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Vaginal cancer develops more often among women aged 50 years old or older; however, it can occur at any age. Squamous cell carcinoma. This is the most common cellular change in vaginal cancer, which involves the presence of malignant cells on the thin lining of the vaginal mucosa. Adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma arises from the glandular cells in the vagina, which secretes vaginal fluid.
Other subtypes of vaginal cancer include clear cell cancer, which developed among women born between 1938 and 1973, because of the use of diethylstilbestrol (DES) by their mothers.
Vaginal cancer is often asymptomatic and the diagnosis is made through a routine gynecologic exam. Abnormal vaginal bleeding that may occur after intercourse, before puberty, between menses and after menopause.
Exposure to diethylstilbestrol. Women exposed to DES in utero or who have taken DES, have a high risk for developing vaginal cancer, especially adenocarcinoma of the vagina.
Being sbove 50 years of age. Age has been a contributing factor for vaginal cancer because increasing age increases the long-term exposure to certain types of carcinogens, which changes the characteristics of cells.
History of other reproductive system malignancies. Previous malignancies in the reproductive system, specifically cervical cancer, increase the risk for secondary vaginal cancer. Pelvic examination involves the physical examination of the cervix, fallopian tubes, uterus, ovaries, rectum and vagina.
Pap smear involves the collection of vaginal and cervical tissues by the use of cotton stick, wooden stick or brush, and subjecting it to examination under a microscope.
This procedure involves the visualization of the vagina and cervix through a lighted scope. Staging of vaginal cancer involves certain tests to determine extent of metastases and size of the tumor. This stage of vaginal cancer involves the presence of malignant cells on the tissues in the vaginal lining. Stage II vaginal cancer involves the spread of the malignant cells in the tissues adjacent to the vagina.
In this stage, the cancer cells have already spread on the lymph nodes in the pelvic area and may have spread to other reproductive organs such as the cervix, uterus, fallopian tube and ovaries.
Stage IVA- This stage involves the spread of the cancer cells on the bladder or rectum and organs beyond the pelvis such as in the abdominal cavity. Stage IVB- In this stage, the malignant tumor has already spread to distant areas in the body such as the lungs, breasts, bones and others. Vaginal cancer, just like any other cancers have three standard treatment regimens, which includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Chemotherapy is usually given as adjunct therapy after surgery to remove all cancer cells that have probably circulated to other parts of the body.
This is also an adjunct therapy for surgery to prevent spread of malignant cells and stop the growth of tumors. Stage 0- May involve wide local excision, laser surgery, total or partial vaginectomy, topical chemotherapy and internal radiation.
Stage I- Involves either internal radiation therapy, wide local excision, vaginectomy, vaginal reconstruction, lymphadenectomy or hysterectomy. Stage II – Treatment may include vaginectomy, pelvic exenteration, internal radiation therapy and external radiation therapy. Stage IV- May involve radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery with trial use of radiosensitizers.
The prognosis of vaginal cancer includes factors such as the stage of cancer, tumor size, age, general health condition, recurrence and location of the tumor. The survival rate of cancer, especially of the squamous cell carcinoma type, has a high 5-year survival rate.
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Chlamydia tests – webmd, Chlamydia tests involve testing a sample of body fluid or urine to determine whether chlamydia bacteria (chlamydia trachomatis) are present and may be the. Screening tests to detect chlamydia trachomatis and, Screening tests to detect chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae infections — 2002.
Summit medical group – gonorrhea and chlamydia tests, What are gonorrhea and chlamydia tests?
Screening tests to detect chlamydia trachomatis and, Suggested citation centers for disease control and prevention.
Sti clinic – testing for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, herpes, The sti clinic is a sexual health screening service. To understand herpes outbreak symptoms in men and women, it is important to first understand the how the virus can be contracted. HSV-1 is transmitted through oral contact and results in cold sores around or in the mouth. HSV-2 is transmitted through sexual contact (or shared sexual toys) and results in symptoms like painful blisters and sores that affects the genital region. A herpes infection does not always produce symptoms or may only show up with mild symptoms.
If an individual is infected with herpes and symptoms do show up, the first outbreak will typically occur 1 to 2 weeks after exposure to the virus.
Finally, groups of small red bumps develop around the affected area into fluid-filled blisters (vesicles). For genital herpes in women, these blisters will occur around the thigh, vulva, inside the vagina, anus or buttock area. In men, the outbreak symptoms will show up on the penis, scrotum, on the thighs, around the anus or buttocks. Eventually, these blisters will rupture as open sores or shallow ulcers that will be painful to touch. Women may also experience pain or difficulty urinating, and foul smelling discharge if herpes blisters are present inside the vagina.


The severity of a herpes outbreak is at its worst and most painful during the first outbreak. Typically, infected individuals can expect a couple of outbreaks to recur per year, especially during the first year after the primary outbreak. Women are more vulnerable than men to experience more recurrent outbreaks due to additional factors such as menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The first primary outbreak of herpes symptoms is usually the most severe and prescription antiviral medication is usually needed to provide relief for the pain and discomfort as well as to accelerate the healing of the ulcers and sores. For patients suffering from oral herpes (HSV-1), a topical acyclovir or penciclovir (Denavir) may be prescribed to relieve the discomfort associated with oral blisters.
