey et al,14 more than 30 epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that prevalent HSV-2 is associated with a two to four fold increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition. The clear linkage between HSV-2 infection and HIV acquisition points to the need for the prompt diagnosis and early management of HSV-2 infections as an important strategy for combating the spread of the HIV infection. An important aspect of HSV infection that raises a major public health challenge is the high proportion of infections that are unrecognized by both patients and clinicians. Many cases of genital herpes are transmitted by persons who are unaware that they are infected. Based on the growing international evidence policy makers and programme managers should consider the prevalence of HSV-2 infection as a "canary in the mine" in predicting the emergence of a future HIV epidemic and the need to invest in HSV-2 surveillance programmes.
Future prevention intervention must therefore keep in mind targeting this specific group of older men, through focused IEC (Information, Education and Communication) and behaviour change strategies that reduce individual vulnerability by modifying sexual behaviours. To further enhance the effectiveness of prevention programmes, primary care providers should be trained to recognize, counsel and adequately manage STIs. Currently, due to paucity of specific STI clinics in the public sector facilities, most men resort to traditional or private practitioners to manage their sexual health problems. The study of Sexually Transmitted Infections among urban male population in Pakistan: Identifying the Bridging Population was commissioned by the National AIDS Control Program, Government of Pakistan, with funding from the Department for International Development (DFID), United Kingdom. 9.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the qualitative detection of human IgG class antibodies to HSV-2.
This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics.
Zovirax and Vectavir are two antiviral creams which can be bought over the counter in pharmacies to treat cold sores. Abreva is an over the counter cream approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating cold sores.
Some people find applying Bach Rescue Remedy cream to cold sores helps prevent them from worsening. 3.A number of studies show you can reduce the frequency of cold sore attacks by taking vitamin C and the amino acid lysine on a daily basis. Please Note: Information provided on this site is no substitute for professional medical help. HighlightsHerpes VirusesHerpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is the main cause of herpes infections that occur on the mouth and lips. TransmissionTo infect people, the herpes simplex viruses (both HSV-1 and HSV-2) must get into the body through tiny injuries in the skin or through a mucous membrane, such as inside the mouth or on the genital area. Unfortunately, only 5% of infected pregnant women have a history of symptoms, so in many cases herpes infection is not suspected, or symptoms are missed, at the time of delivery.
Eczema HerpeticumA form of herpes infection called eczema herpeticum, also known as Kaposi's varicellaform eruption, can affect patients with skin disorders and immunocompromised patients. Herpes in Patients with Compromised Immune SystemsHerpes simplex is particularly devastating when it occurs in immunocompromised patients and, unfortunately, co-infection is common.
The statements above for H-clr, a Herbal Dietary Supplement, has not been evaluated by any Food or Drug Administration.This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. For example, a herpes simplex infection that develops on a finger is commonly called a whitlow. The moist skin that lines the mouth, genitals and anus is the most susceptible to infection.
At least 8 in 10 people with genital herpes simplex virus do not know that they are infected. A blister can be swabbed by a doctor or nurse to obtain a small sample to send to the laboratory. Some people also apply ointment about five minutes before passing urine if this is painful.
In most people who take medication every day, the recurrences are either stopped completely, or their frequency and severity are greatly reduced. However, some virus will be present on the genital skin surface from time to time, although infrequently.
Occasionally, the blisters become infected by bacteria (other germs) to cause a spreading skin infection. This will greatly reduce the chance that the baby comes into contact with the virus (mainly in the blisters and sores around your genitals).
This is because there will be time for antibodies to form and be passed on to the baby to protect it when it is being born.
Even if you have an episode of blisters or sores during childbirth, the risk of your baby developing a serious herpes infection is low.
By age 30, 50% of adults of high economic status in the US are seropositive to HSV-1, in contrast to 80% of those of lower status. The introduction of aciclovir (DNA polymeras inhibitor) was a milestone although it does not eradicate the virus.
In 2007 the Ministry of Health and the National Aids Control Program (NACP) commissioned a behavioural and biological study of urban male population that was implemented by the Population Council.
Only male population were selected as they constitute the bridging population that is a conduit for the spread of sexually transmitted infections from high to low risk general population. A multistage sampling design was employed to select a total of 400 men aged 16-45 years in each city.
