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Rate of Reactions ? G indicates spontaneity not speed of reaction Spontaneous reactions will occur if it releases free energy (- ? G ), but may occur too slowly to be effective in living cells ? Can leave sucrose in sterile water for yrs. Metabolism, Energy and Life The chemistry of life is organized into metabolic pathways Metabolism = Totality of an organism's chemical processes. The newly designed interactive comment forums on this page have been specifically designed to allow for simple and interactive discussion on particular points of ICANN policies and processes. It is hoped is that through reasoned argument, respectful acknowledgement of others' views, and careful drafting, participants will be able to draw toward consensus policies on the specific issues outlined.
The photon has many different basic measurable parameters and constants that need to be constructed into any concept of the photon. The most basic experimental fact of the photon is that all photons travel at exactly the speed of light relative to each other within a single inertial reference frame. The most amazing thing about the photona€™s nature is the unimaginably vast rang of the photona€™s mass-energy-wavelength relationship. A theory of the photon is an arbitrary set of assumptions and attributes used to account for someonea€™s idea of explaining the photona€™s nature. If we construct a concept of the photon based solely on the vast amount of experimental data establishing its nature, rather than trying to pour it in a preconceived mold, we find we have a photon that can be quite different from the ones imagined by Special Relativity and Quantum Field Mechanics.
In the Living Universe, the standard for absolute motion provides a continuity of mass in the interactions between photons and atoms. The next drawing shows ten different kinds of red and blue Doppler shifts that can occur with different kinds of relative motion between source and observer. The observation of binary pulsars offers very convincing experimental evidence that all photons move at exactly C within the same reference frame.
These observations of binary pulsars are frequently offered as proofs of Special Relativity and the constancy of the speed of light. When I presented this principle of Absolute Photon Motion at the 2008 NPA meeting in Albuquerque, NM, an objection was made by one of the participants who is an advocate of Walter Ritza€™s emission theory of light.
The statement was made that the photons could have been emitted at different velocities from the pulsar and were then absorbed and re-emitted by gas molecules in the vicinity of the pulsar.
The Compton Effect is another big reason why the X-ray photons from the pulsar could not have been absorbed and re-emitted on their way to earth.
When visible light photons are absorbed and re-emitted by electrons within an atom, their wavelengths remain virtually unchanged.
With even only a minor amount of Compton scattering, a pulsara€™s X-ray bursts would be blurred beyond recognition.
For an example of how the change in a bodya€™s kinetic energy must also change its mass, consider a thought experiment in which a flywheel has evenly spaced mirrors attached to its outer surface like the fins of a paddle-wheel. If we attempt to explain this experiment in terms of massless photons then the conservation of mass is lost.
The whole reason that quantum mechanics needs the uncertainty principle lies in its failure to divide Plancka€™s constant into its component parts. All particles are defined by their masslength and not just by their mass or wavelength separately. Photons can be viewed as ballistic projectiles that are similar in concept to bullets and artillery shells. The dynamics of both photons and bullets are much the same in that the energy of each is divided into two distinct components.
It was the non common sense inverse ratio between a photona€™s energy and wavelength that Heisenberg seized upon to develop his Uncertainty Principle. Now let us consider a case where we dona€™t have photons and must determine the balla€™s position and trajectory by bouncing rifle bullets off it. The Indeterminacy Principle shows that, because of the fundamental physical properties of matter in general and photons in particular, it is not possible to confine them to a a€?pointa€? but only to an a€?area of uncertaintya€?. This is what Heisenberg and Bohr concluded when they established the Uncertainty Principle. Photons come in an enormous range of wavelengths and energies, yet when we measure them we can always obtain precise values. In the Living Universe, all photons have a precise intrinsic wavelength as they move through photon rest at C.
In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron.
Metabolism is the sum of an organisms chemical reactions Metabolism is an emergent property of life that arises from interactions.
Also underground energy transfer lines, which are 1800 meters long and have a combined power of 31.500 volts, are being constructed under Ataturk and Dimcay? streets. The concept of the photon is basically just what we might think the photon a€?looks likea€?. The metaphysical assumption of a massless photon is completely without any experimental verification. Everything we know of in the universe, that can be observed and measured, can be explained in terms of the interaction of the appropriate photons. These positive and negative strings spin in opposite directions and undulate with a wave-like motion as the photon moves at C.
