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The multiple applications of Linde’s Series 02 units are due to its modular design: the combination of a basic unit with the desired control element and interface option allows for an optimum design of your hydraulic system.
Linde directional control valves are designed for the use in the Linde Synchron Control (LSC) System which offers superior performance and increased efficiency. Representation of the hydraulic components of a closed loop hydrostatic drive: Variable electro-hydraulic controlled pump HPV-02 E1 (top view) and fixed displacement motor HMF-02 plus filter, cooler and oil tank.
The table shows the complete capacity range of the pumps, while the diagram below shows the recommended practical range for the different nominal sizes of the HPV-02 pump with control limit between 200 bar ?pmin and 280 bar ?pmax.
Beneficial conditions for long service life>> Speedlower continuous maximum speed>> Operating pressurepressure less than 300 bar ?p on average>> Max.
In order to guarantee long-term proper function and high efficiency of the hydraulic pumps the purity of the pressure fluid must comply with the following criteria according to Linde Works Standard WN 51 210.
Units of the HPV-02 series can be equipped with a pure charge pressure manifold or with a combined charge pressure and filter flange manifold.
In order to ensure the functional performance and high efficiency of the hydraulic pumps the viscosity and purity of the operating fluid should meet the different operational requirements. Linde offers an oil testing service in accordance with VDMA 24 570 and the test apparatus required for in-house testing. In order to be able to select the right hydraulic fluid it is necessary to know the working temperature in the hydraulic circuit. For further information concerning the installation of the unit please refer to the operating instructions manual.
The modular control concept with standardised interface enables quick selection and adaptation for different customer and system requirements with mechanical, hydraulic or electronic control. All Series 02-pump controls result in the same machine response for identical motion commands, irrespective of the control type. Special control elements deal with functions such as torque control or pressure cut-off regulation. The M1R-pump control combines robustness with high precision for direct and reliable machine control.
By turning the control lever the pump flow rate and direction of flow are controlled via a cam plate. The cam plate offers a large control angle with progressive control characteristic and a wide neutral range. The HPV-02 H1 features hydraulic control with a wide pilot pressure range for improved machine control. By an external hydraulic signal input at the pilot pressure ports (Y, Z) the pump flow rate and direction of flow are controlled. The HPV-02 E1 has two proportional solenoids and through the upstream signal circuit it combines the flexibility of electronic vehicle management with the reliability of a pump control marked by its high operational availability.
The HPV-02 E2, with its additional release function, can easily be integrated in an electronic vehicle management control system like an E1-control. The vehicle is decelerated until standstill and thus provides a safe condition of the machine as per EN ISO 13849.
In case of disfunction in the proportional magnets' circuits, a similar reaction can be induced by the intervention of the electronic control units. It use is recommended for mobile applications where specific safety criteria have to be met in terms of travel coasting behaviour, e.g road traffic use. By an external electrical signal input at the solenoids (MY and MZ) the pump flow rate and direction of flow are controlled. The data is specific for electrical controls, and independent of the nominal pump size and PCO pressure cut-off regulation, unless specified otherwise (see section Controls. Expression of concern regarding paper by Park et al, published on 25 June 2015: “Epidemiological investigation of MERS-CoV spread in a single hospital in South Korea, May to June 2015”, Euro Surveill.
It has been brought to our attention that some of the authors may not have been informed about the content of the above paper. Sexually transmitted diseases caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) are being diagnosed more frequently than others. Cervical cancer affects approximately 1.4 million women in the world, with an annual incidence of 500,000 cases [2] and causes an estimated 274,000 deaths each year. Two vaccines have been developed, Cervarix and Gardasil, that can prevent infections and pre-cancerous laesions caused by HPV infection.
Both vaccines are considered to be safe and several studies document seroconversion to all types of HPV contained in the vaccine in more than 98% of cases. The bivalent vaccine shows cross-reactivity to other HPV types, in particular to HPV45 and 31, which are phylogenetically similar to HPV18 and 16, respectively [17]. Genital HPV infection is usually transmitted sexually, and immunisation should therefore precede the start of sexual activity. The United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends the routine use of the vaccine for 11-12 year-old girls (minimum age nine years) and a catch-up vaccination for women between 13 and 26 years of age, regardless of whether they are sexually active or not [20]. Another study compared 16 vaccine strategies in different age cohorts and the corresponding number of infections prevented by HPV. On 22 February 2008, the Italian Minister of Health announced the start of the first public vaccination campaign against HPV for 12 year-old girls [26]. The aim of this work was to assess the adherence to HPV vaccination in 12 and 13 year-old girls during the vaccination campaign in the ASL 5 "Spezzino", from March to December 2008.
This study shows the results of the HPV vaccination in the province of La Spezia in the region of Liguria.