Two data collection teams, each comprising a doctor, phlebotomist, lab technician and two social interviewers remained in the field for 45 days in each city.
Proportion of unmarried respondents was 47 percent of which 80 percent were employed and 14 percent were illiterate. Nine respondents who tested positive for HSV-2 reported as never having had sexual intercourse in their life times. The presence of a concentrated epidemic in the high risk groups suggests the need for more targeted interventions at mitigating high risk behaviours including the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Up to 70 percent of genital HSV infections are unrecognized.3 Asymptomatic infection plays a major role in maintaining viral circulation in society.


Results from this study also show the relationship between educational level and infection prevalence to be city specific. Counseling will play an important role in preventing transmission to the partner and subsequent neonatal mortality.
These practitioners mostly prescribe antibiotics which may cover bacterial infections, but they do not treat viral infections. Appropriate strategies for preventing acquisition and management of Sexually Transmitted Infections should be amongst the priorities for curtailing the future spread of an HIV epidemic in Pakistan.
Age-specific prevalence of infection with herpes simplex virus types 2 and 1: a global review.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and genital ulcer disease in South Africa: the herpetic connection. Trends in HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence and risk factors in pregnant women in Harare, Zimbabwe. HIV testing in national population-based surveys: experience from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Etiology of genital ulcers and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus coinfection in 10 US cities. Sero-epidemiological and sociological patterns of herpes simplex virus infection in the world.
The epidemiology of herpes simplex virus type-2 infection among married women in Mysore, India. The effects of herpes simplex virus-2 on HIV-1 acquisition and transmission: a review of two overlapping epidemics. Seroepidemiological study of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in Brazil, Estonia, India, Morocco, and Sri Lanka. Antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2 as a marker of sexual risk behavior in rural Tanzania. High seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in STD clinic attendees and non-high risk controls: A case control study at a referral hospital in South India. These products do not kill the HSV virus but they may prevent it from multiplying and causing more blisters. To avoid spreading the virus, wash your hands with soap and water after touching cold sores or after applying creams. Both viruses can be carried in bodily fluids (such as saliva, semen, or fluid in the female genital tract) or in fluid from herpes sores. If there is evidence of an active outbreak, doctors usually advise a Cesarean section to prevent the baby from contracting the virus in the birth canal during delivery.Approach to the Pregnant Herpes Patient. This means that the virus is most commonly passed on by having vaginal, anal or oral (mouth-to-genitals) sex, or just close genital contact with an infected person. However, even people who do not get symptoms may, on occasions, have virus in their genital area and therefore be infectious to sexual partners. Gentle drying with a hairdryer on its lowest setting may be more comfortable than with a towel. So, there is still a small chance that you may pass on the virus when you have sex when you do not have symptoms. They may also suggest that antiviral medication should be given to your baby after he or she is born. The specialist may advise that you should be treated with antiviral medication at the time of infection. They are closely related but differ in their epidemiology, although both are spread by close personal contact. Regular use of condoms helps prevent genital herpes and a high protection factor sunscreen helps to prevent recurrent facial lesions. In each city 10 blocks demarcated by the Population Census Organization were selected based on probability proportional to socio-economic status. The two main objectives of this DFID-funded study were to estimate the prevalence of five commonly occurring STIs, including HIV, in six major cities of the country and to document sexual behaviours amongst urban male population. In the first stage 10 blocks demarcated by the Population Census Organization (that comprise 200-250 households) were selected in each city based on probability proportionate to socio-economic status using male and female literacy as a proxy indicator for economic status. Data analysis included descriptive statistics measuring frequencies, bi and multivariate analysis based on logistic regression models. In total 106 individual respondents were diagnosed with one of the five STIs, out of which 83 cases were diagnosed with HSV-2 infection. Association was also observed between presence of HSV-2 infection and respondents having four or more non-marital sexual partners (either male or female) in the last 12 months [adjusted O.R. Having multiple partners is statistically significantly associated with disease occurrence. For instance, Rawalpindi with a high male literacy rate (82 percent) had the lowest prevalence of HSV-2. To ensure adequate treatment, antibody specific tests for HSV-2 detection should be made available on an incremental basis at all tertiary level care facilities, at least at the district headquarter hospitals where functional laboratories are already present. Mass awareness must be created in the general population to access services from trained providers who have the facilities to provide information, counseling, testing, and appropriate treatment.
