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If you’ve answered “yes” to any of these questions, then your dog may be suffering from degenerative joint disease—especially if any of the symptoms seem worse when it's cold.  What is DJD?DJD arthritis affects joints—making them stiff and painful to move. For a larger dog, the knees can still be involved, but we often see DJD in the hips or shoulders.
Depending on the joint involved and the dog's genetic predisposition, the onset of the DJD could be as early as two years old.
DJD and the coldOne way to combat the effects of DJD is with movement; activity helps the joints combat stiffness—which in turn reduces pain. Jeff has more than 30 years of experience in the veterinary industry and is a licensed veterinarian as well as a founding member of IDEXX’s Pet Health Network team. Harvey Simon, MD, Editor-in-Chief, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital. So first thing is the- Prevention of the Joint problems and second thing is the complete cure of the Joints. In addition to the many treatmentoptions for arthritis there are things you can do to Your Place for Coding at Home Arthritis Pain Management Diary Related Is Fibromyalgia And Rheumatoid South Bend Indiana information From head to toe the new diagnosis codes hold something for everyone. A diet rich in ph-friendly foods and a daily serving of pure aloe vera juice should be included in your daily regimen if you are serious about reducing the symptoms of knee arthritis. PsA in skin: psoriatic arthritis causes skin lesions or plaques - patches of dead skin - that can appear to be rough, dry and thick as dead skin builds up Rheumatoid arthritis affects the cells that line and normally lubricate the joints (synovial tissue). Frostbite accounts for the largest number of Cold Weather Injuries each year and occurs when tissue temperature falls below 28-30°F. Exposure to below freezing temperatures (<32°F) causing freezing of skin, fingers, toes, ears and facial parts.
Exposure of skin to metal, super cold fuel, oil, and lubricants, wind-chill, and tight clothing, particularly boots. Riding in open vehicles, exposure to wind, running or skiing, and altitude exposure where there is little tree cover can all contribute to greater wind-chill.
Monitoring air temperature and wind speed and using the wind-chill index is the only way to find the relative risk of frostbite.
Immersion of the affected part in warm (98-104 ° F) water is very effective; however most minor cases of frostbite can be re-warmed at room temperature or against skin.
Avoid exposure to excessive heat (open flame, stove tops, steam, and heat packs) or rubbing affected tissue. Anyone with a peripheral freezing injury must be suspected of being hypothermic and treated appropriately.
With re-warming, the skin becomes swollen, red (or darkening of the skin in dark-skinned people) and hot to the touch. Wipe dry the inside of Vapor Barrier boots dry at least once per day, or more often as feet sweat. Do not pop blisters, apply lotions or creams, massage, expose to extreme heat or let someone with trench foot to walk, which can increase tissue damage and worsen the injury. Knowing the most common cold related injuries and their causes you are better equipped to avoid them.  By knowing how to treat them, if they occur, you greatly increase your chances that you will survive a cold related injury. Oggi e primo febbraio, e nell’emisfero nord oggi e il primo giorno del Mese Pinnerico del Gelone. Generalmente si presentano nelle aree periferiche del corpo, perche sono le piu soggette ad avere un rallentamento della circolazione sanguigna con l’arrivo delle basse temperature. I miei geloni di norma iniziano con un leggero formicolio dopo un’importante esposizione alle temperature fredde.
Today is February 1st, and in the northern hemisphere today is the first day of the Official Pinneric Month of Chilblain.
I suffer from chilblains since I was a teenager: training every single day at the track and field arena brought me to catch chilblains on the hands, while feet were safe thanks to the training which kept them well warm. According to Medterms, chilblain is “a cold injury which, while painful, causes little or no permanent impairment. Generally it appears in peripheral parts of the body like hands, feets, nose and ears as they suffer the slowdown of blood circulation more than other body areas. My chilblains generally start with a slight tingle after a huge exposition to cold temperatures. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Subscribe to my ebooks mailing list and receive email updates about Chase's upcoming books, events and other newsworthy stuff! The ultimate lesson: staining raw concrete usually yields perfect results, just be sure to pick your semi-transparent stain color carefully as it seems that second chances are iffy. Update – Wanna know where we got something in our house or what paint colors we used? At 61 years of age, and after building at least 7 houses I finally tried Behr Latex concrete stain. Yeah they should tell people to first test the floor by dumping a little water on it to see if the floor absorbs it at all.
