Household energy consumption in the eu27,herpes sores that dont scab,complementary and alternative medicine herbs - Tips For You

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Researchers used varying levels of hardness and several different name brand detergents in washing machines and dishwashers. The right water softener will leave your clothes cleaner after washing and will provide you with a bath or shower that you never dreamed could be so refreshing and stimulating. A water purification system will turn your tap water into a desirable drink and save you thousands of dollars and untold inconvenience in buying and hauling bottled water home. An iron or water filtration system will pay for itself in no time by removing minerals and sediment that shorten the life and efficiency of your water heater and eventually clog and corrode pipes, joints and valves leaving you with horrible problems and costly repairs. Get your water tested.  You might be astounded at how “hard” your water is and how much you might benefit from simple forms of water treatment.
Groundwater dissolves rocks and minerals releasing calcium, magnesium, and other ions that cause water to be hard. Water softeners can save significant amounts of money and energy in the home, a major new Battelle study by the independent Battelle Institute revealed. Gas Water Heaters – Gas water heaters operated on softened water maintained the original factory efficiency rating over a 15-year lifetime. Tankless Heaters – Instantaneous gas water heaters operated on softened water maintained the original factory efficiency rating over a 15-year lifetime. Reduction of hardness is significantly more effective on stain removal than either increase in temperature or detergent dose.
The same study indicates: Areas having very hard water, can cut detergent use in dishwashers by more than 50% after softening and get the same cleaning results. Hard water, loaded with Calcium, Magnesium, and many other ions, enters the water softener and contacts millions of special resin beads which hold billions of sodium ions. Water Softeners Remove Other Contaminates Nearly any positively charged cation can be captured by a typical water softener using standard cation exchange resin, i.e. The Bottom Line – Water softeners work, and the bad rap they have received in recent years in unjustified! Water softening – it’s good for you, it’s good for the environment, and it’s good for your pocketbook!  And your plumbing will thank you! BeginnerThe bulk of our energy comes from coal, oil, and natural gas—exhaustible resources that create pollution when burned and contribute to global warming. Many people get entranced by RE technologies—solar-electric (photovoltaic; PV) modules, and microhydro and wind turbines.
Conservation involves changing your energy use behaviors from wasteful, inefficient habits (such as leaving on the lights when you leave a room) to energy-saving ones (turning off the lights every time you leave a room). Efficiency, on the other hand, is reducing energy consumption—without changing your lifestyle—by using efficient appliances. Conservation and energy efficiency are low-hanging fruit, to be picked before moving forward with solar electricity or hot water systems.
Using efficient appliances can make a world of difference in the amount of energy we consume. Incandescent bulbs produce 95 percent heat and 5 percent light—little has changed since the days of Edison. As shown on the pie chart, heating and cooling account for almost 50 percent of the typical American home’s annual energy consumption. Wall, roof, and floor structures separate the inside of your house from outside, and are referred to as a building’s envelope.
Sealing draft-prone areas, the points at which dissimilar building materials converge or the building envelope is penetrated, reduces uncontrolled air infiltration. If you’re building a new home, seriously consider a passive solar building design—it’s an inherently superior way to both heat and cool your home. There is no cookie-cutter solution for what type of renewable energy system will be most effective and economical in any given application. Installing a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system is one of the best investments homeowners can make to reduce their electric or natural gas water heating bills, with typical financial paybacks at less than eight years. You’ll face a major choice when planning a grid-tied PV system (and increasingly with wind and microhydro systems)—will you have batteries or not?
Energy efficiency is always the most affordable and environmentally sound place to start when approaching renewable energy.
Think through your renewable energy choices carefully, evaluating where best to spend your money. I had been looking for a whole-house AC utility monitor to track my utility electricity consumption beyond what I produce with my PV system. The best way to reduce our energy usage is not use it in the first place—conservation, conservation, conservation.
Household energy consumption by end-use 2001 (Data from Table 2.5 (Energy Information Administration, 2007a)). Appliances Space Heating Water Heating Air Conditioning Figure 3 - Household energy consumption by end-use 2001 (Data from Table 2.5 (Energy Information Administration, 2007a)). At Dancing Rabbit we’ve designed our village entirely around principles of sustainability, and tried to create a culture that makes ecological living the norm rather than the exception. But how are we doing at reducing our carbon footprint, one of the key metrics for sustainability? Scientists say that the US needs to reach a per capita carbon footprint of 9 metric tons of CO2 equivalent (mtCO2eq) per year by 2030, and a further reduction to 4 mtCO2eq per year by 2050[1]; yet Americans are currently consuming an untenable 20 metric tons of CO2eq per year. You can slice and dice it a bunch of different ways, but looking at it from the personal point of view it comes down to a few big areas: local transport, travel, home energy use (electricity and gas), food, and goods and services. Let’s look at each of those main areas and see how the average Dancing Rabbit denizen stacks up against the average American.
