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Your fridge unfortunately isn't an appliance that you can turn on and off to save energy. When cooking, use a smaller appliance like a toaster oven or microwave if possible to avoid heating up the entire oven. An important part of decreasing energy use is to make sure that your appliances are running properly. THE INFORMATION IN THESE ARTICLES IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE ON THE PROPER MAINTENANCE AND CARE OF SYSTEMS AND APPLIANCES IN THE HOME.
DisclosureThe information in these articles is intended to provide guidance on the proper maintenance and care of systems and appliances in the home.
Another thing I like to take into consideration, as many of you might know, is my love for motivational videos and things that get my mind right. Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. An examination of inlet velocity triangle shows that additional energy losses are now to be reckoned with in increase flow or reduced flow conditions.a. Mechanical losses: In the pump the correlation between speed N and mechanical power loss Pb will be Pb =K1.
Disc friction loss: For a given pump using liquid the relation between speed and power loss can be given by Pd = K3.
The dishwasher, refrigerator and other appliances that you use regularly can quickly add up on your utility bill. Purchasing a quality home warranty from HMS will ensure that your kitchen appliances are protected from the wear and tear of daily use. If you are tired you may think that you don’t have enough energy to workout, but research has shown that strenuous exercise increases energy levels.
Place yourself on a sleep schedule and avoid taking naps more than 10 minutes in daytime since they can cause problems when going to sleep at night. One of the most common foods that can give you an energy boost is a banana, a great source of natural carbohydrates and potassium. With football season coming up, usually around this time of the year you will find a resurgence of great hype videos. Ideal outlet velocity diagrams for reduced, normal, and increase flow in centrifugal pump impeller.
IntroductionAs the pie chart below ndicates, the LCC of a typical industrial pump over a 20 year period is primarily made up of maintenance and energy costs. The leakage power loss:-The leakage liquid is bled off the main stream at a number of points, each at different pressures. In Rotor:If the blade tips were made tangential to the designed inlet relative velocity vr1, they cannot be at the same time be tangential to the modified velocities vr1c or vr1d. In centrifugal pumps, speed is linearly related to flow but has a cube relationship with power. In the long run, exercise not just provides you more energy, but additionally enhances your general health and self-confidence.
It’s very easy to become dehydrated since every day an individual loses water via simple activities like breathing, moving and urinating. If you’re a breakfast person, a good serving or oatmeal can also give you a good energy kick in the morning. I found an awesome pump up video that I have been watching lately, and I wanted to share it.
For example, slowing a pump from 1800 to 1200 rpm results in a 33% decreased flow and a 70% decrease in power. You need to make sure that they remain cold enough to preserve your food, but you waste a lot of energy by making the appliance colder than is necessary. Yoga is a superb demonstration of low-impact exercise that doesn’t just energizes, but also enhances your cardiovascular health and flexibility.
A good guideline to ensure you’re adequately hydrated and energized is to drink a minimum of eight glasses of water daily. Oats have complex carbohydrates which are continuously released in the body for a constant supply of energy.
Whether it is before my workout, or before my work, I watch this video in order to get the blood pumping. In the Recuperator :-When the pump discharge is reduced there will be additional energy losses.
The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy reported that your fridge should be kept between 36 and 38 degrees Fahrenheit and your freezer between 0 and 5 degrees Fahrenheit.
The dreadful tasks of daily life can result in wear and tear on the body if you’re too worn out and fatigued to engage in them fully. Yes, it is football based, but whether you are a sports fan or not, this should still do the trick. The process of specifying the right pump technology for an application in facilities should go well beyond first cost, but in too many cases, it does not.
Hydraulic power loss:-if we have calculated the values of mechanical loss Pb, the disc friction loss Pd and leakage loss Pl, then we can assert that the residual energy Ps- Pb –Pd –Pl must wholly be transferred to the main stream of liquid flowing through the pump. While the velocity of the liquid leaving the impeller and entering the volute is above normal yet the mean velocity in the volute itself must be below normal. Possessing more energy through the day can improve our productivity, provide us with the best outlook, and make us a happier individual.
Such a shortsighted approach can create major, long-term problems for organizations.In the process industries, the purchase price of a centrifugal pump is often 5 - 10% of the total cost of ownership.


Typically, considering current design practice, the life cycle cost (LCC) of a 100 horsepower pump system, including costs to install, operate, maintain and decommission, will be more than 20 times the initial purchase price. But this is a very different thing from saying that the liquid receives the corresponding net energy increment during its passage from suction flange to delivery flange.
