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TCM theory asserts that processes of the human body are interrelated and in constant interaction with the environment. TCM theory is based on a number of philosophical frameworks including the theory of Yin-yang, the Five Elements, the human body Meridian system, Zang Fu organ theory, and others. Much of the philosophy of traditional Chinese medicine derived from the same philosophical bases that contributed to the development of Daoist philosophy, and reflects the classical Chinese belief that individual human experiences express causative principles effective in the environment at all scales.
Classical Chinese Medicine (CCM) is notably different from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).
Today, TCM is what is taught in nearly all those medical schools in China, most of Asia and North America, that teach traditional medical practices at all.
TCM formed part of the barefoot doctor program in the People's Republic of China, which extended public health into rural areas.
There is some notion that TCM requires supernatural forces or even cosmology to explain itself.
Time unknown, author unknown, Huang Di Nei Jing (????)(Classic of Internal Medicine by Emperor Huang) - Su Wen (??) & Ling Shu (??). Jin Dynasty (265-420): Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing (Systematic Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion) by Huangfu Mi (???). Tongren Shuxue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing (Illustrated Manual of the Practice of Acupuncture and Moxibustion at (the Transmission) (and other) Acu-points, for use with the Bronze Figure) by Wang Wei Yi (???). Yuan Dynasty(1271 to 1368): Shisi Jing Fa Hui (Exposition of the Fourteen Channels) by Hua Shou (??). Yi Zong Jin Jian (Golden Reference of the Medical Tradition) by Wu Quan, sponsored by the imperial.
TCM developed as a form of noninvasive therapeutic intervention (also described as folk medicine or traditional medicine) rooted in ancient belief systems, including traditional religious concepts.
Unlike other forms of traditional medicine which have largely become extinct, traditional Chinese medicine continues as a distinct branch of modern medical practice, and within China, it is an important part of the public health care system. However, in Hong Kong, the city dominated by Western medicine for more than a hundred years, traditional medicine has struggled for a long time to be recognized by the society. TCM is used by some to treat the side effects of chemotherapy, treating the cravings and withdrawal symptoms of drug addicts and treating a variety of chronic conditions, such as pains, that conventional medicine has not been able to treat.
Graduates from TCM university courses are able to diagnose in Western medical terms, prescribe Western pharmaceuticals, and undertake minor surgical procedures. In other countries it is not necessarily the case that traditional Chinese and Western medicine are practiced concurrently by the same practitioner. The foundation principles of Chinese medicine are not necessarily uniform, and are based on several schools of thought. As a result of these apparently inescapable primordial principles, the Universe (and every process therein) tends to eventually balance itself. The legendary emperor Shennong, who invented agriculture, is supposed to have tested herbs. According to the theory of pharmacology, medicines are classified according to their temperature, tastes and nature of "ascending" (inducing perspiration, relieving the feeling of pressure) or "descending".
Discovery for surgery: It is said that in the third century the great surgeon Hua Tuo applied for an operation an effervescing powder called mafeisan as an anaesthetic which may be the origin of surgical anesthesia. Traditional Chinese medicine is largely based on the philosophical concept that the human body is a small universe with a set of complete and sophisticated interconnected systems, and that those systems usually work in balance to maintain the healthy function of the human body. There are significant regional and philosophical differences between practitioners and schools which in turn can lead to differences in practice and theory. There are also separate models that apply to specific pathological influences, such as the Four stages theory of the progression of warm diseases, the Six levels theory of the penetration of cold diseases, and the Eight principles system of disease classification. A practitioner might give very different herbal prescriptions to patients affected by the same type of infection, because the different symptoms reported by the patients would indicate a different type of imbalance, in a traditional diagnostic system. Western medicine treats infections by targeting the microorganisms directly, whether preventively (through sterilization of instruments, hand washing, and covering bandages), with antibiotics, or making use of the immune system through vaccines.
Early medical texts such as Su Wen show the importance of preventing a disease, which reflects the early trend of Chinese Philosophy according to which "man must concentrate silently before acting".
Following the macro philosophy of disease, traditional Chinese diagnostics are based on overall observation of human symptoms rather than "micro" level laboratory tests. The pulse study was related to an an understanding of the whole body, the vital relation between the heart, the blood and the blood vessels and also the inhalation and exhalation of the breath.
Modern TCM treatments consist of herbal medicine or acupuncture as the primary method, with other methods such as massage, qi gong, or food therapy playing a secondary role.
Traditional Chinese medicine has many branches, the most prominent of which are the Jingfang (????) and Wenbing (????) schools. Much less work in the West has been done on Chinese herbal medicines, which comprise much of TCM.
