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Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K)[2] is an ?-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)(CH2)4NH2. Common posttranslational modifications include methylation of the ?-amino group, giving methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyllysine. As an essential amino acid, lysine is not synthesized in animals, hence it must be ingested as lysine or lysine-containing proteins.
L-aspartate is first converted to L-aspartyl-4-phosphate by aspartokinase (or Aspartate kinase).
?-Aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase converts this into ?-aspartyl-4-semialdehyde (or ?-aspartate-4-semialdehyde). Dihydrodipicolinate synthase adds a pyruvate group to the ?-aspartyl-4-semialdehyde, and two water molecules are removed.
This product is reduced to 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate (or ?1-piperidine-2,6-dicarboxylate, in the figure: (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate) by dihydrodipicolinate reductase. Tetrahydrodipicolinate N-acetyltransferase opens this ring and gives rise to N-succinyl-L-2-amino-6-oxoheptanedionate (or N-acyl-2-amino-6-oxopimelate). N-succinyl-L-2-amino-6-oxoheptanedionate is converted into N-succinyl-LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedionate (N-acyl-2,6-diaminopimelate).
N-succinyl-LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedionate (N-acyl-2,6-diaminopimelate)is converted into LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedionate (L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate) by succinyl diaminopimelate desuccinylase (acyldiaminopimelate deacylase).
LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedionate is converted by diaminopimelate epimerase into meso-2,6-diamino-heptanedionate (meso-2,6-diaminopimelate). Finally, meso-2,6-diamino-heptanedionate is converted into L-lysine by diaminopimelate decarboxylase.
Lysine is metabolised in mammals to give acetyl-CoA, via an initial transamination with ?-ketoglutarate.


Lysine is the limiting amino acid (the essential amino acid found in the smallest quantity in the particular foodstuff) in most cereal grains, but is plentiful in most pulses (legumes).[11] Consequently, meals that combine cereal grains and legumes, such as the Indian dal with rice, Middle Eastern hummus, ful medames, falafel with pita bread, the Mexican beans with rice or tortilla have arisen to provide complete protein in diets that are, by choice or by necessity, vegetarian.
It has been suggested that lysine may be beneficial for those with herpes simplex infections.[31] However, more research is needed to fully substantiate this claim.
Lysine has a known anxiolytic action through its effects on serotonin receptors in the intestinal tract. Human studies have also shown negative correlations between reduced lysine intake and anxiety. While chemically insignificant to lysine itself, it is worth noting that lysine is attached to dextroamphetamine to form the prodrug lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse).
According to animal studies, lysine deficiency causes immunodeficiency.[36] One cause of relative lysine deficiency is cystinuria, where there is impaired hepatic resorption of basic, or positively charged amino acids, including lysine. The 1993 film Jurassic Park, which is based on the 1990 Michael Crichton novel Jurassic Park, features dinosaurs that were genetically altered so that they could not produce lysine.[40] This was known as the "lysine contingency," and was supposed to prevent the cloned dinosaurs from surviving outside the park, forcing them to be dependent on lysine supplements provided by the park's veterinary staff. In 1996, lysine became the focus of a price-fixing case, the largest in United States history. 7.Microwave Dried Mealworm FEATURES AQUAV Mealworms are the perfect natural food for all kinds of wild birds, Hamster and Reptiles. L-Lysine HCL 98.5% (Feed Grade) Lysine is the necessary amino acid for the animal but which can not be synthesized by themselves.
Your use of this website constitutes acknowledgement and acceptance of our Terms & Conditions. The ?-amino group often participates in hydrogen bonding and as a general base in catalysis. It is produced by the actions of the enzyme lysyl oxidase on lysine in the extracellular matrix and is essential in the crosslink formation that stabilizes collagen and elastin.


One study on rats[32] showed that overstimulation of the 5-HT4 receptors in the gut are associated with anxiety-induced intestinal pathology.
A population-based study in Syria included 93 families whose diet is primarily grain-based and therefore likely to be deficient in lysine. In the gastrointestinal tract, the lysine molecule is cleaved from the dextroamphetamine, thereby making oral administration necessary. The accompanying urinary cysteine results because the same deficient amino acid transporter is normally present in the kidney as well. The Archer Daniels Midland Company paid a fine of US$100 million, and three of its executives were convicted and served prison time. The Biology Project, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, University of Arizona. We doesn't provide feed wild animals products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. Other posttranslational modifications at lysine residues include acetylation and ubiquitination. A glutaric acid molecule is used in this reaction and an oxoacid is produced as a byproduct. Lysine, acting as a serotonin antagonist and therefore reducing the overactivity of these receptors, reduced signs of anxiety and anxiety-induced diarrhea in the sample population. O-Glycosylation of hydroxylysine residues in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus is used to mark certain proteins for secretion from the cell.



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