Very serious contraction of main stream of liquid may occur at volute tongue (figure 2) with consequent energy losses.In regard to guide blade or diffuser type recuperator(figure 5) shows that abnormally higher rates of flow will again destroy the necessary correspondence between vane inclination and velocity vector inclination. The most common type is the variable frequency drive (VFD), which adjusts the frequency of the electric power supplied to the motor.
In a marketplace that is relentless on cost, optimizing pump efficiency is an increasingly important consideration. VFDs are widely used due to their ability to adjust pump speed automatically to meet system requirements. Once the pump is installed, its efficiency is determined predominately by process conditions. Operation at high flows The vast majority of pumping systems run far from their best efficiency point (BEP). For systems in which the static head represents a large portion of the total head, however, a VFD may be unable to meet system needs.3. The major factors affecting performance includes efficiency of the pump and system components, overall system design, efficient pump control and appropriate maintenance cycles.
For reasons ranging from shortsighted or overly conservative design, specification and procurement to decades of incremental changes in operating conditions, most pumps, pipes and control valves are too large or too small. Variable speed drives Pump over-sizing causes the pump to operate to the far left of its best efficiency point (BEP) on the pump head -capacity curve. In anticipation of future load growth, the end-user, supplier and design engineers routinely add 10 to 50% “safety margins” to ensure the pump and motor can accommodate anticipated capacity increases.Under this circumstances the head capacity curve intersects the system head curve at a capacity much in excess of the required flow using excess power.
Variable speed drives, assuming a low static head system, allow the pump to operate near its best efficiency point (BEP) at any head or flow. Of course the pump can be throttled back to the required capacity and the power is reduced some what.
In addition, the drive can be programmed to protect the pump from mechanical damage when away from BEP -- thereby enhancing mechanical reliability.
Furthermore, excessive valve throttling is expensive and not only contributes to higher energy and maintenance cost, but can also significantly impair control loop performance. Disc friction loss between the liquid and the external rotating faces of the rotor discs:- In principle the parts concerned here are all those rotating surfaces of the pump in contact with the liquid that do not actually take share in guiding the liquid. Effect of specific speedThe higher the specific speed selected for a given set of operating condition, the higher the pump efficiency and therefore the lower the power consumption. Any element of liquid in contact with revolving disk will be dragged round with it, at least for a short distance and during this journey the element will necessarily be subjected to centrifugal force. Barring other considerations the tendency should be to favour higher specific speed selection from the point of view of energy conservation4.1.
Clearance Good wear ring with proper clearance improves pump reliability and reduce energy consumption. Other elements from the main body of the liquid will flow into replace the original one and hence additional kind of flow will be set up as shown in fig. If this distance is large it will be easy for relatively large amounts of liquid to become involved in the secondary circulation and thereby to steal energy from the disc.
But if the distance is small, the energy should be less.The above study shows that in comparable conditions and increase in the axial clearance causes an increase in the power loss. When the clearance start to increase beyond these values efficiency start to drop drastically. For equal operating condition the rate of wear depends primarily on design and material of the wear ring. Generally for non corrosive liquids, the resistance to wear increases with hardness of the sealing surface material.If a pump having a specific speed of 2500, the leakage loss in a new pump will be about 1%.
Thus when the internal clearances will have increased to the point that this leakage will have doubled, we can regain approximately 1% in power saving by restoring the pump clearance. But if we are dealing with a pump having a specific speed of 750, it will have leakage loss of about 5%.
Change in surface roughness Depending on the material of construction and properties of the liquid being pumped, the roughness of the flow path can also change over time. In some instances, the channels may acquire a smooth polish, and in other they may become roughened.
Change in flow path sizeThe dimension of the pump’s flow path may change over time due to abrasion or erosion, which usually increases the pathways’ dimension or to scale, rust or sedimentation which usually reduces the size of the pathways.
Run one pump instead of two Many installations are provided with two pumps operating in parallel to deliver the required flow under full load.
Too often, both pumps are kept on line even when demand drops to a point where a single pump can carry the load.
The amount of energy wasted in running two pumps at half load when a single pump can meet this condition is significant.If we want to reduce the flow to half load and still maintain both pumps online, it will be necessary to throttle the pump discharge and create a new system head curve. Under these condition, each pump will deliver 50% of the rated capacity at 117% rated head, much of which will have to be throttled.
Thus the total power consumption of two pumps of two pumps operating under half load condition would be 145% of that required if a single pump were to be kept on line.5. This is because two of the major losses in a centrifugal pump are caused by fluid friction and disc friction. These losses vary with the viscosity of the liquid being pumped, so that both the head capacity output and the mechanical output differ from the original values.