I saw you speak in Richmond about your blog and I had a few ideas for you to do in your spare time. Unfortunately we don’t have any experience with a cleaner and an etcher but visiting your local Home Depot or Benjamin Moore store and speaking with the stain & paint specialist should provide you with all the info you need! Thanks for the information and pictures, it isn’t easy to find help with DIY projects. Question #1: Did you let the stain dry between each coat and how long between each application??
Our memory of the floor-staining process (we actually did it almost two years ago) is that we didn’t need to wait long between coats because by the time we got to one side of the large room the other side of the room where we started had pretty much dried. Oh and we didn’t seal the concrete with a gloss (which we thought would keep things looking casual and allow us to add stain down the line).
Using a floor buffer with a scrubbing pad would be a good alternative to solvents or chemicals. A full day with one would probably be overkill for just a front porch, but you could also use it to clean up the garage floor a bit, also.
I am curious why you decided to skip the etching stage of prep that is recommended by Behr. You’ll want to follow the advice on the floor stain can that you choose (since timelines can vary by brand). Here, I will discuss in detail osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease (DJD), and how it can be worsened by cold weather. Small dogs, who are much lighter on their feet, may not show signs of DJD as obviously as large dogs. Anti-inflammatory medications: These include aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen and naproxen.
Excess weight puts added stress on joints in your back hips knees and feet – the places where arthritis pain is commonly felt.
We also diagnose and treat bursitis tendonitis carpal tunnel syndrome and other causes of musculoskeletal pain. Arthritis tylenol arthritis pain ingredients fatigue psoriatic in massachusetts worcester Back Pain including the neck upper or lower back Urinary problems; Causes of arthritis of the spine symptoms. Either there are unknown microcompounds that come with them where they are fund in nature and missing from the manufactured product or they are actually digested and oken – PowerPoint PPT presentation. 150 Until recently folate deficiency was fairly common in the developed world causing thousands of children to be born with preventable birth defects. Stuchin is Director of Orthopaedic Surgery at New York University Hospital for Joint Diseases and Chief of the Arthritis Management Service. Soothing infrared rays emitted from the gloves gently penetrate deep into the tissues of your hands and Rheumatoid arthritis is condition which occurs when the joints are attacked by the body's own defenses, causing swelling, pain and fever.
Frostbite can occur suddenly due to contact to cold metal or super-cooled liquids such as alcohol, fuel or antifreeze or it can develop over time due to prolonged exposure to cold. If there is the possibility of tissue refreezing, it is better not to thaw it to avoid further tissue damage. Trench foot occurs when tissues are exposed to temperatures from 32-60°F for prolonged periods of time (12 hrs. The most commonly affected areas are the back side of the fingers, but the ears, face, and other exposed skin are also areas chilblains can occur. Leggendo pure quello anglofono, si aggiunge che i geloni appaiono sulla pelle rendendo quell’area rossa, gonfia, dolorosa e calda al tatto e pruriginosa. Il mio nuovo gelone e apparso ieri sera mentre portavo fuori il cane: anche se indossavo i guanti di pelle, ho avvertito questo formicolio e una sensazione spiacevole come se non mi sentissi piu le mani per il freddo.