Rana Muzaffar, Head of Molecular Biology at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), and her team, Dr. Also, while they have little effect on blisters that have already formed, they may stop them from getting worse. The risk for infection is highest with direct contact of blisters or sores during an outbreak.Once the virus has contact with the mucous membranes or skin wounds, it begins to replicate.
If you can identify a trigger, it may be helpful to try to avoid this in the future, if possible. If you do have sex, using a condom may not fully protect against passing on the virus, as the condom only protects the area that is covered. This paper discusses results related to the prevalence of HSV-2 infection amongst males in the six major cities of Pakistan. Within each block 40 individuals were selected from each household through systematic sampling with a random start. All specimens were transported to the laboratory of the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation at Karachi. In this paper the multivariate analysis has looked at the association of the independent factors age, education, marital status, sex in the last three months and number of partners with the presence of HSV-2 infection. The results related to the prevalence of Genital Herpes (HSV-2) in the six major urban centres of the country are presented in Figure. With a concentrated HIV epidemic already manifest in the high risk groups, genital herpes may serve as a conduit for the spread of subsequent HIV infections into the general low risk population of women. On the other hand Karachi which is a metropolitan city with a large migrant population of unskilled workers and a lower male literacy level (72 percent) had the highest prevalence of all six cities. Furthermore health educational campaigns launched through health facilities should educate men about risk factors and the need for periodic testing in order to avoid complications that can occur in case they remain asymptomatic for long.
The risk of infection is highest during outbreak periods when there are visible sores and lesions.
The virus is then transported within nerve cells to their roots where it remains inactive (latent) for some period of time. Scarring and corneal thinning develop, which may cause the eye's globe to rupture, resulting in blindness.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all patients diagnosed with HSV-2 should be tested for HIV.The majority of patients with HIV are co-infected with HSV-2 and are particularly vulnerable to its complications. It is more usual to have 7-10 days of symptoms with a recurrence, unlike the 10-20 days of symptoms that may occur during the first episode.
In addition, some doctors advise that you should take antiviral medication in the last four weeks of pregnancy to help prevent a recurrence of herpes at the time of childbirth. In total 2400 men were administered a behavioural questionnaire and 2396 provided biological specimens for laboratory testing.
Informed consent was obtained for both the interview and the sampling of biological specimens. Specimens were airlifted to Karachi taking special precautions during transportation that included maintaining the cold chain and avoidance of spillage and contamination of the specimens.
On the other hand, occupation, income and marital status were not found to be significantly associated. Future prevention programmes must, therefore, be cognizant of and adapt as needed, to city differentials. Encouraging a healthy lifestyle by providing youth with life skills education within schools can be an effective approach in reaching out to young men. A cold sore is caused by a virus (herpes simplex, HSV-1) which is closely related to the virus that causes genital herpes (HSV-2). Samples are cultured to detect the virus at 3 - 5-day intervals prior to delivery to determine whether viral shedding is occurring. Most people do not develop a fever and do not feel particularly unwell during a recurrence. Special containers were provided by Sind Institute of Urology and Transplantation for this purpose. Without treatment 70 percent of neonates with disseminated infections are unable to survive19 and half of the survivors develop neurological conditions.
The empirical evidence from the literature has shown a higher seroprevalence of HSV-2 among females as compared to males.21-23 This argues for the inclusion of women in the overall STI prevention strategy. The information must include messages that conform to our religious and societal norms and emphasize behaviours such as abstinence and marital fidelity along with explanations of the modes of transmission and associated morbidities of sexually transmitted infections. Antivirals also come in pill form (Valtrex and Famvir) and it is thought that these are more effective. However, at some point, it often begins to multiply again without causing symptoms (called asymptomatic shedding).
If no lesions are present and cultures indicate no viral shedding, a vaginal delivery can be performed and the newborn is examined and cultured after delivery.Some doctors recommend anti-viral medication for pregnant women who are infected with HSV-2. Iridocyclitis is another serious complication of ocular herpes, in which the iris and the area around it become inflamed.GingivostomatitisHerpes can cause multiple painful ulcers on the gums and mucous membranes of the mouth, a condition called gingivostomatitis. A tingling or itch in your genital area for 12-24 hours may indicate a recurrence is starting. Also, people who take antiviral medication long-term to prevent recurrences have a reduced risk of passing on the virus.