As viscosity of the liquid increases the head developed by the pump decreases and the efficiency decreases.
Effect of cavitationDue to cavitation the vapor bubbles are formed and these bubbles will modify the velocity distribution as well as the pressure distribution in the rotor passage. The effect of vapor pressure bubbles will virtually lower the density of the liquid; that is the pump behaves as if another liquid of less density were flowing through it. As the mean velocity of the fluid mixture is now at higher (for the weight per second is unchanged) the outlet velocity diagram tends to assume the distorted shape and shall lower the total head. Effect of change of density The pump develops the same head in meters of liquid independent of specific gravity. The pump delivers the same quantity by volume independent of specific gravity but the quantity by weight will be proportional to specific gravity. The input power and the output power for a given volumetric discharge vary in proportion to density.If the water is heated the density changes. In high pressure steam boilers, the reduction in density of the water may be 15 percent or more. Pump sizingSelecting a centrifugal pump can be challenging because these pumps generate different amounts of flow at different pressures.
Ideally, under normal operating conditions, the required flow rate will coincide with the pump's BEP.The complexity associated with selecting a pump often results in a pump that is improperly sized for its application.
As a result, larger-than-necessary pumps are specified, resulting in systems that do not operate optimally. Variable loadsIn systems with highly variable loads, pumps that are sized to handle the largest loads may be oversized for normal operating loads. In these cases, the use of multiple pumps, multi-speed motors, or variable speed drives often improves system performance over the range of operating conditions.To handle wide variations in flow, multiple pumps are often used in a parallel configuration.
Alternatively, pumps with different flow rates can be installed in parallel and configured such that the small pump—often referred to as the "pony pump"—operates during normal conditions while the larger pump operates during periods of high demand. Valves and fittingsPumping system controls should be evaluated to determine the most economical control method. Significant losses occur with these types of valves, however, even when they are fully open.
If the evaluation shows that a control valve is needed, choose the type that minimizes pressure drop across the valve. Pumping system control valve inefficiencies in plant processes offer opportunities for energy savings and reduced maintenance costs. Valves that consume a large fraction of the total pressure drop for the system, or are excessively throttled, can be opportunities for energy savings. Pressure drops or head losses in liquid pumping systems increase the energy requirements of these systems. Pressure drops are caused by resistance or friction in piping and in bends, elbows, or joints, as well as by throttling across the control valves. The power required to overcome a pressure drop is proportional to both the fluid flow rate (given in gallons per minute [gpm]) and the magnitude of the pressure drop (expressed in ft of head).
The friction loss and pressure drop caused by fluids flowing through valves and fittings depend on the size and type of pipe and fittings used, the roughness of interior surfaces, and the fluid flow rate and viscosity. Case study 1 –In the Hydrocracker Unit of a petroleum refinery the reflux pump generally pumps Naptha with a specific gravity of 0.7.
If it goes unnoticed the energy will be wasted.Case study 2 - The pump develops the same head in meters of liquid independent of specific gravity.
Most of the refinery are configured for different type of crudes, like high sulphur and low sulphur.
During processing of high sulphur crude the specific gravity and viscosity of the short residue increases. This results in more power consumption.Case study 3 - In systems with highly variable loads, pumps that are sized to handle the largest loads may be oversized for normal operating loads. Alternatively, pumps with different flow rates can be installed in parallel and configured such that the small pump operates during normal conditions while the larger pump operates during periods of high demand. If there is any disturbance in the secondary units, then the load in the Crude unit has to brought down. This arrangement allows saving energy.Case study 4 - The dimension of the pump’s flow path may change over time due to scale, rust or sedimentation which usually reduces the size of the pathways. The latter is particularly apt to occur in pumps operating intermittently.The sulphur pit pump in a Sulphur recovery unit operates intermittently.
If the steam in the jacket is not circulated properly or due to ageing, some sulphur particles get deposited in the line. An increase in pipe roughness increases the friction loss and usually reduces the efficiency. So to avoid the deposition of sulphur in the line steam was injected so as to clean the sulphur line.5.
ConclusionThe following are different ways to conserve the Energy in Pumping System:When actual operating conditions are widely different (head or flow variation by more than 25 to 30%) than design conditions, replacements by appropriately sized pumps must be considered. Reduction in number of pumps (when System Pressure requirement, Head and Flow requirement is less). By improving the piping design to reduce Frictional Head Loss By reducing number of bends and valves in the piping system.



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