Si possono usare anche altri tipi di creme idratanti, o se preferite olio d’oliva, salvia o aloe (utilissima anche in caso di bruciature). Evitate tutti quei tessuti che sono tecnici oppure sono sintetici, perche non isolano adeguatamente le mani dal freddo e possono creare delle condizioni di umidita favorevoli all’insorgenza dei geloni. Se dovesse succedere, praticate un massaggio per riportare la situazione circolatoria ad un livello ottimale. The current new chilblain came out while I was taking the dog for a walk yesterday evening: even though I was wearing leather gloves, I felt a tingle and a unpleasant sensation of not feeling my hands, as if they were frozen. You can use any other moisturizer, or if you prefer olive oil, sage or aloe (it’s great even in case of burn). The fact is that if you catch them one time, there are several chances to catch them another time in the very same place you have had them. Don’t imitate me too in doing the stupid thing of putting my wet, frozen hands on the well-warm radiator. Avoid those made ??from synthetic fibers: they inadequately isolate from the cold and so create poor conditions of humidity. We used a vacuum cleaner to grab all the bigger dust bunnies and then followed up with a mildly soapy wet rag to be sure that it was squeaky clean. Two or three coats should do the trick (the color intensifies slightly with every coat, so keep going until you’ve reached your desired color saturation).
Otherwise you’ll end up repainting the whole floor with oil-based porch and floor paint to cover your grungy second staining attempt. As you probably gathered, we’re pretty busy these days- but whenever we have a spare moment we’ll look into your ideas!
We made the mistake of adding the Concrete darker stain over the lighter stain and the results are awful. My idea is to work in small sections as I do with blending paint on walls to get the result I am looking for then move on. It was a great finish because it was semi-translucent so it really hid dirt and also brought out the beauty of the concrete floor beneath.
But even without sealing it, you can see that restaining it later was not really an option at all (it came out so gross we would never recommend it).
We also didn’t seal our concrete, we just stained it but left it raw which really wore well and held up perfectly (and also allowed us to paint the concrete a few years later without worrying about adhesion). I definitely think approaching the concrete floor with something more mild and less toxic is a great idea. HSV-1 can also cause genital herpes. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital herpes, but it can also cause oral herpes. Arthritis Pain Management Diary Related Is Fibromyalgia And Rheumatoid South Bend Indiana houston Enzymes Digestive Enzymes. Arthritis Pain Management Diary Related Is Fibromyalgia And Rheumatoid South Bend Indiana and Anthony di Fabio got well from Rheumatoid Arthritis as described in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Two Case Lewis is executive director of a non-profit foundation dedicated to solving the arthritis scourge.


Severe arthritis within the hip is a debilitating and painful condition that diminishes the quality of life for those who suffer from it. For patients is very important to maintain the mobility of the hands and fingers so there is a system of small exercises. The juvenile arthritis foot disability index: development and evaluation of measurement properties.
Information on foot pain arthritis conditions causes diagnosis symptoms pain relief prevention surgery anti inflammatory omega 3 cause tomatoes wa seattle and other treatment options.
Cartilage is the slippery tissue that Here we provide specific conditions and their drug treatments. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune condition for which patients typically need to take medications long-term if not indefinitely.
Carly de Coelho Ernesto Cesar Leal-Junior Daniela Aparecida Biasotto-Gonzalez Andr Serra Bley Paulo de Carvalho Fabiano Politti In fact the Arthritis Foundation lists cider vinegar among “arthritis food myths. Frostbite is the most common in exposed skin such as the nose, ears, and cheeks, but also occurs in the hands and feet due to reduced skin blood flow. E se state pensando che non c’e niente da fare come molti medici e siti web dicono, vi sbagliate.
Asciugate accuratamente mani e piedi e copritele bene anche se dovete uscire fuori solo per qualche minuto. Inoltre, rischiate anche di sviluppare una qualche predisposizione o forma di allergia, quindi fate attenzione. Questa storia del massaggio dovrebbe diventare una specie di abitudine per chi ha problemi coi geloni. And if you are thinking that there’s nothing to do according to some doctors and websites, you are wrong.
So anyone with a garage, sunroom, basement or porch with a concrete floor should seriously consider this super simple process. It also helps to apply each coat in the opposite direction of the previous coat, so there are subtle crosshatched brush strokes instead of more obvious lines that all go in one direction). Luckily our sunroom floor adventure had a happy ending, so check out our floor painting tutorial over here!
We can disperse info to plenty of people by doing a blog post, using twitter, or using the fan page that we set up on Facebook!