The overall refusal rate was 37 percent well within the range of other surveys comprising male population.7,8 The sample size calculations were based on a conservative expected 7 percent prevalence of any tested STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). During shedding, the virus can infect other people through exchange of bodily fluids.Sometimes, infected people can transmit the virus and infect other parts of their own bodies (most often the hands, thighs, or buttocks).
Recent studies indicate that acyclovir (Zovirax, generic) valacyclovir (Valtrex), or famciclovir (Famvir) can help reduce the recurrence of genital herpes and the need for Cesarean sections.
Untreated, this condition can be extremely serious and possibly fatal.Ocular Herpes and Vision LossHerpetic infections of the eye (ocular herpes) occur in about 50,000 Americans each year. When reactivated by sunlight, emotional stress, surgery, trauma, hormone level fluctuation or immunosuppression, the virus reproduces and travels down the nerve to the skin, where it produces recurring outbreaks.How is herpes simplex virus transmitted?Contact with open sores may result in infection to others. Expected compliance for the biological data collection was 70 percent, based on the pretest results.
This process, known as autoinoculation, is uncommon, since people generally develop antibodies that protect against this problem.Transmission of Oral Herpes. In most cases, ocular herpes causes inflammation and sores on the lids or outside of the cornea that go away in a few days. Some infected individuals shed herpes virus from affected areas, even when no active lesion is present.
The design effect (which takes into account the increase in standard errors due to clustering) was set at 2.0. This test qualitatively detects the presence or absence of human lgG class antibodies to HSV-2 in human sera.


HSV is part of a group of other herpes viruses that include human herpes virus 8 (the cause of Kaposi's sarcoma) and varicella- zoster virus (also known as herpes zoster, the virus responsible for shingles and chicken pox).
However, other conditions can resemble herpes, and doctors cannot base a herpes diagnosis on visual inspection alone.
The focus diagnostics ELISA uses purified recombinant type specific IgG-2 antigen immobilized on polystyrene microwells.
HSV-1 is the most prevalent form of herpes simplex virus, and infection is most likely to occur during preschool years.
Neonatal herpes can spread to the brain and central nervous system, causing encephalitis and meningitis and can lead to intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, and death. In addition, many patients who carry the virus do not have visible genital or oral lesions. Herpes can also spread to internal organs, such as the liver and lungs.Infants infected with herpes are treated with acyclovir. The proposed sample size was also justified in terms of its power to detect behavioural change with statistical confidence. It is important to treat babies quickly, before the infection spreads to the brain and other organs.Effects on the Brain and Central Nervous SystemHerpes Encephalitis. In children, this is often caused by thumbsucking or finger sucking while they have a cold sore.
Until recently, the general rule was to assume that HSV-1 infections occur in the oral cavity (mouth) and are not sexually transmitted, while HSV-2 attacks the genital area and is sexually transmitted.
It can also occur in adult health care workers, such as dentists, because of increased exposure to the herpes virus.
Signs of infection usually appear with two weeks of exposure, but can rarely lay dormant for months or years before 1st outbreak.What are the signs and symptoms of herpes simplex virus?Primary infections are usually severe and are often accompanied by painful, small, fluid-filled blisters, fever, and flu-like symptoms. It is now widely accepted, however, that either type can be found in either area and at other sites.
In addition, because herpes simplex virus 1 can be passed in saliva, people should also avoid sharing toothbrushes or eating utensils with an infected person.Transmission of Genital Herpes. Genital herpes is most often transmitted through sexual activity, and people with multiple sexual partners are at high risk. The virus, however, can also enter through the anus, skin, and other areas.People with active symptoms of genital herpes are at very high risk for transmitting the infection. Fortunately, rapid diagnostic tests and treatment with acyclovir have significantly improved survival rates and reduced complication rates. Recurrent episodes usually begin with itching, tingling, or burning at the site of infection. The virus does not multiply, but both the host cells and the virus survive.At unpredictable times, the virus begins multiplying again. Unfortunately, evidence suggests about a third of all herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infections occur when the virus is shedding but producing no symptoms. Nearly all who recover suffer some impairment, ranging from very mild neurological changes to paralysis. A red bump or cluster of bumps then form on the skin and rapidly progress to fluid or pus filled blisters. Most people either have no symptoms or don't recognize them when they appear.In the past, genital herpes was mostly caused by HSV-2, but HSV-1 genital infection is increasing. Patients who are treated with acyclovir within 2 days of becoming ill have the best chance for a favorable outcome.Herpes Meningitis.