We also cut our emissions per mile by 30% by using fuel efficient vehicles and running them on biodiesel and solar electricity. Unfortunately the average Rabbit emits only 10% less from travel than the average American, which ends up being a huge factor in the average Rabbit footprint (or should I say pawprint?).
The average American home uses 10,836 kilowatt-hours of electricity each year,[7] which creates emissions of 2.9 metric tons of CO2eq. At Dancing Rabbit we’ve cut our electricity use by more than 80% in our homes, primarily through efficiency, conservation and finding alternatives. Once we’ve reduced our use, we then provide for our electricity with solar and wind power, and are now a net exporter of renewable energy. At DR we use firewood for home and water heating, which is a locally renewable resource (we mostly use waste wood from local industry) and has a very low greenhouse gas emissions profile.[10] Unfortunately burning wood creates big problems with air quality, and would really be unsuitable for most people in urban areas.
Something like Passive House is the direction we need to be headed in, so it’s important for us to support green building and stricter energy codes.
At DR, one of the few things we do allow fossil fuels for is cooking, though many of us use firewood and renewable electricity.
In the end, our emissions from home heating, water heating, and cooking come out to 0.35 metric tons of CO2eq, or about 85% less than the average American. By some measures our food systems account for almost 25% of Americans’ carbon emissions,[11] including agriculture, farming based deforestation, food processing, and transport. There are various figures out there for the average American food footprint depending on how it is calculated, but 3 metric tons of CO2eq[15] seems like a reasonable figure. Dancing Rabbit does not have good data on our diets or food sources yet, but we have potentially lowered our footprint by 30-50% based on our less meat-based diet of local, organic, less-processed food with less waste. A significant part of the emissions related to our lives happen not in our homes but in businesses and commercial facilities around the country and the world.
For goods such as appliances, furniture, clothing, electronics, toys, paper, office supplies, and medical supplies, the average American has a footprint of 2.3 metric tons of CO2eq per year. Their tally showed that Rabbits produced 2 lbs of waste per person per day, or about 55% less than the average American.
At DR we consume some of the same services at similar levels to most Americans, like healthcare, education, and telecommunications, but we use far less of many other services since we do so much more directly for ourselves. And while we have come a long way, we still have a long way to go to reach a long term sustainable carbon footprint, especially in the areas of travel, food, and goods and services.
Food is something we are actively working on as each year; by continuing to increase our onsite and local food production capacity, we hope to continue to lower our food impact (though it will continue to be difficult to measure accurately). We look forward to a time when all goods and services are produced with lower carbon footprints, but until then, we can continue to lower our footprint by sharing, reducing, reusing, repairing, recycling, and doing more for ourselves. Another option for Dancing Rabbit is to continue to manage our land to sequester more and more carbon. We might also choose to offset our emissions by exporting additional renewable energy into the national grid, thus reducing others’ emissions. So while there is still work to do, we’re showing that we can lower our impact — we can do what it takes to prevent catastrophic climate change and still lead healthy and happy lives. Want to learn how you can live sustainably, experience our ecovillage, and make a difference?Sign up to receive the weekly Dancing Rabbit Newsletter. Petroleum & Other LiquidsCrude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids.
Natural GasExploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales.
ElectricitySales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. Consumption & EfficiencyEnergy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation.
CoalReserves, production, prices, employ- ment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports. Renewable &Alternative FuelsIncludes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Total EnergyComprehensive data summaries, comparisons, analysis, and projections integrated across all energy sources.
Analysis & ProjectionsMonthly and yearly energy forecasts, analysis of energy topics, financial analysis, Congressional reports. Markets & FinanceFinancial market analysis and financial data for major energy companies. InternationalInternational energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. Over the past three decades, the share of residential electricity used by appliances and electronics in U.S.
Initial federal mandatory efficiency standards were enacted between 1988 and 1994 for all major appliances, but energy consumption by household appliances nearly doubled between 1978 and 2005.