In the West, many Chinese herbal medicines have been marketed as dietary supplements and there has been considerable controversy over the effectiveness, safety, and regulatory status of these substances.
There are a priori doubts about the efficacy of many TCM treatments that appear to have their basis in magical thinking—for example that plants with heart-shaped leaves will help the heart, or that ground bones of the tiger can function as a stimulant because tigers are energetic animals. The basic mechanism of TCM is akin to treating the body as a black box, recording and classifying changes and observations of the patient using a traditional philosophy.
Acupressure and acupuncture are largely accepted to be safe from results gained through medical studies. Some governments have decided that Chinese acupuncture and herbal treatments should only be administered by persons who have been educated to apply them safely. Certain Chinese herbal medicines involve a risk of allergic reaction and in rare cases involve a risk of poisoning.
Furthermore, potentially toxic and carcinogenic compounds such as arsenic and cinnabar are sometimes prescribed as part of a medicinal mixture or used on the basis of "using poison to cure poison." Unprocessed herbals are sometimes adulterated with chemicals that may alter the intended effect of a herbal preparation or prescription.
Many Chinese medicines have different names for the same ingredient depending on location and time, but worse yet, ingredients with vastly different medical properties have shared similar or even same names. Within China, there has been a great deal of cooperation between TCM practitioners and Western medicine, especially in the field of ethnomedicine. As an example of the different roles of TCM in China and the West, a person with a broken bone in the West (i.e. Most Chinese in China do not see traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine as being in conflict.
It is worth noting that the practice of Western medicine in China is somewhat different from that in the West. In addition, Chinese practitioners of Western medicine have been less impacted by trends in the West that encourage patient empowerment, to see the patient as an individual rather than a collection of parts, and to do nothing when medically appropriate. Traditional Chinese diagnostics and treatments are often much cheaper than Western methods which require high-tech equipment or extensive chemical manipulation. TCM doctors often criticize Western doctors for paying too much attention to laboratory tests and showing insufficient concern for the overall feelings of patients. Modern TCM practitioners will refer patients to Western medical facilities if a medical condition is deemed to have put the body too far out of "balance" for traditional methods to remedy.
Animal products are used in certain Chinese formulae, which may present a problem for vegans and vegetarians. The animal rights movement notes that a few traditional Chinese medicinal solutions use bear bile.
Starting from late nineteenth century, politicians and Chinese scholars with background in Western medicine have being trying to phase out TCM totally in China. Fang Shimin, who argues that TCM is pseudo-science and may be unsafe due to a lack of Double blind tests.
The attempts to curtail TCM in China always provoke large scale debates but have never completely succeeded. Midwest College of Oriental Medicine - offers a combined Bachelor of Science in Nutrition and Master's in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture certification, and a new doctoral program. Southwest Acupuncture College, Boulder, CO - an accredited post-graduate college that offers a Master's of Science in Oriental Medicine, which includes Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, qi gong, shiatsu, tui na, tai ji, and clinical experience. Traditional Chinese Medicine news, information, education, research and discussion - A regularly updated TCM website based in Australia. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed.
The question how to Four a€?Onea€? Traditional Chinese Medicine has been asked 1163 times by our users.


Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for many years. Traditional Chinese Medicine is the oldest continually practiced professional medicine in world today. Chinese traditional medicine goes back to over 2000 years ago and is one of the most widely used known systems throughout world. How to professional traditional spells casting ,lost love spells,traditional doctor witchcraft?
The English phrase "TCM" was created in the 1950s by the PRC in order to export Chinese medicine; there is no equivalent phrase in Chinese (zhongyi xue translates literally as simply "Chinese medicine studies"). Signs of disharmony help the TCM practitioner to understand, treat and prevent illness and disease.
Modern scholarly opinion holds that the extant text of this title was compiled by an anonymous scholar no earlier than the Han Dynasty just over two-thousand years ago. The Nationalist government elected to abandon and outlaw the practice of CCM as it did not want China to be left behind by scientific progress.
While there may be traditional factors involved in the persistent practice, two reasons are most obvious in the westward spread of TCM in recent decades.
It is also cheaper to the PRC government, because the cost of training a TCM practitioner and staffing a TCM hospital is considerably less than that of a practitioner of Western medicine; hence TCM has been seen as an integral part of extending health services in China. However most historical accounts of the system will acknowledge it was invented by a culture of people that were already tired of listening to shamans trying to explain illnesses on evil spirits;[2] any reference to supernatural forces is usually the result of romantic translations or poor understanding and will not be found in the Daoist-inspired classics of acupuncture such as the Nei Jing or Zhenjiu Dacheng. In mainland China and Taiwan, TCM is considered an integral part of the health care system.