The recruitment of birth cohorts 1996 and 1997 for vaccination was made using the municipal registers.
Information campaigns on prevention interventions and health promotion targeting adolescents are often fragmented and without continuity. The general practitioners, paediatricians, and local nursery and infant health services received posters to be displayed in their waiting rooms, containing the email addresses and internet links of where to obtain information about the vaccination. Gynaecologists and local public health experts held a press conference explaining in detail how the immunisation campaign was organised and the benefits it offered. As of 31 December 2008, only three girls born in 1997 had stopped taking the vaccine after the first dose.
In the assessment of side effects due to the vaccine (data not shown) that occurred within seven days after administration, local effects were the most frequent, especially pain and redness in the inoculation site. HPV vaccination is a new important instrument to prevent the occurrence of a specific cancer. There are as yet no published national or international data on how many vaccine doses were administered in countries that have already run HPV vaccination campaigns, and how many people were vaccinated or completed the vaccine course.
Adverse reactions to all vaccines have to be reported to the regional Department of Health to ensure post-licensure monitoring of the safety of the vaccine.
The involvement of girls and their parents in the vaccination campaign was very high and they showed a considerable interest in HPV and the consequences that the infection may have. In conclusion, we can say that the information campaign carried out throughout the province was conducted successfully and appropriately. World Health Organization (WHO) and Institut Catala d’Oncologia (ICO) Information Centre on Human Papilloma Virus and Cervical Cancer.
Harper DM, Franco EL, Wheeler C, Ferris DG, Jenkins D, Schuind A, et al* Efficacy of a bivalent L1 rirus-like particle vaccine in prevention of ilfectioj with human papillomavirus 4ypes 16 and 18 in young women: a rafdomised controlled trial.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed by authors contributing to Eurosurveillance do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) or the editorial team or the institutions with which the authors are affiliated.


Durch die Nutzung unserer Dienste erklaren Sie sich damit einverstanden, dass wir Cookies setzen. If you continue without changing your settings, we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies on the Linde Hydraulics, UK website. Linde’s through drive technology for both pumps and motors allows a flexibility of design in a multitude of applications based on the 21° Technology.
They are able to provide the required torque even at low speeds and make it possible to start smoothly and sensitively.
For a single order via 'open variant' a customer-specific number or free text with up to 15 characters can be stamped on the name plate. Linde recommends using only hydraulic fluids which are confirmed by the manufacturer as suitable for use in high pressure hydraulic installations or approved by the original equipment manufacturer.
The hydraulic fluid should be selected such that is optimum viscosity is within the working temperature range (see tables).
Due to pressure and speed influences the leakage fluid temperature is always higher than the circuit temperature.
Special pump configurations for vertical mounting with the drive shaft pointing either upward or downward are available for selected rated sizes and have to be requested separately. Please ensure that the load transfer components such as mounting flange, PTO-through shaft and additional pumps are designed adequately. The possible combinations of and with IGP and EGP are determined by the PTO option and the permitted shaft torque. All Series 02-controls feature an upstream signal circuit that is adapted to the respective control, and a standardised and load-independent servo control for simple and constantly available machine or vehicle control.
Controls with pressure cut-off regulation (PCO) reduce pump flow when the cut-off pressure is reached.
It is mechanically controlled and can be combined with a fixed, variable or regulating hydraulic motor. The resulting high resolution for movements from the neutral range (and vice versa) enables precise manoeuvring. The flow direction of the fluid depends on the pump direction of rotation and the over centre direction of the swash plate. It can be combined with a hydraulic motor as fixed, variable or regulating motor or a variable motor with pressure regulator. In addition it offers a safety standard that meets the stringent requirements for road traffic use. In case of signal irregularity or perturbation like cable break or short-circuit in the switching solenoid circuit (co called 'watchdog'), the pump swashes back to neutral position in a defined manner. Results of a vaccination campaign against human papillomavirus in the province of La Spezia, Liguria, Italy, March-December 2008.
It is accepted that HPV infection is a necessary cause for all cases of cervical carcinoma and a large number of other anogenital and oral cancers.
Today it is universally accepted that HPV infection is the necessary, although not sufficient, cause of all cases of cervical carcinoma and of a large number of other anogenital cancers and oral squamous cell carcinoma [1]. HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58) are associated more strongly with the development of tumours than others [4], and among these, genotypes 16 and 18 are most relevant in the context of cervical carcinogenesis [5-8].
In Europe, cervical cancer affects approximately 60,000 women and 30,000 die because of this disease every year [3]. They consist of recombinant viral capsid protein L1 (or a combination of L1 and L2) of HPV genotypes 6, 11, 16 and 18, assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs), and induce the production of neutralising antibodies against these genotypes.