Very energetic cosmic ray photons have over thirty orders of magnitude more energy than broadcast radio photons and these are not even the limits of the spectrum. The most basic are the ionization photons formed when an electron couples to a proton to form a hydrogen atom. A concept of the photon was inserted into Einsteina€™s theory of relativity almost as an afterthought. Without a need to make transformations between mass and energy there is no need for the idea of the field to initiate these transformations.


A binary pulsar emits rapid bursts of X-ray photons at very regular intervals as it revolves around a companion star. However, while they prove quite conclusively that all photons always move at C relative to each other within a common inertial reference frame, they also demonstrate that photons almost never move at C relative to either source or observer. This would make the photons all move at C relative to the gas molecules in the intervening space. In 1923, Arthur Compton discovered that the dynamics of a collision between a photon and electron is virtually identical to the dynamics involved in the collision between any two bodies of mass such as billiard balls. However, when photons of much greater energy and shorter wavelengths such as X-rays are absorbed and re-emitted by electrons, they lose energy and momentum and can be deflected in any direction.
For example, visible starlight can pass through the eartha€™s atmosphere with virtually no blurring, however, X-rays are scattered so completely that few ever reach the eartha€™s surface.
These photons, are all emitted from the lasers with a wavelength, energy and mass of exactly one (λ=l), and all move at exactly C relative the same inertial rest frame common to all photons.
In this process, the velocity of the spinning wheel is slowed as mass and energy are transferred to the reflecting photons. In this case, the velocity of the wheel increases as mass and energy are transferred from the photons to the wheel.
The photons with the smallest wavelengths have the greatest mass and energy and the very largest photons have fleetingly small masses and energies. At first it was called it the Indeterminacy principle because it placed an intrinsic limitation on what it was possible to measure or observe with photons. In this case, we might be able to determine the balla€™s position when we measure a bullet that bounced off of it but we could know very little about its trajectory because the impact of the bullets would greatly change its direction of motion. The fact that we cana€™t make certain accurate measurements at the atomic level does not necessarily lead to the conclusion that these various atomic attributes do not have precise values until they are measured. Do these photons actually have precise wavelengths and energies as they travel through space at C prior to being measured? Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. A hydrogen atom a big piece of positive mass (proton) connected to a small piece of negative mass (electron). While there is only one set of measurements of the photona€™s nature, everyone has a different concept of just what the photon might really be. Experimental physics has measured the photon in nearly every way possible and technology has exploited the nature of the photon to a remarkable extent. In fact, in order to read this page, you must engage in a complicated manipulation of a very narrow band of photons called visible light. Half of the photona€™s kinetic energy is contained in the opposite spins of these strings and the other half is contained in the motion of the photona€™s mass through space. Binary pulsars show that the rapid motion of a photona€™s source has no effect on its velocity of c through space. All of these photons have the same exact ratios of mass, energy and wavelength, and each travels in its own one dimensional space. The outer circlon shaped ionization coils of the proton connect with the outer coils of the electron. It was initially a mere mathematical construct used to explain the photoelectric effect but it then morphed into a massless wave-like disturbance within an electromagnetic field.
In the Living Universe the physical interaction of the mass of the photon eliminates the need for any field interactions for the transfer of energy. Six observers on the spaceship and four on the earth all measure Doppler shifted photons at different angles and at different relative velocities. When photons from a pulsar are carefully measured, it is found that they are blue shifted when the revolving pulsar is moving toward the earth and red shifted when the pulsar is moving away.
The problem with this theory lies in the way that Doppler shifts are produced by the source in opposite directions. The one big problem with this idea is that even very cold molecules of gas can have individual velocities of hundreds of meters per second. At the time, there was still a good deal of debate as to whether light traveled as a wave within an electromagnetic field or whether it existed as individual and independent particles. These photons all reflect from the mirrors at the same velocity C that they had before striking the mirror. In both of these examples, momentum is conserved and both mass and energy remain separate and constant.
By giving all particles mass, size and shape, the uncertainty of a point particlea€™s position becomes merely its volume. If guns shot photons, a BB gun would have the power of a large artillery shell and the battleship Missouria€™s 16 inch guns would eject soap bubbles.
When we want to catch a baseball that is thrown toward us, we observe its motion toward us by visible light photons that reflect from it and are then absorbed by our eyes. When a photon is emitted by an atom, its mass is half positive mass from the proton and half negative mass from the electron. The nature of the photon is an absolute set of parameters that must be fitted into any arbitrary concept of the photon. The circlon photon concept is a completely mechanical particle with a complex characteristic spin.