We ended up painting the floor an opaque color with porch and floor paint and it came out awesome. You can definitely go back and touch up areas (raw concrete will suck up a number of coats with no problem). I have used a toxic adhesive remover and scraper on my front porch which had the same carpeting, but I don’t want to use it again since it was messy, smelly, hard to clean up and even ate through rubber gloves. They’re supposed to be durable, especially since the floor is not exposed to the elements.
Also when it's cold, we're more reluctant to get up and get moving—the one thing that will help! Trends in HSV Types and Genital Herpes Genital herpes can be caused by either HSV-2 or HSV-1. Kildare Republican Revolution Rheumatoid Arthritis Road House Ronald Reagan Royal Marines Running Russia Saddam Hussein On October 1 2015 ICD-10-CM will replace ICD-9-CM in the United States therefore Over the Counter (OTC) or Prescription Drugs? Short of pushing a heavy washer and dryer across the floor, we have yet to see any scratches in our semi-transparent stained concrete floor. We’ve also heard that applying the stain with a rag in circular motions can achieve a nice rustic look without any brush strokes at all. But two years later we wished we had gone with more of a chocolate brown color and less of an orange tone (to better complement the colors in the rest of the house and make the sunroom feel more connected to the indoor spaces). Also loved the outcome…but now 5 years later we are trying out some carpets to cover them…just a bit! It stung really bad and now that I have a naughty, nosy dog, I don’t want to use anything that can burn her paws. Those persons seeking rheumatoid arthritis therapy must deal with a set of symptoms that are somewhat unique to arthritis sufferers. We’ve heard from numerous other DIYers that applying a darker stain over a lighter stain never looks good at all.
Let me suggest that you put a remote mike on the speaker, add more lighting and get a better video camera.
In recent years, HSV-1 has become a significant cause in developed countries, including the United States. I tell people they are like wrinkles in the nails." Vertical ridges can also be caused by nail injury and certain diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, according to Rich. Lucy Piper writing in Medwire News reported enough patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) experience pain with neuropathic characteristics to warrant Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which your own antibodies produced by your immune systems attacks your joints.
These patients often say they feel like they have something in their eye and report a watery eye or vision impairment.
The risk of infection is highest during outbreak periods when there are visible sores and lesions. Symptoms When genital herpes symptoms do appear, they are usually worse during the first outbreak than during recurring attacks. Herpes, Pregnancy, and Newborn Infants Herpes can pose serious risks for a pregnant woman and her baby.
The risk is greatest for mothers with a first-time infection, because the virus can be transmitted to the infant during childbirth. Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend using specific diagnostic tests for women in labor to determine the risk of transmission. Babies born to mothers infected with genital herpes are treated with the antiviral drug acyclovir, which can help suppress the virus. They include human herpes virus 8 (the cause of Kaposi sarcoma) and varicella-zoster virus (also known as herpes zoster, the virus responsible for shingles and chickenpox). The word "herpes" comes from the Greek word "herpein," meaning "to creep." This refers to the unique characteristic pattern of all herpes viruses to creep along local nerve pathways to the nerve clusters at the end, where they remain in an inactive (dormant) state for variable periods of time. HSV-1 can also cause genital herpes, which is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is the usual cause of genital herpes, but it can also cause oral herpes. Until recently, the general rule was to assume that HSV-1 caused oral herpes and HSV-2 caused genital herpes.
It is now clear, however, that either type of herpes virus can be found in the genital or oral areas (or other sites).
In fact, HSV-1 is now responsible for more than half of all new cases of genital herpes in developed countries. The Disease ProcessHerpes is transmitted through close skin-to-skin contact.
To infect people, the herpes simplex viruses (both HSV-1 and HSV-2) must get into the body through tiny injuries in the skin or through a mucous membrane, such as inside the mouth or on the genital or anal areas. The risk for infection is highest with direct contact of blisters or sores during an outbreak. But the infection can also develop from contact with an infected partner who does not have visible sores or other symptoms. Once the virus has contact with the mucous membranes or skin wounds, it enters the nuclei of skin tissue cells and begins to replicate. The virus is then transported from the nerve endings of the skin to clusters of nerve cells (ganglia) where it remains inactive (latent) for some period of time. However, at some point, the virus wakes up and travels along nerve pathways to the surface the skin where it begins to multiply again.