Chinese medical practitioners before the nineteenth century relied on observation, trial and error, which incorporated certain mystical concepts. In recent decades there has been an effort to integrate Traditional Chinese Medicine with scientific medicine. TCM education in Australia, for example, does not qualify a practitioner to provide diagnosis in Western medical terms, prescribe scheduled pharmaceuticals, nor perform surgical procedures.
Humans are part of the universe and cannot be separated from the universal process of change. Optimum health results from living harmoniously, allowing the spontaneous process of change to bring one closer to balance. There is a specific way to prepare them according to fluid-treatment, heat treatment and fluid-heat treatment. The balance of yin and yang is considered with respect to qi ("breath," "life force," or "spiritual energy"), blood, jing ("kidney essence" or "semen"), other bodily fluids, the Five elements, emotions, and the soul or spirit (shen). For example, one modern interpretation is that well-balanced human bodies can resist most everyday bacteria and viruses, which are ubiquitous and quickly changing. While conventional medicine recognizes the importance of nutrition, exercise and reducing stress in maintaining a healthy immune system (and thus preventing infection), it also faces problems with antibiotic resistance caused by overuse of chemical agents and the high mutation rate of microorganisms. Western medicine has general practitioners who dispense primary care, but increasing reliance is placed on specialists who have expertise in treating only certain types of diseases.
The Su Wen states that to treat a disease after its onset is like to dig a well only after one is thirsty. Through the pulse the doctor is able to find out the condition of the heart and the problems caused by the ill functioning of certain internal organs. Illness in TCM is seen as a lack of harmony, and the goal of all traditional treatment is to assist the body to regain balance and achieve proper homeostasis.
The Jingfang school relies on the principles contained in the Chinese medicine classics of the Han and Tang dynasty, such as Huangdi Neijing and Shenlong Bencaojing. There is no scientific consensus as to whether acupuncture is effective or only has value as a placebo.
There are other situations such as addiction, stroke rehabilitation, headache, menstrual cramps, tennis elbow, fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, osteoarthritis, low back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and asthma for which acupuncture may be useful as an adjunct treatment or an acceptable alternative or be included in a comprehensive management program.
Traditional practitioners usually have no philosophical objections to scientific studies on the effectiveness of treatments. One barrier to scientific research on traditional remedies is the large amount of money and expertise required to conduct a double-blind clinical trial, and the lack of financial incentive from the ability to obtain patents.
In contrast to many alternative and complementary medicines such as homeopathy, practically all techniques of TCM have explanations for why they may be more effective than a placebo, which Western medicine can find plausible. Several cases of pneumothorax, nerve damage and infection have been reported as resulting from acupuncture treatments.
Cases of acute and chronic poisoning due to treatment through ingested Chinese medicines are found in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, with a few deaths occurring each year. Much of these are being prevented with more empirical studies of Chinese herbals and tighter regulation regarding the growing, processing, and prescription of various herbals.
Chinese herbal medicine includes many compounds which are unused by Western medicine, and there is great interest in those compounds as well as the theories which TCM practitioners use to determine which compound to prescribe. While more and more medical schools are including classes on alternative medicine in their curricula, older Western doctors and scientists are far more likely than their Chinese counterparts to skeptically view TCM as archaic pseudoscience and superstition. In fact, Western pharmaceutical companies have recognized the value of traditional medicines and are employing teams of scientists in many parts of the world to gather knowledge from traditional mouth healers and medical practitioners. In cases of emergency and crisis situations, there is generally no reluctance in using conventional Western medicine. For instance, at the Shanghai cancer hospital, a patient may be seen by a multidisciplinary team and be treated concurrently with radiation surgery, Western drugs and a traditional herbal formula. In contrast to the West, there are relatively few allied health professionals to perform routine medical procedures or to undertake procedures such as massage or physical therapy. Chinese practitioners of Western medicine have been widely criticized for over-prescribing drugs such as corticosteroids or antibiotics for common viral infections. In particular, is the belief that tiger penis and rhinoceros horn are aphrodisiacs (although the traditional use of rhinoceros horn is to reduce fever).[20] This depletes these species in the wild.
According to Compendium of Materia Medica, it's good at strengthening the waist, supplementing vital energy, nourishing blood, invigorating kidney and lung and improving digestion.
