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A tourist who tasted insects in Thailand said, “They were crunchy and salty and seasoned with soy sauce. The recommendation was premised on efficiency: While it takes 10 kilograms of feed to produce 1 kilograms of beef, insects in general can do that with a couple of kilograms. That efficiency matters, as a growing population wants to get more meat from a planet where new farmland is hard to find.
In terms of protein content, insects vary widely, from 13 percent to 77 percent dry matter. Deep fried grasshoppers and bamboo worms at the Tastes of Dai stall in Kunming, capital of Yunnan, China. The large Macrotermes termites, which take flight after the first rains at the end of the dry season. Palm weevil larvae, members of the genus Rynchophorous, are often barbecued in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Red maguey worms – larvae of the moth Comadia redtenbacheri and white maguey worms – larvae of the butterfly Aegiale hesperiaris are common in central Mexico.
An estimated 9.5 billion mopane caterpillars mopane caterpillars Imbrasia belina are harvested annually from the mopane woodlands in Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Even if you accept the idea of eating insects, the question becomes: how to get enough of them to make a meal?
Insects with a heavy skin of the indigestible material chitin are poor candidates, Pellitteri adds.
Although the FAO estimated that 2 billion people are eating insects, many of them are members of minority groups, the kind of people who are becoming assimilated into western industrial society, where insect eating is rare. Although insects respond to the seasons like other animals, they may be available during seasons when conventional crops are not. And thus even though international experts are recommending an increase in eating insects, a decline could also be in the cards. Another threat to the practice comes from the field of entomology itself — which traditionally has been a bit more interested in destroying insects than eating them. Insecticide sprays don’t just cut bug populations, they also poison the survivors, as Florence Dunkel, of Montana State University, learned at a village she’s visited for years in Mali, West Africa. Paradoxically, one of the founding justifications for entomology, preventing damage to crops, was poisoning a free source of high-protein food.
Much of the drive to mobilize insects for human food can be traced to Gene Defoliart (1925-2013), a quiet and optimistic University of Wisconsin-Madison entomology professor who became fascinated by the idea in 1974. Defoliart plunged into the subject in 1974 after he failed to find an expert to discuss insects as a new source of protein for a meeting. Through the newsletter, she says, “He connected people, professors and the public, with chefs and people who were meeting the public at museums and zoos. Defoliart was a determined man with many concerns, says one of his daughters, Sharon Defoliart. In their quest for acceptance, advocates of edible insects point out that they are related to crabs and shrimp, both considered delicacies in the West.


Plenty of worms add taste and a frisson of danger to a taco at Don Bugito in San Francisco. Entomophagy, as it’s clunkily called, is becoming hipster-faddish in some maxi-trending venues.
Palatability is a perennial factor in the annual Bug Buffet that Dunkel stages at Montana State to introduce newbies to baby bites of the arthropod agenda. The black soldier fly is native to henhouses, compost heaps and decaying flesh in Ohio and other states. The company is its the second year of commercial production, and is selling to 12 prawn farms in Ohio, with an eye on other aquaculture markets. As the insects feed on waste grain from distillers and breweries, they secrete enzymes to break down and extract nutrients, Courtright says. In 12 days, in a 3-foot by 5-foot tank, EnviroFlight can make 250 pounds of nutritious feed ingredients, Courtright says. As the FAO and a few pioneers try to promote entomophagy to a skeptical public, EnviroFlight has a key advantage, Courtright says. First Generation biofuels are produced directly from food crops by abstracting the oils for use in biodiesel or producing bioethanol through fermentation[1].
Second Generation biofuels have been developed to overcome the limitations of first generation biofuels. Four Generation Bio-fuels are aimed at not only producing sustainable energy but also a way of capturing and storing co2. In Yunnan Province, China, ethnic groups including the Dai and Hani people have practiced eating insects for a long time, says Chen Hang, assistant researcher at the Research Institute of Resources Insects of the Chinese Academy of Forestry. Africans beat the ground around the termite hills to simulate heavy rain, provoking the termites to emerge. Three of these simple light traps gathered 4.5 kilograms of termites, free of the soil, ants and the dangerous snakes that devour termites in other types of traps. Once deep-fried, is one of the best-known and most popular edible insects in a country where many insects are eaten. Seventy percent of the 8 million residents of Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, eat mopane caterpillars. But in 2009, after expanded insecticide spraying of cotton crops, the kids were told to stop eating grasshoppers.
Defoliart was so instrumental to the movement that the new FAO report2 was dedicated to him.
If you get past the factor that it’s an insect and just taste it, some [dishes] have interesting flavors. In the 1800s, “Pioneers at Great Salt Lake lost their crop to drought, grasshoppers and other insects, and asked the Ute [Indians] for some food. Life is short but productive, as the larvae feast on waste products from the ethanol or beer industry. Crops such as wheat and sugar are the most widely used feedstock for bioethanol while oil seed rape has proved a very effective crop for use in biodiesel.


They are produced from non-food crops such as wood, organic waste, food crop waste and specific biomass crops, therefore eliminating the main problem with first generation biofuels[1].
It takes advantage of specially engineered energy crops such as algae as its energy source[3].
Biomass materials, which have absorbed co2 while growing, are converted into fuel using the same processes as second generation biofuels. On May 13, 2013, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) issued a long report with one tasty conclusion: On a crowded planet, protein from insects makes ecological and economic sense. Syntermes species, the largest termites eaten in the Amazon, are gathered by sticking the rib of a palm leaf into the nests; the soldiers are fished out after they bite the leaf.
Many indigenous people have excellent ecological knowledge of the palm weevil and can deliberately increase production. Primarily collected by hand, the caterpillars are degutted, boiled in salted water and sun-dried.
In Western culture, says Pellitteri, a faculty associate in entomology at UW-Madison, “Insects signify dirt, poor hygiene. They made traditional prairie crackers, pretty nutritious, and the pioneers survived, but the moment they knew what was in them, including katydids (which is now called the Mormon cricket), they would have nothing more to do with it. Second Generation biofuels are also aimed at being more cost competitive in relation to existing fossil fuels[2]. This process differs from second and third generation production as at all stages of production the carbon dioxide is captured using processes such as oxy-fuel combustion[4]. In remote areas, collecting and selling caterpillars may provide more income than conventional crops. Even for head lice this is not true, but there is the association, and then the thought of trying to eat them. There is much debate over their actually benefit in reducing green house gas and co2 emissions due to the fact that some biofuels can produce negative Net energy gains, releasing more carbon in their production than their feedstock’s capture in their growth. It is predicted that algae will have the potential to produce more energy per acre than conventional crops.
The carbon dioxide can then be geosequestered by storing it in old oil and gas fields or saline aquifers.
Algae can also be grown using land and water unsuitable for food production, therefore reducing the strain on already depleted water sources.
As the majority of biofuels are produced directly from food crops the rise in demand for biofuels has lead to an increase in the volumes of crops being diverted away from the global food market.
A further benefit of algae based biofuels is that the fuel can be manufactured into a wide range of fuels such as diesel, petrol and jet fuel.



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