Herpes simplex 2 pain relief 96,hpv vaccine for men,best all natural energy boosters 5htp - 2016 Feature

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Genital HSV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in both men and women, but as many as 90% don’t know they are infected because their symptoms are too mild to notice or mistaken for another condition.
Symptomatic genital herpes is characterized by a burning and itching sensation in the genitals, followed by blistering. HSV skin lesions usually appears as small blisters or sores around the mouth, nose, genitals, buttocks, and lower back, though infections can develop almost anywhere on the skin. This photo shows HSV-1 lesions on the buttock of a five-year-old girl — also called sacral herpes simplex.
Herpetic whitlow is an intensely painful infection of the hand involving 1 or more fingers that typically affects the terminal phalanx. Serologic testing for HSV has limited value in acute clinical diagnosis because of the time delay for seroconversion following initial infection. Acyclovir, valacyclovir and famciclovir are the most commonly used agents for treating HSV infections. A wide disparity exists between the public and medical community regarding the significance of herpes infections. The majority of recurrent oral herpes cases are caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the majority of genital herpes cases are caused by HSV-2. Differentiating between the two types of infection using either type specific swab testing, preferably PCR, or type specific IgG antibody testing, is very important because HSV-1 genitally recurs less, is shed less, and presents far less risk of transmission to others than HSV-2. Fifty seven percent of Americans between 14 and 49 have HSV-1, and 16% of the same group has HSV-2 infection. Based in San Francisco, Steve Kim has been a health and medicine topic writer for several well known websites, beginning in 2007. Herpes Simplex 1, or HSV-1, is a viral infection that causes common cold sores, those painful blisters or cankers that appear on the lips, tongue, or inside of the mouth. Acyclovir is most effective if started within one or two days of the appearance of a cold sore.
Acyclovir, or Zovirax, works by shortening the viral cycle of the HSV-1 virus in acute outbreaks, thus accelerating the healing time of the cold sores.
Famcyclovir, or Famvir, is an antiviral medication, which works in the same manner as acyclovir to shorten the viral cycle of HSV-1. Valacyclovir, or Valtrex, is an antiviral medicine used to treat a severe herpes simplex infection. The vast majority of HSV-1 infections are mild and self-limited, resolving within five to seven days, so no treatment with prescription medications is necessary for most patients.
Naturopathic doctors tout echinacea, aloe vera and zinc as treatments for herpes simplex, but there is insufficient scientific data to support these claims. A chronic pancreatitis model was developed in young male Lewis rats fed a high-fat and alcohol liquid diet beginning at three weeks. Most surprising was the relative lack of inflammation and tissue disruption after HSV-ENK treatment compared to the histopathology consistent with pancreatitis (inflammatory cell infiltration, edema, acinar cell hypertrophy, fibrosis) present as a result of the high-fat and alcohol diet in controls. Thus, clear evidence is provided that site specific HSV-mediated transgene delivery of human cDNA encoding preproenkephalin ameliorates pancreatic inflammation and significantly reduces hypersensitive hotplate responses for an extended time consistent with HSV mediated overexpression, without tolerance or evidence of other opiate related side effects. BackgroundChronic pancreatic pain has significant negative impact on patient quality of life and mortality. Histological examination of pancreata at ten weeks in rats fed with high fat and alcohol diets and treated with vehicle (Fig.
Figure 2 demonstrates hot plate response latencies in rats fed the high fat and alcohol diet over the course of the study.
The animals used for behavioral studies were sacrificed for immunofluorescent localization studies at the end of week 10. Staining for HSV-1 proteins in the thoracic DRG was observed in many cells in the HSV-ENK- and HSV-?-gal-treated animals in week 10, primarily in the sections illustrated in Figure 6 (Fig 6D and 6C, respectively). In women who contract the disease, the cervix is infected 80% to 90% of the time during primary infection. This photo shows a close-up of lesions on the upper eyelid in a 20-year-old male patient due to HSV-1. Of patients who develop seropositivity, 65% do so within six weeks, while approximately 20% do not make antibodies for six months.