The antibody peak occurs a month after the third dose, then it decreases slowly until 18 months. It implies that the target population for vaccination is prepubertal girls or young adolescents.
The Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) advises that girls aged between nine and 13 years should be vaccinated before their sexual debut and that women between 14 and 26 years of age should be vaccinated, regardless of whether they are sexually active or not [21].
In Germany and in the United Kingdom, the HPV vaccine is offered to the target population free of charge. It found that vaccinating 12 year-old girls can be effective in the prevention of HPV infections.
The study analysed all girls (12-13 years-old-girls) vaccinated as part of the active free offer as well as the not active free offer, and also noted the adherence to vaccination in people who paid the partial costs for their vaccination. They often do not integrate the work of health and education services and voluntary associations.
They also actively informed parents and girls about transmission, consequences of HPV infection and the protection the new vaccine could offer.
Local newspapers reported on the beginning of the immunisation campaign, with an invitation to call the vaccination clinics for any information about it. These vaccination units consisted of a physician, a nurse and an administrative technician.
The majority of first doses were administered by the vaccination clinics during the months of March and April, following the administration of the first dose on 19 March, with a slight increase in September, which, according to statements from girls and parents, may be related to the Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded to Harald zur Hausen who is dedicated to the study of HPV. The most frequently observed systemic side effects were fatigue, general malaise and gastrointestinal symptoms, which is in agreement with the literature [15-17].
One was characterised by redness and induration at the breast ipsilateral to the inoculated arm. The success of a vaccination campaign depends on several factors including support from policy makers, the presence of qualified and expert health professionals and the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine. It is estimated that the target population, 12 year-old girls, was about 280,000 in Italy [26] and 6,000 in the region of Liguria [27]. In the 2008 HPV vaccination campaign the ASL 5 “Spezzino” observed only two moderate adverse reactions that did not require hospitalisation or medication and resolved spontaneously. General practitioners and paediatricians received many requests for information from parents of girls involved in the campaign and their number of patients increased. A prospective study of age trends in cervical human papillomavirus acquisition and persistence in Guanacaste, Costa Rica.
Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer.
Multiple high risk HPV infections are common in cervical neoplasia and young women in a cervical screening population. Prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine in young women: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre phase II efficacy trial. Immunologic responses following administration of a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16 and 18.
Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a novel vaccine for human papillomavirus 16: a 2-year randomized controlled clinical trial. Early Experience with Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Introduction in the United States, Canada and Australia. Neither ECDC nor any person acting on behalf of ECDC is responsible for the use that might be made of the information in this journal.
It can be extended significantly through proper maintenance of the hydraulic system and by using high-quality hydraulic fluid. Further details about the mounting of the charge pressure manifold see section "Dimensions. Both types can be used as charge pump for the main circuit or the control and cooling circuit. The reliable control of the pump can easily be integrated into any kind of vehicle management control system.


Because system pressure is maintained at low flow, the power consumption and thermal balance of the system are optimised.
Reliable and robust control of the displacement volume is achieved through position feedback.
The data is specific for hydraulic controls, and independent of the nominal pump size and pressure cut-off regulation PCO, unless specified otherwise otherwise (see section Controls. Identical commands always call for the same response in the machine, so no corrective action is required by the operator or the electronic system.
Two vaccines have been developed and were licensed in 2007, which can prevent infections and pre-cancerous lesions due to HPV.
The low-risk viral genotypes, including HPV6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 70, 72, 81, cause benign laesions such as anogenital condyloma and laryngeal papilloma [9].
In Italy, recent numbers indicate that an estimated 3,500 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer every year and approximately 1,200 die. Since these vaccines do not contain HPV DNA they cannot cause infection or have an oncogenic effect by integrating into the DNA of the host cell [10-12]. In general, the antibody titres decrease 10-fold in the first one or two years post vaccination and stabilise after three to five years at levels higher than those induced by the natural infection. In addition, the antibody response induced by vaccines is generally higher in prepubertal children [20]. In France, 65% of the cost is borne by the welfare system and the remaining 35% are paid by the individual or by a voluntary private insurance [22]. Indeed, the majority of 12 year-old girls are not yet sexually active and therefore represent the best target for vaccination [24]. Moreover, a free not active offer is in place for girls at the age of 13 years (born in 1996), and girls and women between the ages of 14 and 26 years can get the vaccine at a partial price of EUR 105, the cost of the vaccine and its administration incurred for the local public health authority (Azienda Sanitaria Locale, ASL). Therefore, the ASL 5 coordinated the activities for the HPV vaccination campaign, involving different areas of expertise such as general practitioners, paediatricians, local nursery and infant health services, school authorities, local press and families. ASL staff also prepared and distributed brochures in all schools in the province of La Spezia.