Note: Antiviral drugs can only temporary stop the viral replication of the virus and speed up the healing but do not eradicate the HSV virus in the body nor can it prevent the frequency or severity of future outbreaks. In some cases, non-prescription drugs like acetaminophen (Tylenol) and Ibuprofen (Advil) may also be use to help treat the symptoms of fever, muscle aches and pain caused by the infection.
For individuals who are experiencing recurrent outbreaks and do not want to take antiviral drugs, there are also over-the-counter creams such as HERP-B-GONE that can be used to significantly reduce pain and decrease the length of time of recurrent episodes. Nobody exactly knows what are the causes that may trigger a HSV outbreak but some medical experts believe factors like a weak immune system, stress, menstrual periods and bodily injuries are possible reasons that can increase the chances of a recurrences of herpes outbreaks. For patients with chronic herpes outbreaks (more than 6 outbreaks per year), most doctors will recommend a daily low dose of the antiviral medicines as a form of suppressive therapy. Other than suppressive therapy of antiviral medications, infected individuals who are looking for a more natural approach to prevent or minimize the recurrences of future herpes simplex outbreaks can also go for supplements or diets high in lysine, zinc, vitamins A and C.
Lysine has been founded by researchers that it can help block arginine, an amino acid in the body that is linked with herpes outbreaks.
In laboratory tests, zinc has been shown effective in boosting the body immune system against viral infections such as HSV-1 and HSV-2. In addition to good dietary diets, getting plenty of sleep and relieving stress through mediation, breath exercise or even self hypnosis can help to decrease the frequency of herpes outbreaks.
Information provided on this site is not intended as a substitute for medical advice on any health concerns you may have.
The drug is not given at present because of the discovery that is increased the risk for certain diseases including cancer.
The presence of HPV increases the tendency to develop reproductive system cancers such as cervical and vaginal cancer. This usually involves insertion of gloved fingers in the vagina, while the other hand palpates the abdomen. This involves excision of the vaginal tumor and subjecting the specimen for biopsy to determine if the cells are malignant or benign. These tests include Chest X-ray, cystoscopy (visualization of the bladder and urethra), uteroscopy (visualization of the uterus), proctoscopy (visualization of the rectum and sigmoid colon), CT scan, MRI, and lymphangiogram (x-ray of the lymphatic system).
Recurrence of vaginal cancer is usually more serious and may reoccur in other areas of the body. This surgical procedure involves the removal of the tumor along with some normal tissues around it to make sure that all malignant cells are removed. This type of surgery is used to allow bloodless incisions on the tissue or tumor using a laser beam.
In cases of late stage vaginal cancer, where almost all organs in the pelvic cavity has been affected, removal of the rectum, bladder, descending colon, cervix, ovaries, vagina and adjacent lymph nodes may be done. Removal of the uterus and cervix may be done if the malignant tumor has spread on this area. Radiation therapy uses high energy radiation that may either be placed internally or externally. Vaginal cancer tends to be more uncommon than other cancers in the reproductive tract. Vaginal cancers treated during the early stage of the disease have far better prognosis. Stage I vaginal cancer has a survival rate of 84%, stage II has 75% and Stage III and IV has a 57% survival rate. Skin-to-skin contact is enough to spread human papilloma virus (HPV), the virus family that causes genital warts.
It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances.
Because of this, as much as 25 % of the people infected with the herpes infection are ignorant about their condition or may not recognize the symptoms. Prior to an outbreak, individuals may also experience prodromal symptoms such as an itching sensation beneath the skin or redness of the skin. Over the next 1 to 2 weeks, the ulcers will become crusted and begin to heal without any scarring. In some cases, women who contract genital herpes can suffer from cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix), urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) or meningitis (inflammation of the fluid surrounding the brain). Women also tend to experience more health complications than men during the first herpes outbreak. Over time, recurrent outbreaks decrease in frequency, become much milder and do not last as long as the primary outbreak.
Common antiviral medicines for the treatment of primary and recurrent herpes outbreaks include Acyclovir (Zovirax), Valacyclovir (Valtrex) and Famiciclovir (Famvir). With suppressive therapy, the frequency of herpes recurrences can be reduce by as much as 70%  to 80% per year.
So having a diet high is lysine and low in arginine can inhibit the reproduction of the herpes virus and reduce the recurrences of HSV outbreaks.
As well as optimizing the body’s resistance, zinc also assists with the healing of wounds and scars. Foods that are high in Vitamin A and C include fruits and vegetables such as grapefruit, guava, mango, papaya, watermelon, broccoli, Swiss chard and bell peppers.
Primary vaginal cancer is the type of cancer wherein the malignant cells initially grow on the vaginal cells.
The exposure to DES increases the risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina and breast cancer in their offspring.
Sarcoma botryoides are also found among infants and children, and is a type of a rhabdomyosarcoma.