While all three drugs decrease the duration and severity of illness and viral shedding, they have no effect on nonreplicating viruses, nor do they eliminate the virus from the ganglia. Although treatment options exist, respondents in one survey considered contracting herpes as worse than breaking up with a significant other, getting fired from a job, or failing a course in school. HSV infection is a persistent and chronic infection of the sensory ganglia with a varying, unpredictable degree of skin expression. She is also a published poet, having been published in the National Library of Poetry annual anthology in the '90s.
These areas are the most common areas where the infection can appear, but the HSV-1 sores can appear anywhere on the body, including the genital area. A patient would need to see a physician to obtain a prescription for acyclovir, which comes in both oral or ointment forms; however, the oral treatment is much more effective.
This is also a prescription medicine, and as with acyclovir, is most effective if started within one to two days of the initial outbreak. It works by the same mechanism as acyclovir and famcyclovir, but is considered more potent, so is not prescribed as often for cold sores.
There are a number of over-the-counter medicines that will help ease the discomfort: Abbreva, Orajel, Super Lysine Ointment, and Herpecin Lip Balm are examples. There are also several ongoing clinical trials for a vaccine to prevent herpes simplex, but none are currently available on the market.
The model was used to assess time course and efficacy of a replication defective herpes simplex virus type 1 vector construct delivering human cDNA encoding preproenkephalin (HSV-ENK).


The HSV-ENK vector delivered to the pancreatic surface at week 3 reversed pancreatitis-associated hotplate hypersensitive responses for 4–6 weeks, while control virus encoding ?-galactosidase cDNA (HSV-?-gal) had no effect. Over 50% of patients with idiopathic or alcoholic pancreatitis report chronic severe pain, responsive initially to morphine or synthetic opioids, but subject to development of tolerance to opiates, addiction and other intolerable side effects. Significant decreases in latency thresholds were noted in all groups fed the high fat and alcohol diet at the beginning of the third week indicating development of hypersensitivity.
Hot plate response latency measurements are shown for naive animals and animal groups with alcohol and high-fat induced pancreatitis. Quantification of the staining confirmed a significant increase in met-enkephalin stain density in HSV-ENK-treated animals (Fig 3E). Staining intensities for met-ENK were higher in all animals with pancreatitis compared to naive animals, particularly those receiving the viral vector. Photomicrographs and quantification of immunohistochemical staining for met-enkephalin in pancreas are shown for week 10.
Higher levels of immunostaining were observed in thoracic DRG of HSV-ENK-treated animals (Fig 5D) compared to vehicle- (Fig 5B) or HSV-?-gal-treated (Fig. Photomicrographs of immunohistochemical staining for met-enkephalin in DRG (T7–9) of (A) naive and control animals (B, C) with alcohol and high-fat diet induced pancreatitis at week 10.
As expected, vehicle-treated rats with pancreatitis (Fig 6B) or naive animals (Fig 6A) had negligible staining of HSV-1 proteins in the thoracic DRG.
Primary infections can range from subclinical to severe, with fever, headache, malaise, anorexia, pain, lymphadenopathy and edema.
Clinical recurrence occurs on average 3 to 4 times a year, but some patients experience monthly outbreaks. Cervical infection alone is rarely symptomatic, but because the cervix is not sensitive to pain, infection may pass unnoticed.
Be sure to provide adequate counseling to help patients put their diagnosis in perspective. This slideshow will highlight variations in presentation and provide more information about diagnosis and treatment. He is an academic physician and medical writer, and also teaches anatomy, physiology and pharmacology.
Genital herpes, however, is typically caused by HSV-2, a more serious infection, which is spread by sexual contact. Common side effects of famcyclovir include nausea, diarrhea, bloating or gas, headaches, and general itchiness. Its common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, and severe headaches. Increased Fos expression seen bilaterally in pain processing regions in control animals with pancreatitis was absent in HSV-ENK-treated animals. More effective, site-specific management of pain from chronic pancreatitis would significantly impact patients' pain levels, physical functioning, quality of life, general health and survival given the high rate of suicide in patients with this condition. 1C) demonstrated tissue edema, steatosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis, and acinar necrosis in all rats from these two groups. Hot plate test was conducted at baseline before induction of pancreatitis and for ten weeks subsequently.