While most home appliances have become more efficient over the past 30 years, the average U.S.
DVD players and Digital Video Recorders (DVR), which did not exist 15 years ago, are now widespread.
Join us for three days of dynamic presentations on high-performance construction, renewable energy, energy efficiency, building science, and more. Speakers include industry luminaries such as Allison Bailes, Sam Rashkin, Peter Yost, and yours truly, Andrew Grigsby of CSW.
Like so many new efforts to address persistent societal problems, there are creative new financial instruments to generate funding. Mostly the new owners wanted to talk with me about what to do about their windows in a neighborhood where the law prevented changing the historic facade. Based on the ratio: energy consumption by end uses divided by the number of permanently occupied dwelling. The energy consumption of households is decomposed in different explanatory effects: change in average dwelling size, increasing number of appliances (more electrical appliances) and central heating diffusion, energy efficiency improvement (as measured from ODEX) and change in behaviour related to more confort. Over the period 1990-2009, energy efficiency in the household sector increased by 24%, at an average rate of 1.4% per year (Figure 1). For the EU-27 as a whole, new dwellings built in 2009 consumed about 40% less energy than dwellings built in 1990, because of new building codes[3] (Figure 9).
Over the period 2005-2009, the average energy efficiency improvement rate at EU level was 1.3% per year. Space heating represented 68% of total household consumption in 2009 compared to 74% in 1990. To avoid yearly fluctuations due to climatic variations from one year to the other and have consistent trends, the household energy consumption should be measured at normal climate (i.e.
The observed progress in energy efficiency was due to better thermal performance of buildings, more efficient large electrical appliances (cold and washing appliances) and heating systems (condensing boilers and heat pumps). Energy consumption for water heating represented around 12% of the household consumption in 2009. Solar energy is promoted in many countries to substitute conventional energies presently used to produce hot water. In France there is an energy saving obligation for energy suppliers above a certain level of sales. Studies have shown how consumers can save money and energy by softening their water.  The results show that softened water might not only save consumers money but could also be environmentally friendly. It was found that significant savings was noted for all levels of hardness, even hardness as low as 5 grains per gallon. Each five grains per gallon of hardness causes an 8% loss in efficiency and 8% increase in cost when using 100 gallons of hot water per day.
The study found that tankless water heaters completely failed to function because of scale plugging in the downstream plumbing after only 1.6 years of equivalent hot water use on 26 gpg hard water. This is demonstrated in the graph below for top loading washers, but it was also confirmed for side loading washers. The Calcium, Magnesium, and other ions trade places with the Sodium ions, creating softened water.
Iron, Manganese, Lead, Aluminum, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Potassium, Radium, Silver, Strontium, Uranium (depending on valence).
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Renewable energy (RE) is nonpolluting energy that comes from inexhaustible resources, such as wind, sunshine, and falling water. But the first focus of anyone wanting to invest in RE should be conservation and efficiency.
This is a conscious choice—although you are using the same fixtures, you’re making an effort to minimize your energy consumption.
As energy efficiency expert Amory Lovins once said, energy efficiency is a “technical fix.” Using the previous examples, the efficiency solution would be to swap out incandescent lightbulbs with compact fluorescents (CFs), which only use about a quarter of the energy.
Apply the basic principles of conservation and efficiency to all of your energy choices, before looking at harnessing renewable energy. By reducing your energy demand, you will greatly reduce the cost of your RE systems when you’re ready to have them installed.
New, energy efficient washers agitate on a horizontal axis rather than a vertical one, decreasing the amount of water needed in the washer. Because heating and cooling take such a big bite out of the energy pie, if you’re serious about conservation and efficiency, you’ll start by improving your home’s insulation and reducing air infiltration.
How this envelope is designed and constructed is the deciding factor in how good the thermal boundary is between you and the outdoors. Combine this with increased insulation and you can reduce the amount of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning needed to sustain a comfortable household temperature throughout the year. Passive solar houses balance a carefully calculated amount of glazing (windows) with heat absorbing thermal mass (concrete slabs or other masonry material) located on walls and floors in the direct vicinity of the southern exposed windows.
Many factors must be balanced to develop a good design, including proper siting, environmental resources, financial incentives, social considerations, and environmental effects.