After a few days scabs form and the lesions heal, usually within eight days.About one-half of men with the virus experience a recurrence within eight months. This may be due to the increase in oral sex activity among young adults.SymptomsSymptoms vary depending on whether the outbreak is initial or recurrent. Herpes meningitis, an inflammation of the membranes that line the brain and spinal cord, occurs in up to 10% of cases of primary genital HSV-2. Unfortunately, a third to half of the times shedding occurs without any symptoms at all.Eventually, the symptoms return in most cases, causing a new outbreak of blisters and sores.
There are various contagious potential triggers of herpes simplex virus such as stress, sunlight, changing hormone levels, and illness. This close-up view of early herpes outbreak shows small, grouped blisters (vesicles) and lots of inflammation (erythema).
In fact, studies indicate that 10 - 25% of people infected with HSV-2 are unaware that they have genital herpes.
Fortunately, after lasting for up to a week, herpes meningitis usually resolves without complications, although recurrences have been reported. Patients have been known to infect themselves in a new location by touching an active herpes sore and then touching an area of broken skin.
Even if infected people have mild or no symptoms, they can still transmit the herpes virus.Symptoms of Genital HerpesPrimary Genital Herpes Outbreak. Once lesions dry up, they are no longer contagious.Is there a cure or treatment for herpes? For patients with symptoms, the first outbreak usually occurs in or around the genital area 1 - 2 weeks after sexual exposure to the virus. The first signs are a tingling sensation in the affected areas (such as genitalia, buttocks, and thighs) and groups of small red bumps that develop into blisters.
However, antiviral medications have proven themselves to be somewhat effective in preventing or shortening the herpes outbreaks for the period of time the patient is taking them. Appointment length varies and depends on severity of condition or other contributing factors, but is usually not more than 15-30 minutes.Jennifer J. The lesions may sometimes itch, but itching decreases as they heal.About 40% of men and 70% of women develop other symptoms during initial outbreaks of genital herpes, such as flu-like discomfort, headache, muscle aches, fever, and swollen glands. The virus sheds for a much shorter period of time (about 3 days) compared to in an initial outbreak of 3 weeks. Women may have only minor itching, and the symptoms may be even milder in men.On average, people have about four recurrences during the first year, although this varies widely. There are some differences in frequency of recurrence depending on whether HSV-2 or HSV-1 causes genital herpes. HSV-2 genital infection is more likely to cause recurrences than HSV-1.Symptoms of Oral HerpesOral herpes (herpes labialis) is most often caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) but can also be caused by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). It usually affects the lips and, in some primary attacks, the mucous membranes in the mouth.
A herpes infection may occur on the cheeks or in the nose, but facial herpes is very uncommon.Primary Oral Herpes Infection. In adolescents, the primary infection is more apt to appear in the upper part of the throat and cause soreness.Recurrent Oral Herpes Infection. Most patients have only a couple of outbreaks a year, although a small percentage of patients have more frequent recurrences.
Recurrences are usually much milder than primary infections and are known commonly as cold sores or fever blisters (because they may arise during a bout of cold or flu).
The outbreak of infection is often preceded by a prodrome, an early group of symptoms that may include itching skin, pain, or an abnormal tingling sensation at the site of infection.
The prodrome, which may last as short as 2 hours or as long as 2 days, stops when the blisters develop.
Recurrent outbreaks feature most of the same symptoms at the same sites as the primary attack, but they tend to be milder and briefer.