To extract maximum amounts of the bile, the bears are often fitted with a sort of permanent catheter. Still, many researchers and practitioners of TCM in China and the United States argue the need to document TCM's efficacy with controlled, double blind experiments. However, in the 1920s a movement emerged that attempted to restore traditional medical practice, especially acupuncture. No longer do healers look for a supernatural cause of disease: they now observe Nature and, with a combination of the inductive and deductive method, the set out to find patterns within it and, by extension, apply these in the interpretation of disease" - from an introductory textbook used by many acupuncture courses - Giovanni Maciocia, The Foundations of Chinese Medicine.
Kaptchuk, The Web That Has No Weaver: Understanding Chinese Medicine (McGraw Hill, 2000, ISBN 0809228408). The foundations of Chinese medicine: a comprehensive text for acupuncturists and herbalists. The Yellow Emperor's Classic of medicine: a new translation of the Neijing Suwen with commentary.
This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. TCM does not operate within a scientific paradigm but some practitioners make efforts to bring practices into a biomedical and evidence-based medicine framework.
For 30 years, CCM was forbidden in China and several people were prosecuted by the government for engaging in CCM. Firstly, TCM practices are believed by many to be very effective, sometimes offering palliative efficacy where the best practices of Western medicine fail, especially for routine ailments such as flu and allergies, and managing to avoid the toxicity of some chemically composed medicines. The system's development has over its history been skeptically analyzed extensively, and practice and development of it has waxed and waned over the centuries and cultures which it has traveled[3] - yet the system has still survived this far. The term "TCM" is sometimes used specifically in modern Chinese medicine to refer to the standardized set of theories and practices introduced in the mid-twentieth century under Mao Zedong, as distinguished from related traditional theories and practices preserved by people in Taiwan, Hong Kong and the overseas Chinese. Like their Western counterparts, doctors of TCM had a limited understanding of infection, which predated the discovery of bacteria, viruses (germ theory of disease) and an understanding of cellular structures and organic chemistry.
One important component of this work is to use the instrumentation and the methodological tools available via Western medicine to investigate observations and hypotheses made by the Chinese tradition. If there is no change (stagnation), or too much change (catastrophism), balance is lost and illnesses can result.
Doctors in traditional Chinese medicine prescribe several or dozens of different items for a dose, all of which are in balance for co-ordinated action.
Infection, while having a proximal cause of a microorganism, would have an underlying cause of an imbalance of some kind.


The doctor takes the pulse at more that one site, head, legs… to obtain a more extensive and reliable diagnosis. The pulse pattern indicates not only the visceral origin of a disease but also its basic cause. This may be contrasted with a straightforward laboratory test which indicates an unambiguous cause.
The modern practice of traditional Chinese medicine is increasingly incorporating techniques and theories of Western medicine.
The more recent Wenbing school's practice is largely based on more recent books including Compendium of Materia Medica from Ming and Qing Dynasty, although in theory the school follows the teachings of the earlier classics as well. Further research is likely to uncover additional areas where acupuncture interventions will be useful. While the doctrine of signatures does underlie the selection of many of the ingredients of herbal medicines, this does not mean the substances do not (perhaps by coincidence) possess the attributed properties. Most doctors of Western medicine would not find implausible claims that qigong preserves health by encouraging relaxation and movement, that acupuncture relieves pain by stimulating the production of neurotransmitters, or that Chinese herbal medicines may contain powerful biochemical agents. These adverse events are extremely rare especially when compared to other medical interventions, and were found to be due to practitioner negligence. Many of these deaths do occur however, when patients self prescribe herbs or take unprocessed versions of toxic herbs.
The Ephedra ban was meant to combat the use of this herb in Western weight loss products, a usage that directly conflicts with traditional Asian uses of the herb. For their part, advanced TCM practitioners in China are interested in statistical and experimental techniques which can better distinguish medicines that work from those that do not.
As another example, most TCM hospitals in China have electron microscopes and many TCM practitioners know how to use one. After all, the active ingredients of most modern medicines were discovered in plants or animals.
At the same time, belief in Chinese medicine remains strong in the area of maintaining health.
It is likely that these medicines, which are generally known to be useless against viral infections, would provide less relief to the patient than traditional Chinese herbal remedies.
However, such claims are not supported by scientific evidence.[22] Furthermore, they have been found to contain high levels of mercury, which is known for its ill effects. The treatment itself and especially the extraction of the bile is very painful, causes damage to the intestines of the bear, and often kills the bears.
These efforts remain hampered by the difficulty of creating effective placebos for acupuncture studies. This movement, known as the Meridian Therapy movement (Keiraku Chiryo in Japanese) persists to this day. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. TCM practices include theories, diagnosis and treatments such as herbal medicine, acupuncture and massage; often Qigong is also strongly affiliated with TCM.