Solar thermal systems include a rather large category of energy collection and distribution devices for pool heating, domestic water heating, and space heating via radiant floor heating or water-to-air heat exchangers. Depending on the size of the system you install, your local climate, and your hot water use, SDHW systems can cut your water heating bills by 40 to 80 percent. The use of residential solar-electric systems began decades ago in rural locations where utility electricity was not available. If your primary motivation is environmental, a batteryless grid-tied system is probably the best choice. If you have a stream running through your property that drops along its course, tapping its energy potential may be economical. By doing something as simple as swapping out incandescent lightbulbs with compact fluorescents, you can decrease the number of PV modules needed to power your lighting by up to 75 percent. Proportions of carbon emissions from various activities in housing are shown in Figure 1, which illustrates that the major portion of energy consumption is in space heating and hot water. These add up to most of your footprint, with some amount coming from your share of government and other sources. The average Rabbit drives just 911 miles per year locally through our car co-op, compared to 6500 for the average American. We actually end up traveling more miles per person than the average American, but because we do much of it by train instead of car or plane, our emissions end up a little lower.
We also have more flexible schedules which improves quality of life but also seems to allow for more travel and thus emissions. The main uses are space heating (33%), water heating (14%), air conditioning (12%), lighting (6%), refrigeration (8%), computers (6%), and clothes drying (5%). On the whole, we use less air conditioning, don’t have many televisions, choose mostly CFLs or LEDs for lighting, and use less refrigerator space per person by sharing or choosing smaller fridges. This has allowed us to bring our electricity footprint down to almost zero (0.02 metric tons of CO2eq), even when the energy used to create our solar and wind systems is taken into account. This winter we measured all the firewood used in one of our strawbale homes and found that we were using about half the energy per square foot of the typical home in the US. We do a lot to conserve energy while cooking by using hay boxes, pressure cookers, and solar cookers.
And while food impact is more difficult to measure than electricity or gas use, food choices can make a big difference. We grow a lot of vegetables, fruit, and some animal products within the community or get them from our neighbors.
Last summer researchers from University of North Texas did an analysis of DR’s impact (the source for much of the data on DR in this article) and as part of that they weighed all trash and recycling at DR for two months[16 ]. Since municipal waste generation has generally paralleled household consumption[18] it is reasonable to assume that the average Rabbit produces half the waste of an average American, since we consume about half of the goods.
We do not currently have good data on our emissions from services, but it is reasonable to assume it tracks similarly with our reduction in consumption of goods, so a 30-50% reduction could apply. That’s a 53% reduction compared to the average American, and at a level that meets emission reduction targets for 2030.
We could cut our impact in half if all our trips were taken by train or bus, or even in cars that were full. The calculations above do not account for any carbon stored on our land due to tree planting, prairie restoration, and building soil in our gardens and agricultural fields. Get updates from our community and be the first to get announcements of events, workshops, classes, and opportunities. Learn about projects, programs, and policies in Virginia from representatives from JMU, LEAP, Earthcraft, and NAHB. Come voice your support for making energy efficiency and renewables major components of Virginia’s energy mix. Of course the ancient single-pane windows are a huge problem – but there are no cheap or straightforward solutions.
Upgrading to high-performance equipment would have reduced energy costs just as much as spending a ton on custom interior storms or significant rebuilding of the historic windows – without any extra work or intrusion into their home. Call an experienced energy auditor who will consider how all of the systems in the home are working.
At the urging of the Federal Office of Science and Technology Policy, utilities have begun developing a set of standards and procedures to make energy use data easily accessible to energy consumers. Of course every home is different, but this may give you an idea of what changes will bring you the greatest savings. The data extracted from the ODYSSEE database and used in the graphs are: the energy consumption by end uses, stock of dwellings, the average floor area, the number of large electrical appliances, the share of central heating.
Unit consumption per dwelling for space heating with climatic corrections, Unit consumption of hot water per dwelling, Unit consumption per dwelling for cooking, Unit consumption per m2 for space heating with climatic corrections, Stock of dwellings (permanently occupied).
Part of these improvements occurred in the area of space heating due to better thermal performance of buildings encouraged by mandatory efficiency standards for new buildings, and a larger penetration of high efficiency boilers (e.g. For large appliances, the improvement in energy efficiency results from technical improvement driven by EU mandatory Directives on labelling and voluntary agreements with equipment manufacturers. This approach overestimates theA  impact of building regulations as it is well known, but not well quantified , that the actual unit of new dwellings is higher than this consume more than this theoretical consumption, because of non compliance and rebound effects (the fact that in well insulated dwellings occupants tend to have a higher indoor temperature than in less insulated dwellings). Over the same period, final household electricity consumption increased faster, at an annual growth rate of 1.7%.