Spinal cord (T7–12), DRG (T7–9) and pancreas tissues were examined for met-ENK, ?-gal, and HSV-1 immunoreactivity. The spinal cord from a naive rat is shown for comparison to (B) the spinal cord of animals with diet-induced pancreatitis at week 10.
The localization pattern for the met-enkephalin in pancreas was diffuse and appeared granular within the acinar cells, but localization in neuronal terminals and transversely cut axons could not be ruled out. Minimal or no staining is seen in pancreas of (A) naive and (B-C) control animals with alcohol and high-fat diet induced pancreatitis. Minimal staining is typical of peptides in the absence of axonal transport inhibitors since they are rapidly transported to axonal terminals. There was negligible background staining in the cervical DRG of the HSV-ENK- and HSV-?-gal-treated animals (not shown). No stain is evident in dorsal root ganglia of (A) naive animals or (B) vehicle-treated animals fed the alcohol and high-fat diet.
The main symptoms of HSV-1 sores are pain and tenderness, although tingling and burning is also reported. Increased met-enkephalin staining was evident in pancreas and lower thoracic spinal cord laminae I–II in the HSV-ENK-treated rats. The typical high fat diet of the American public may contribute to even higher rates of pancreatitis, particularly when combined with alcohol.While alcohol ingestion has been used to induce animal models of pancreatitis, reliable chronic pancreatitis models for translational studies are not available [1, 2].
However, the pancreata of rats fed with alcohol and high fat diet but treated with HSV-ENK (Fig. In week 5, a significant recovery of withdrawal latencies to near normal values was recorded for animals treated with HSV-ENK (n = 7), compared to animals treated with vehicle (n = 6) or HSV-?-gal vector (n = 7). Note the significant shortening of hot plate response latencies for rats on the high fat and alcohol diet after week 3, indicating sensitization. Staining for ?-galactosidase was only detected in the cells of the thoracic DRG from the HSV-?-gal-treated rats with pancreatitis (not shown).
No immunostaining was detected for HSV-1 proteins in the thoracic spinal cords from any of the groups of animals (not shown). The data produced in many current alcohol-fed pancreatitis models is reported to be variable, and the models are costly and time consuming to produce (~8 months). 1D) showed reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and preservation of pancreatic tissue architecture. Method control animals given the alcohol and high-fat diet to induce pancreatitis were given pancreatic injection of vehicle (DMEM) only.


The analgesic effect of HSV-ENK vector treatment lasted at least 4 weeks (week 5–9) without the apparent development of tolerance. The HSV-ENK treatment (arrow) significantly abrogated the shift in response latency for at least four weeks. The expression of met-ENK after application of vehicle or HSV-?-gal is similar to naive rats (A). Met-ENK expression was significantly increased in the pancreas of HSV-ENK-treated animals fed the same diet compared to the controls. Note the increased met-ENK staining in DRG of animals with HSV-ENK treatment fed the alcohol and high-fat diet, compared to the naive and control animals. No HSV-1 proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry in pancreas [see Additional file 1], liver [see Additional file 2], duodenum, bladder or colon from any of the treatment groups or naive animals. For this study, we used 40-day-old Lewis rats fed a commercial high fat liquid diet with 6% alcohol.
As expected, no abnormal acinar architecture was detected in the pancreas of naive control rats (Fig.
By week 10, all groups fed the diet displayed significantly shortened withdrawal responses compared to naive rats, indicating thermal hypersensitivity and decreased effect of the met-enkephalin overexpression.
Intracellular staining appears primarily in small and medium sized cells of the T7–T9 DRG of the HSV-ENK treated animals. The combined high-fat and alcohol diet given to younger animals greatly accelerated the induction of pancreatitis and allowed persistence through the end of the study at 10 weeks.
Some animals with alcohol and high-fat diet induced pancreatitis were given pancreatic HSV-?-gal applications, serving as the vector control. Concurrent footpad testing of thermal and mechanical sensitivity with Hargreaves and von Frey tests were negative throughout the ten week study indicating higher order rather than spinal reflexive response changes for this model. Met-ENK expression was significantly increased in HSV-ENK vector-treated animals compared to controls.