The combination of these two sets of coils forms a circular photon that holds the atom together. Its attributes were selected to make it compatible with both the classical wave theory of light and the preestablished postulates of Special Relativity.
When a photon is absorbed by an atom it adds it mass to the atoma€™s mass but retains its basic own identity within the atom until it is emitted and takes its mass from the atom.


Even though the pulsar may be two hundred thousand light years from earth, the photons remain perfectly lined up in their order of emission. This would mean the individual photons would still have different velocities as they traveled to earth. The value of this increase is constant for a given angle and is independent of the wavelength of the photon being deflected. The velocity of the mirrors has no effect on the photonsa€™ velocity but it does change their wavelength, energy and mass. In both cases, energy remains constant but mass either vanishes into or appears from nowhere. Everywhere that the Uncertainty principle appears, it is rendered redundant by replacing Plancka€™s constant (h) with the masslength constant (Mλ).
The energy of the muzzle velocity is relative to other reference frames but the spin energy is absolute to all frames.
These photons are so small and have so little energy that they have no noticeable effect on the trajectory of the ball. If we use photons that have large wavelengths, they will have little energy and thus not very much effect on the atoma€™s motion. A photon can be red shifted or blue shifted by the observera€™s motion away from or toward the photona€™s source. Each idea of a massless photon is someonea€™s concept of the photon that makes it possible to ignore certain aspects of photon measurements. The Doppler shift of photons shows that any motion of the photona€™s source changes its energy and wavelength. This circlon shaped photon then divides in two with one regular photon being emitted into space and with the other remaining as a circlon photon to hold the atom together. These green photons are Doppler shifted to other colors by either the motion of the spaceship or the motion of the observers. They are observed as repeating sequences of first red shifted photons and then blue shifted photons.
The very fact that the velocities of both the pulsar and the earth can change while the velocity of the photons cannot, means that the relative velocity between a photon and either its source or observer must always be either less than or greater than C except for the special case of an observer at absolute rest. On a journey of 200,000 light years, a difference in velocity between photons of just one meter per second would mean a difference in travel time of almost 6 hours. The range of the photon spectrum covers a great many orders of magnitude to which there is no limit in principle. The main difference between a bullet and a photon is that the energy of a bulleta€™s muzzle velocity is usually much greater than its spin energy. The Uncertainty principle states that these photons have no specific color as they travel through space and are neither red nor blue before being measured. The timing of supernova explosions shows that even photons from the most distant supernova all travel at the same speed as photons today. If the changing motion of the revolving pulsar had any effect on the photonsa€™ velocity of C, then the photons could never have remained in their sequence of emission for two hundred thousand years.
If according to Ritz, the photons gained and lost velocity from the pulsara€™s .001c orbital velocity, there would be about four hundred years difference in travel time between photons from different sides of the orbit.
When h is divided into masslength Y, the particle can no longer be a point as defined by Plancka€™s constant. A photon can have a wavelength greater than the size of the sun or it can have a wavelength much smaller than a proton. With a photon, the energy from its velocity at C is exactly equal to the energy of its rotational spin at C. By contrast, if we use very small and energetic photons we are able to a€?seea€? the atoma€™s position but its motion will be changed considerably each time an energetic photon is reflected from it. It is true that we cannot know the wavelength of a photon before we measure it, nor when we do measure it, can we know what its intrinsic wavelength was relative to photon rest.
The masslength of all particles is exact at all times and the only uncertainty lies in our inability to accurately measure them.
This is just one of the many ways that photons can be generated but in each case the photons get half of their mass from an electron and the other half from a proton. If any of these photons moved even slightly faster or slower than C, then they would be observed as a jumbled up mixture of red and blue shifted photons. All photons must travel at exactly c or the pulsara€™s precise red and blue shifted pulses would be blurred into a steady signal. This is because the observer can not know his exact absolute motion and therefore cana€™t tell if the photons he measures are red shifted of blue shifted. In fact, the absolute common velocity of all photons is what keeps the red shifted spectral photons of the Living Universe from becoming a meaningless blur. Quantum mechanics needs Plancka€™s constant and the uncertainty principle because it fails to give mass to the photon and physical dimensions to the proton and electron. When a photon is measured in a moving frame, only the energy of its velocity is Doppler shifted. As with the bullet, the photona€™s spin energy remains constant in all non-rotating frames.



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