The share of electricity for lighting and appliances increased from 10% to 15% in 2009 compared to 1990. However, part of this improvement was offset by increased number of electrical A appliances, larger homes and the diffusion of central heating[7] .
Central heating (around 85% of EU dwellings in 2009) , which includes district heating, block heating, individual boiler heating and electric heating, implies that all the rooms are well heated, as opposed to room heating, where generally a stove provides heat to the main room only. Solar water heaters can represent a good economical and environmental solution mainly for southern countries which benefit from a good solar irradiation. They can reduce reliance on polluting fuels because of energy savings and help cut back on harmful detergents going into water streams. The fact that softened water combined with the least amount of detergent and lowest temperature provides the highest degree of whiteness compared to increased hardness with the highest level of detergent and temperature is a noteworthy finding. Softened water saves 34% of costs compared to operating on 20 gpg and saves 47% compared to operation on 30 gpg hard water.
It makes very little sense to put PVs on your roof before you have CFs in your light fixtures. Every dollar you spend on efficiency measures will save you roughly $3 to $5 on your renewable energy system costs.
When you think of compact fluorescent lights, try not to picture the flickering harsh light of years gone by.
If your refrigerator is more than five years old, replacing it with a more energy efficient unit is a good place to start.
Many of us use a thermos to transport liquids because its thermal boundary affords us the luxury of cold lemonade on hot days and hot chocolate on cold days. This translates directly into greatly reduced heating and cooling costs, and less environmental pollution. Properly sized window overhangs block the high summer sun and prevent the building from overheating, while allowing the low winter sun to enter and warm the space. While the number of off-grid PV systems continues to grow, grid-tied PV systems are an increasingly popular urban and suburban option for generating clean, sustainable electricity.
With microhydro, as with all renewable energy technologies, you must weigh the economics at each site based on the resources at hand. As you move towards less and less reliance on nonrenewable energy, you’ll be gaining some independence from the utility companies, reducing your monthly bills, and minimizing the impact our energy use has on the environment. Fifty percent is pretty good, but these days eco builders are aiming at standards such as Passive House, which, through super insulation and air tightness, gives an 80% reduction in home energy use compared to current codes. We buy some food at local grocery stores but buy most of our food in bulk directly from a natural foods distributor, which reduces the impact from packaging and the grocery stores themselves. They are there to provide goods and services that people consume (and to make a profit generally). We’re still dismayed at how much stuff ends up in our dumpster each week and would love to do better, but it will likely mean reducing trash at the source rather than better recycling. But there is really no viable option we are aware of for low-carbon travel at speeds similar to airplanes.
Over 45 percent of homes have at least one television with a screen size of 37 inches or larger. I was very sad to see that they had purchased a new boiler and water heater before moving in. Meanwhile their brand new boiler and water heater were 80% efficient – that’s one in five of their gas bill dollars thrown away. Once this standardized data stream is in place, supporters expect that companies and technologies will develop to use that data for consumer applications, targeted efficiency improvements, community energy programs, and more.
As a result, the share of the most efficient appliances (A, A+, A++) has increased significantly: from 6% in 1997 to 94% in 2009 for refrigerators and from 3% to 95% for washing machines, for example[4].
There exist large discrepancies among countries: from few improvements for Hungary, Greece to great improvements for new members such as Slovenia, Poland and Romania with an annual average rate of energy efficiency improvement above 2% over the period 2000-2009 (Figure 7).
The combined effect of these three factors was an increase in the average consumption per dwelling by around 0.4% a year each (Figure 6), offsetting 60% of the energy efficiency improvement achieved through technological innovation. It is estimated that the replacement of single room heating by central heating increases the energy required for space heating by about 25A % on average. The energy suppliers falling under the regulation, have to prove a volume of savings proportional to their market share. Plus, RE can provide personal and national energy security—freeing you from a lifetime of utility bills and reducing the United States’ reliance on imported fuels. Energy Star-qualified refrigerators use 40 percent less energy than conventional models sold in 2001. The new breed of washers also spins out more water than previous machines, so clothes require less time in the dryer, reducing electricity or gas use. Another key to passive solar design is to have minimal window area on the north, east, and west sides of the house, to minimize heat loss during cold months and heat gain during the hot months.
Additional reading to get you on the right track is provided at the end of this article (see Access).