During this time, the virus can infect other people if it is passed along in body fluids or secretions. Viral shedding may be accompanied by noticeable symptoms (outbreak) but it can also occur without causing symptoms (asymptomatic shedding).
In either case, a person is infectious during periods of viral shedding. Symptoms may appear as multiple small red bumps or patches that develop blisters.
Certain triggers can wake up the virus from its dormant state and cause it to become active again. In general, recurrent episodes of herpes cause less severe symptoms than the primary outbreak. HSV-1 is the most prevalent form of herpes simplex virus, and infection is most likely to occur during preschool years. People can get HSV-2 through genital contact or HSV-1 through mouth-to-genital contact with an infected partner.
People with active symptoms of genital herpes are at very high risk for transmitting the infection.
Unfortunately, most cases of genital herpes infections occur when the virus is shedding but producing no symptoms.
Most people either have no symptoms or do not recognize them when they appear. In the past, genital herpes was mostly caused by HSV-2, but HSV-1 genital infection is increasing. There is also evidence that children today are less likely to get cold sores and become exposed to HSV-1 during childhood. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 1 in 6 Americans ages 14 to 49 years have genital herpes. While HSV-2 remains the main cause of genital herpes, HSV-1 has significantly increased as a cause, most likely because of oral-genital sex. African-American women are at particularly high risk. People with compromised immune systems, such as those who have HIV, are at very high risk for genital herpes. Drugs that suppress the immune system, and organ transplantation, can also weaken the immune system and increase the risk for contracting genital herpes.
It is almost impossible to defend against the transmission of oral herpes, because it can be transmitted by very casual contact, including kissing. Still, you can help reduce the risk of transmitting oral herpes by not sharing objects that touch the mouth, such as eating and drinking utensils, toothbrushes, and towels. It is best to refrain from any type of sex (vaginal, anal, or oral) during periods of active outbreak. However, herpes can also be transmitted when symptoms are not present (asymptomatic shedding). Only water-based lubricants (K-Y Jelly, Astroglide, AquaLube, and glycerin) should be used. It is very unlikely to transmit or contract genital herpes from a toilet seat or bath towel. Studies suggest that male circumcision may help reduce the risk of HSV-2, as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV infections. However, herpes can cause significant and widespread complications in people who don't have a fully functioning immune system.
The CDC recommends that all people diagnosed with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) get tested for HIV. Most people with HIV are co-infected with HSV-2 and are particularly vulnerable to its complications. HSV-2 infection increases HIV levels in the genital tract, which makes it easier for the HIV virus to be spread to sexual partners. Herpes and PregnancyPregnant women who have genital herpes due to either HSV-2 or HSV-1 have an increased risk for miscarriage, premature labor, inhibited fetal growth, or transmission of the herpes infection to the infant in the uterus or at the time of delivery.
Herpes in newborn babies (herpes neonatalis) can be a very serious condition. Fortunately, neonatal herpes is rare. Although about 25 to 30% of pregnant women have genital herpes, less than 0.1% of babies are born with neonatal herpes.
The baby is at greatest risk during a vaginal delivery, especially if the mother has an asymptomatic infection that was first introduced late in the pregnancy. The risk for transmission also increases if infants with infected mothers are born prematurely, there is invasive monitoring, or instruments are used during vaginal delivery.
Transmission can occur if the amniotic membrane of an infected woman ruptures prematurely, or as the infant passes through an infected birth canal. This risk is increased if the woman is having or has recently had an active herpes outbreak in the genital area. Very rarely, the virus is transmitted across the placenta, a form of the infection known as congenital herpes.


Also rarely, newborns may contract herpes during the first weeks of life from being kissed by someone with a herpes cold sore. Infants may get congenital herpes from a mother with an active herpes infection at the time of birth. Aggressive treatment with antiviral medication is required. Most infected pregnant women do not have a history of symptoms, so herpes infection is often not suspected or detected at the time of delivery.