During the Tang dynasty, Wang Ping claimed to have located a copy of the originals of the Neijing Suwen, which he expanded and edited substantially. In the 1960s, Mao Zedong finally decided that the government could not continue to outlaw the use of CCM. Secondly, TCM provides the only care available to ill people, when they cannot afford to try the western option. It is true that the focus from the beginning has been on pragmatism, not necessarily understanding of the mechanisms of the actions - and that this has hindered its modern acceptance in the West. Instead they relied mainly on observation and description on the nature of infections for creating remedies. Different ratios of ingredients in a prescription and different dosages yield different effects. Unlike the Western anatomical model which divides the physical body into parts, the Chinese model is more concerned with function.
BC), Zhang Zhongjing (150-219) and Wang Shuhe (180-270) who wrote the Classic on Pulse, Mai jing which described 24 patterns of pulse beat and the diagnostic significance. This formula stems from the concept that the human body should be viewed as a whole, based on a theory that channels and collaterals in the body are routes along which vital energy circulates and which connect the visceral organs with the extremities, muscles, skin and joints into an organic whole." [12] Modern practitioners in China often use a traditional system in combination with Western methods.
A training period of years or decades is said to be necessary for TCM practitioners to understand the full complexity of symptoms and dynamic balances. Die-da or Tieh Ta (??) are practitioners who specialize in healing trauma injury such as bone fractures, sprains, and bruises. Intense debates between these two schools lasted until the Cultural Revolution in mainland China, when Wenbing school used political power to suppress the opposing school. Given the thousand-year evolution of Chinese materia medica, it is possible that while herbs were originally selected on erroneous grounds, only those that actually proved effective have remained in use.
However, the largest barriers to describing the mechanisms of TCM in scientific terms are the difference of language and lack of research.
There were no cases of Ephedra based fatalities with patients using traditional Asian preparations of the herb for its traditionally intended uses.
One result of this collaboration has been the creation of peer reviewed scientific journals and medical databases on traditional Chinese medicine. For one, TCM in the West tends to be advocated either by Chinese immigrants or by those that have lost faith in conventional medicine. The particular contribution of Western medicine is that it strictly applies the scientific method to promising traditional treatments, separating those that work from those that do not.
As a simple example, you see a Western doctor if you have acute appendicitis, but you do exercises or take Chinese herbs to keep your body healthy enough to prevent appendicitis, or to recover more quickly from the surgery. Furthermore, many Japanese physicians continue to practice Kampo, a form of traditional medicine based on the Shang Han Lun tradition of Chinese herbal medicine. TCM is a form of so-called Oriental medicine, which includes other traditional East Asian medical systems such as traditional Japanese, and Korean medicine.
On the other hand, there is, for example, no longer a distinct branch of Chinese physics or Chinese biology.
Based on theories formulated through three millennia of observation and practical experience, a system of procedure was formed as to guide a TCM practitioner in courses of treatment and diagnosis.
Thus, the TCM Spleen is not a specific piece of flesh, but an aspect of function related to transformation and transportation within the body, and of the mental functions of thinking and studying. According to one Chinese saying, A good (TCM) doctor is also qualified to be a good prime minister in a country. Some of these specialists may also use or recommend other disciplines of Chinese medical therapies (or Western medicine in modern times) if serious injury is involved. In any case, clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicines will need to be conducted before the question can be considered resolved. TCM concepts such as qi and yin and yang are used to describe specific biological processes but are difficult to translate into scientific terms.
The use of aconite in Chinese herbal medicine is usually limited to processed aconite, in which the toxicity is denatured by heat treatment. Many people in the West have a stereotype of the East as mystical and unscientific, which attracts those in the West who have lost hope in science and repels those who believe in scientific explanations. As another example, most Western hospitals and increasing numbers of other clinics now offer T'ai Chi Ch'uan or qigong classes as part of their inpatient and community health programs. Very few practitioners of Western medicine in China reject traditional Chinese medicine, and most doctors in China will use some elements of Chinese medicine in their own practice. Some research is now beginning to emerge explaining possible scientific mechanisms behind these TCM concepts. However, the ruling was appealed and on August 17, 2006, the Appeals Court upheld the FDA's ban of ephedra, finding that the 133,000-page administrative record compiled by the FDA supported the agency's finding that ephedra posed an unreasonable risk to consumers. There have also been experiences in the West with unscrupulous or well-meaning but improperly-trained "TCM practitioners" who have done people more harm than good in many instances. The greatest achievement took place in the sixteenth century with Li Shizen (1518-1593) who published in 1578 his 52 volumes encyclopedia called Compendium of Materia Medica.



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