HPV infection is sexually transmitted, which means that having multiple sexual partners increases the risk for HPV infection.
Pelvic and groin lymph nodes may be removed to prevent further spread of the malignant cells in the lymphatic circulation. In this case, a stoma is created for the evacuation of feces and urine from the body into a collection bag. Removal of the fallopian tubes (salpingectomy) and ovaries (oophorectomy) may also be done as indicated. Systemic chemotherapy involves the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs by mouth or through intravenous infusions.
Internal radiation is placed on the tissues affected through seeding, needles, catheters or wires.


It is, therefore, essential that vaginal cancer be detected early to increase the survival rate of patients. Some strains of the virus cause warts and are usually harmless, but other strains may lead to cervical or anal cancer.
It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health.
This ignorance about the infection as well as the lack of symptoms increase the risk of individuals transmitting the virus to their sexual partners unknowingly. Ongoing suppressive therapy also has the added benefit of reducing the probability of transmission to an uninfected sex partner. To prevent outbreaks, go for foods that are high in zinc content such as dairy products, legumes and most sea foods. This surgery is disfiguring and the patient may deal with social and personal difficulties. Regional chemotherapy is administered through the spinal column, organ or specific body cavity. On the other hand, external radiation involves the exposure of the body to radiation from a machine. However, since vaginal cancer tends to be asymptomatic, more cases are being detected during the late stages, which may be too late. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site. Avoid foods like dairy, chocolate, raisins, nuts, seeds, corn and whole-wheat products that are high in arginine that can promote the recurrence of outbreaks.
During the pelvic examination, a vaginal speculum is also inserted to check the vagina and cervix. In order to address this, a yearly gynecologic examination is essential for women above 40 years of age. If permission is granted, you must credit me for the use of the material and link to this website prominently from your own.
Lastly, local chemotherapy may involve the topical application of chemotherapeutic drugs on the vaginal wall in cases of Stage I squamous cells carcinoma.
No website is a substitute for a visit to a living, breathing dentist or physician who can deal with you personally. The term comes from the shape of the tiny parasites, which look very different to head or body lice. ScabiesScabies is an itchy infestation caused by a tiny mite that burrows into human skin to lay eggs. GonorrhoeaGonorrhoea spreads easily and can lead to infertility in both men and women, if untreated.
Later there may be a rash on the soles, palms, or other parts of the body (seen here), as well as swollen glands, fever, hair loss or fatigue. In the late stage, symptoms come from damage to organs such as the heart, brain, liver, nerves and eyes. It clears up quickly with antibiotics, but it often goes unnoticed because symptoms are vague or absent. It’s probably caused by a herpes simplex virus, most often type 1 (HSV-1), but sometimes type 2 (HSV-2). Genital herpesMost cases of genital herpes are caused by a virus called herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) but it can also be caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). It's highly contagious and can spread through intercourse or direct contact with a herpes sore.
People can be infected through sex, needle sharing and at birth, as well as by sharing razors and toothbrushes. HIV spreads through unprotected sex, contaminated needle sharing or being born to an infected mother. One limitation of an HIV test is the "window period" of usually three months, but in certain circumstances up to six months, after exposure to HIV when these antibody tests sometimes do not find the virus. HIV home test kits are now available, which can be 99.7% accurate, but all positive results would need to be confirmed in a laboratory. People take a combination of antiviral drugs in the hope of preventing the infection advancing to AIDS. Additional treatments can help prevent or fight off serious infections if the immune system has weakened. ChancroidChancroid is a bacterial STI that is common in Africa and Asia but rare in the UK. LGV (lymphogranuloma venereum)LGV is caused by specific strains of chlamydia and is uncommon in the UK. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)Not an STI itself, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a serious complication of untreated STIs, especially chlamydia and gonorrhoea.
Who’s at Risk of STIs?Anyone who is sexually active is at risk of an STI, regardless of age, gender, race, social class or sexual orientation. Many STIs spread through any type of sexual activity, including skin-to-skin contact and oral sex. Preventing STIsThe best ways to avoid getting an STI are to abstain from any sexual contact or to be in a monogamous, long-term relationship with an uninfected partner.
The limits of condomsWhile condoms are effective in preventing the spread of some STIs, they are not perfect. These infections can spread through contact with skin lesions that are not always covered by a condom. How to tell your partnerIf you think you have an STI, tell your partner(s) as soon as possible.
You may be able to spread the infection even if you have already begun treatment or are using condoms. Many STIs can be passed from mother to baby during pregnancy, childbirth or after the baby is born.
The effect of an STI on a baby can include stillbirth, low birth weight, neurological problems, blindness, liver disease and serious infection. Treatment during pregnancy can cure some STIs and reduce the risk of passing the infection to your baby.
Can STIs come back?Most STI treatments do not protect you from getting the same infection again. A course of treatment may cure gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia or trichomoniasis, but a new exposure can start a new infection. If you're not taking the right precautions to protect yourself, you can be re-infected quickly or even pick up a second STI.



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