Occasionally, the symptoms may not resemble those of the primary episode but appear as fissures and scrapes in the skin or as general inflammation around the affected area.Triggers of Recurrence. They include sunlight, wind, fever, physical injury, surgery, menstruation, suppression of the immune system, and emotional stress. Oral herpes can be triggered within about 3 days of intense dental work, particularly root canal or tooth extraction.Timing of Recurrences.
For most people, outbreaks recur with more frequency during the first year after an initial attack. In most healthy people, recurring infections tend to become progressively less frequent, and less severe, over time. However, the immune system cannot kill the virus completely.Risk FactorsRisk for Oral HerpesOral herpes is usually caused by HSV-1.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 1 in 6 American teenagers and adults, are infected with HSV-2.
While HSV-2 remains the main cause of genital herpes, in recent years HSV-1 has significantly increased as a cause, most likely because of oral-genital sex. Except for people in monogamous relationships with uninfected partners, everyone who is sexually active is at risk for genital herpes.Risk factors for genital herpes include a history of a prior sexually transmitted disease, early age for first sexual intercourse, a high number of sexual partners, and loq socioeconomic status. Women are more susceptible to HSV-2 infection because herpes is more easily transmitted from men to women than from women to men.
African-American women are at particularly high riskPeople with compromised immune systems, notably patients with HIV, are at very high risk for HSV-2. This group is at higher than average risk for herpetic whitlow, herpes that occurs in the fingers.Wrestlers, rugby players, and other athletes who participate in direct contact sports without protective clothing.
These individuals are at risk for herpes gladiatorum, an unusual form of HSV-1 that is spread by skin contact with exposed herpes sores and usually affects the head or eyes.Preventing TransmissionInfected people should take steps to avoid transmitting genital herpes to others.
It is almost impossible to defend against the transmission of oral herpes since it can be transmitted by very casual contact.Genital herpes is contagious from the first signs of tingling and burning (prodrome) until the time that sores have completely healed. While condoms may not provide 100% protection, they have been proven to significantly reduce the risk of sexual disease transmission.
Natural condoms made from animal skin do NOT protect against HSV infection because herpes viruses can pass through them.Use a water-based lubricant.
Lubricants can help prevent friction during sex, which can irritate the skin and increase the risk for outbreaks.
Only water-based lubricants (such as K-Y Jelly, Astroglide, AquaLube, and glycerin) should be used. Oil-based lubricants (such as petroleum jelly, body lotions, and cooking oil) can weaken latex. However, it is best not to use condoms pre-lubricated with spermicides.Do not use spermicides for protection against herpes. If you do, be sure to immediately wash your hands with hot water and soap.The herpes virus does not live very long outside the body.
While the chances of transmitting or contracting herpes from a toilet seat or towel are extremely low, it is advisable to wipe off toilet seats and not to share damp towels.Recent studies have suggested that male circumcision may help reduce the risk of HSV-2, as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV infections.
Except in very rare instances and special circumstances, HSV is not life threatening.Herpes and PregnancyPregnant women who have genital herpes due to either herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) have an increased risk for miscarriage, premature labor, inhibited fetal growth, or transmission of the herpes infection to the infant either in the uterus or at the time of delivery.
Herpes in newborn babies (herpes neonatalis) can be a very serious condition.Fortunately, neonatal herpes is rare. Although about 25 - 30% of pregnant women have genital herpes, less than 0.1% of babies are born with neonatal herpes. The baby is at greatest risk during a vaginal delivery, especially if the mother has an asymptomatic infection that was first introduced late in the pregnancy. Transmission can occur if the amniotic membrane of an infected woman ruptures prematurely, or as the infant passes through an infected birth canal. This increased risk is present if the woman is having or has recently had an active herpes outbreak in the genital area.Very rarely, the virus is transmitted across the placenta, a form of the infection known as congenital herpes. Also rarely, newborns may contract herpes during the first weeks of life from being kissed by someone with a herpes cold sore. Infants may get congenital herpes from a mother with an active herpes infection at the time of birth. Aggressive treatment with antiviral medication is required, but it may not help systemic herpes.



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  • Eshqim, 09.07.2014 at 19:12:17
    776,000 Individuals who will contract new herpes one explanation for blindness.
  • dj_crazy, 09.07.2014 at 22:45:52
    With herpes herpes simplex 2 infection rate of choose to plan in advance and voluntarily and do not need the general influence virus solely.