Hypersensitive thermal responses developed in three weeks and remained through ten weeks allowing study of the HSV overexpression time course.An explosion of interest in gene therapeutic approaches is occurring as investigators assess the potential of molecular targeting in a variety of clinical treatment approaches, such as for cancer chemotherapy and nervous tissue repair [3–5]. Weight gain monitored weekly was within 15–20% of littermates fed conventional lab chow in accordance with IACUC regulations.
Note the steatosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, acinar cell necrosis, tissue edema, ductal widening and periductal fibrosis seen in the controls, with alcohol and high-fat diet induced pancreatitis given vehicle or the HSV-?-gal applications (B and C). Met-ENK in the dorsal horn (laminae I–II) of the thoracic spinal cord was increased bilaterally. While both viral and non-viral approaches are under study, viral oncolytic therapy (both alone and in combination with conventional therapy) has been found as safe, well tolerated, highly effective and efficient in clinical trials as in animal studies. Enzymes (amylase and lipase), alcohol and glucose were measured in the blood at the end of the ten week study.
HSV-1, the common pathogen causing cold sores, is a class of double-stranded DNA viruses with affinity for primary sensory neurons as do all viruses of this class, including herpes zoster (HHV-3) causing severe shingles pain. Greatly reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and preservation of pancreatic tissue architecture was seen in animals fed the alcohol and high-fat diet but treated with the HSV-ENK vector. The histopathology of the HSV-ENK vector-treated animals was similar to that of the naive animals (A). Genetically engineered replication-competent HSV-1 oncolytic transgene has been safely delivered to patients who had failed prior therapy. Adenoviral mediated transfer of the IL-4 gene has also been used to modify inflammatory cell invasion in a chemically-induced model of pancreatitis [11].While retroviral (lentivirus), adenoviral, adeno-associated and herpes simplex viral vectors are currently under study, advantages for use of herpes viral vectors have been detailed [4, 6, 12–17]. Since minimal activation of immune responses occurs to initial or prior HSV infections, severe medical illness in immune-competent adults is rarely seen as with other viral vectors, and anti-viral agents are available.
Another advantage is that HSV-1 does not integrate into the host genome, as do retroviral and adeno-associated viruses, so insertional mutagenesis is not a concern.
It efficiently delivers circular, non-replicating DNA extrachromosomally to the cell nucleus. Importantly, the large HSV-1 cassette can easily be genetically engineered to accommodate multiple transgene modules of any size up to 150 kbp, including foreign DNA, cDNA, and even large transcriptional regulatory sequences to provide cell type specificity. Typically, the vector is loaded with CMV promoter which amplifies its expression efficiency. HSV-1 can be rendered (1) replication conditional for added control, (2) replication defective so it cannot produce viral proteins required for productive infection or (3) replication-competent to prolong expression and perhaps even allow advantageous reactivation.
Utilizing the cell's own machinery to "minipump" desired therapeutic agents, HSV vectors can efficiently and effectively amplify production of selected gene product(s) persisting on the order of weeks-months in non-replicating neurons. Thus, the HSV-1 transgene provides innumerable possibilities for modification and customization to improve gene delivery.Our research goal was to assess the impact of met-enkephalin overexpression in the high-fat and alcohol-induced pancreatitis model using a replication defective HSV vector to deliver human cDNA encoding preproenkephalin. This same overexpression vector has been used for uptake by primary afferent nociceptor endings via a cutaneous route, resulting in diminution of nociceptive behaviors in other models of inflammatory injury [13, 18, 19]. In the current project, HSV-1 viral vectors are applied directly to communicating sensory neurons in inflamed pancreas after development of a hypersensitive behavioral state induced with a high-fat and alcohol diet in rats.
Impressive abrogation of pancreatic inflammation and hotplate hypersensitivity was detected in animals receiving the HSV-ENK vector.
Accompanying these findings were increased tissue levels of met-enkephalin in thoracic spinal cord and pancreas (but not in cervical spinal cord, liver, bladder or colon), and decreased Fos expression in spinal cord and midbrain. Direct local use of HSV viral vectors clinically would specifically avoid central nervous system encroachment and the many unwanted side-effects of opiate use, including tolerance.



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