Whether you live in the farthest reaches of Alaska, in cloudy Seattle, or by the beach in Jamaica—an SDHW system can work for you. Not to be confused with solar heating (which uses the sun’s heat to warm air or water), PV modules use photons in sunlight to excite electrons and generate electricity. If your home experiences frequent or extended utility outages that are an inconvenience to you and your family, then you may want to consider a system with battery backup. Opportunities for installing a microhydro system are often few and far between, but if your stream has significant water flow or a large vertical drop (head), you’re in luck. We also tend to choose the most efficient appliances, including laptop computers, and make sure things are turned all the way off when not in use.
So, at some level the bottom line responsibility for their emissions rests on individuals and the purchasing choices we make. Its possible, that our impact is lower due to a high proportion of goods we purchase being used and second hand.
Screen size and average energy consumption per television have continued to grow over time. The fix pictured below cut more than 50 CFM (that’s cubic feet per minute) of leakage from a new home. All EU countries have developed thermal regulations for new dwellings, some of them as far as the seventies[1].
Between 2008 and 2009, the household energy consumption has decreased by 0.7% due to the economic crisis. Most of the savings in energy consumption in the household sector took place because of improvements in space heating technologies and tighter building codes (see also Figure 9 below). For that purpose, they have to implement actions with their consumers to encourage energy savings investments and will receive in exchange certificates; they are also allowed to buy energy saving certificates from suppliers in excess of their obligation. Modern CFs provide superior light quality, with operational lifetimes eight to ten times longer than that of an incandescent and one-quarter the energy use, to achieve the same amount of lighting. By designing a building with a tight, well-insulated envelope, you will minimize the energy consumed to keep your home at a comfortable temperature. PVs have no moving parts, are virtually indestructible, and typically carry a 25-year warranty. Tapping wind energy involves tall towers, which need to be engineered specifically for the turbine you are installing. We’ve designed and built our homes to be well insulated with passive solar design and good natural ventilation and daylighting, which reduces the energy used for heating, cooling, and lighting. We removed the grille from the HVAC supply register and sealed the metal boot to the surrounding drywall – for just 4 registers.
Differences between countries can be explained by the high energy efficiency potentials available in these countries due to outdated infrastructures (e.g. With a top-down approach, the impact of solar heating on the household energy consumption will be measured based on the energy statistics. Dryers now have temperature and moisture sensors, which automatically shut them off when your clothes are dry.
Unlike PV or wind systems, hydro systems generate electricity continuously, as long as the water is flowing, and will typically be the most cost-effective renewable energy approach. However, the magnitude of this impact varies with the countries, depending on the number of standards upgrades, their severity and the number of new dwellings (i.e.
Gas and electricity are the main energy source in the household energy consumption (39% and 25% respectively in 2009 compared to 29% and 19% in 1990). Unit consumption per dwelling has decreased in almost all EU countries from 1990 to 2009 except in 6 countries, mainly southern countries (Malta, Greece, Cyprus, Spain), Finland and Croatia (Figure 3).
In this case, the savings come from the fact that one kWh of solar will replace more than one kWh of conventional energy (due to the convention applied in energy statistics to solar heating, namely that there are no losses in conversion). The level of energy saved will depend depending on the type of water heaters replaced (for instance their efficiency).
Figure 9 shows an estimate of the impact of building standards in the unit consumption of dwelling since 1990 for a selection of countries[2]. Heat, from district heating, and coal represent 7% and 3% of the household consumption in 2009 (compared to 10% and 12% in 1990).
So looking at both energy consumption for water heating and water consumption trends in the households, one could draw some conclusions on the influence of solar heating penetration. The savings values have been agreed upon following a process involving various stakeholders on the basis of expert opinions and survey data. The introduction of new dwellings with better insulation since 1990 contributed to decrease the unit consumption per dwelling at different levels: 12% for Sweden, around 35% for France and Netherlands, 40% for Poland, 50% for Denmark and 70% for Germany.
In a bottom-up approach used in national evaluations, solar water heaters are considered as an energy saving technology and thus the saving will be much larger[8]. The details of the calculations are not public but the value of the standardised savings by equipment and actions are published on the Ministry web site[9].
The other factors responsible for the decrease of the unit consumption should be the retrofitting of existing dwellings and the introduction of new more efficient heating appliances (namely, condensing boilers and heat pumps), as well as behavioral savings.



Gas has more energy than liquid
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