Finally, the ASL 5 website posted a link to the HPV vaccination campaign site containing frequently asked questions about vaccination (prepared by the National Screening Observatory) and the procedures for access to the public health clinics throughout the territory. In addition, compensation was provided for staff working outside normal office hours to enable vaccination sessions in the afternoon.
Table 2 shows the number of vaccinated girls born between 1982 and 1997 and the relative vaccination adherence.
In the 1996 birth cohort were two girls hat stopped after the first dose, one of them due to an adverse reaction, and 22 had interrupted the vaccination after the second dose (one due to an adverse reaction). It appeared about 12 hours after the first vaccination and resolved spontaneously within a few days.
It is necessary to provide the population with clear, concise and simple information about HPV infections, cervical cancer, prevention and vaccination. Considering the expected objective for Liguria to achieve a coverage of >95% of the 12 year-old girls with three doses of vaccine within five years after the start of the vaccination programme [27] and the Ligurian pooled data which show an adherence to HPV vaccination of about 62% among 12 year-old girls [29], the results obtained during the HPV vaccination campaign in 2008 in the ASL 5 “Spezzino” (80% adherence) are to be considered very good. With regard to the tolerability of the vaccine, these side effects were comparable to those observed in the literature [15-17] and the number of girls who interrupted their vaccination course was limited (two girls).
In the first month of the campaign the website was accessed more than 500 times and 300 phone calls were made to the dedicated numbers. To further raise the awareness of girls and parents regarding HPV vaccination, the quality of the information and especially the quality of healthcare and vaccination services needs to be improved. Introduction of human papillomavirus (hpv) vaccination into national immunisation schedules in Europe: results of the VENICE 2007 survey. This reduces the amount of parts going into the component and also increases the overall mechanical efficiency, minimises windage losses as well as the noise level of the machine. The HPV-02 E5 has two switching solenoids and thus sets the pump to either neutral or maximum swash angle of any direction. In Italy pre-adolescent age (12 years-old) was identified as the ideal age for vaccination against HPV.
Cervical cancer occupies the tenth position for cancers affecting women in Italy and is the third most common cancer in women between the ages of 15 and 44 years. Cervarix is a bivalent vaccine developed by GlaxoSmithKline, containing VLPs of the L1 proteins of HPV16 and 18, 20 ?g of each, with an adjuvant of aluminium salts and a lipid agent (ASO4). The objective was to achieve a coverage of >95% of the 12 year-old-girls with three doses of vaccine within five years after the start of the vaccination programme [27].
It included a regional information brochure, the informed consent form, and the date on which to present to the outpatient clinics for vaccination. In a simple and understandable way, the girls were informed about the benefits of vaccination and invited to ask their paediatricians for further information. It is important that healthcare workers are well trained in communicating with patients to insure professional credibility and aid the promotion and implementation of coordinated vaccination campaigns. The main points of our programme were the implementation of educational campaigns targeted according to age and sex, the involvement of educational institutions, information about the transmission of the infection and an increase in staff at vaccination clinics during the campaign. The charge pressure relief valves for the rated sizes 55-135 are integrated in the port plate housing, and for the rated sizes 165-280 in the charge pressure manifold of the HPV-02. In Liguria, the first free HPV vaccination campaign was started on 8 March 2008 in 12 year-old girls.
The vaccination protocol foresees three intramuscular doses of 0.5 ml (at 0, 1 and 6 months) for girls from 10 to 25 years of age. The bivalent vaccine proved 100% effective in the prevention of cervical dysplasia [15-18]. The percentage of adherence to the vaccination was calculated as the number of doses administered per target resident population x 100.
The other one, following administration of the second dose of vaccine, was characterised by a severe form of atopy which resolved spontaneously in a girl with a history of atopic dermatitis. Except where otherwise stated, all manuscripts published after 1 January 2016 will be published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence.
At this point in time, it is not known how long the protection by the HPV vaccine lasts and whether a later booster vaccination will be necessary. Moreover, if girls stopped the vaccination cycle after the first or second dose of vaccine, a reminder letter was sent, containing a consent or dissent form to be completed and returned. Adverse reactions to the vaccine were reported to the regional Department of Health, following the established routine for adverse reactions to other vaccines.
This girl had already presented erythema and itching with lower intensity after the first dose of vaccine.
Meeting minutes from joint sessions II and III on “Strategies for an active offer of vaccine against HPV infections in Italy]. You are free to share and adapt the material, but you must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the licence, and indicate if changes were made. However, preliminary results have shown that a booster with monovalent HPV16 vaccine induced a quick, very high and prolonged immune response [19]. A similar invitation letter was sent to the 1996 birth cohort together with the regional information brochure and a phone number to call for an appointment.



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