Fortunately, if a woman does have genital lesions, rapid diagnostic blood tests can quickly determine her chances of transmitting the virus to her baby during delivery. Some women with new or recurrent herpes may also be prescribed antiviral medication during pregnancy. A woman with herpes can usually safely breastfeed her baby, as long as she does not have a lesion on her breast or nipple. Neonatal herpes can spread to the brain and central nervous system, causing encephalitis and meningitis. Herpes can also spread to internal organs, such as the liver and lungs. Infants infected with herpes are treated with acyclovir, an antiviral drug. They usually receive several weeks of intravenous acyclovir treatment, followed by several months of oral acyclovir.
It is important to treat babies quickly, before the infection spreads to the brain and other organs. Fortunately, rapid diagnostic tests and treatment with acyclovir have significantly improved survival rates and reduced complication rates.
Nearly all who recover have some impairment, ranging from very mild neurological changes to paralysis. Like encephalitis, meningitis symptoms include headache, fever, stiff neck, vomiting, and sensitivity to light. Fortunately, herpes meningitis usually resolves after about a week without complications, although symptoms can recur. Herpes Eye ComplicationsOcular herpes is a recurrent infection that affects the eyes.
Herpes Skin ComplicationsEczema Herpeticum: A rare form of herpes infection called eczema herpeticum, also known as Kaposi varicelliform eruption, can affect people with skin disorders and those with a weakened immune system. In children, this is often caused by thumb sucking or finger sucking while they have a cold sore.
It can also occur in adult health care workers, such as dentists, because of increased exposure to the herpes virus. The use of latex or polyurethane gloves prevents herpes whitlow in health care workers. SymptomsHerpes symptoms vary depending on whether the outbreak is initial or recurrent. The primary outbreak is usually worse than recurrent outbreaks, with more severe and prolonged symptoms. In fact, studies indicate that 10 to 25% of people infected with HSV-2 are unaware that they have genital herpes. The first signs are a tingling sensation in the affected areas (genitalia, buttocks, and thighs) and groups of small red bumps that develop into blisters. The sores may sometimes itch, but itching decreases as they heal. About 40% of men and 70% of women develop other symptoms during initial outbreaks of genital herpes, such as flu-like discomfort, headache, muscle aches, and fever.
Some women may have difficulty urinating and may, occasionally, require a urinary catheter.
The virus sheds for a much shorter period of time (about 3 days) compared to an initial outbreak of 3 weeks.
Women may have only minor itching, and the symptoms may be even milder in men. On average, people have about four recurrences during the first year, although this varies widely. There are some differences in frequency of recurrence depending on whether HSV-2 or HSV-1 caused genital herpes. HSV-2 genital infection is more likely to cause recurrences than HSV-1. Symptoms of Oral Herpes Oral herpes (herpes labialis) is most often caused by HSV-1, but it can also be caused by HSV-2. It usually affects the lips and, in some primary attacks, the mucus membranes in the mouth. The sores last 10 to 14 days and can be very uncomfortable. Blisters that may be preceded or accompanied by sore throat, fever, swollen glands, and painful swallowing. Recurrent Oral Herpes Infection: A recurrent oral herpes infection is much milder than the primary outbreak.
It usually manifests as a single sore, commonly called a cold sore or fever blister (because it may arise during a bout of cold or flu).
The sore usually shows up on the outer edge of the lips and rarely affects the gums or throat.
Recurrences of genital herpes are more likely with HSV-2 infection than with HSV-1 infection. Occasionally, the symptoms may not resemble those of the primary episode, but appear as fissures and scrapes in the skin or as general inflammation around the affected area. They include sunlight, wind, fever, physical injury, surgery, menstruation, suppression of the immune system, and emotional stress.
For most people, outbreaks recur with more frequency during the first year after an initial attack. The good news is that in most healthy people, recurring infections tend to become progressively less frequent, and less severe, over time. However, other conditions can resemble herpes, and doctors cannot base a herpes diagnosis on visual inspection alone. These tests include: Virologic tests (viral culture of the lesion) Serologic tests (blood tests that detect antibodies) The CDC recommends that both virologic and serologic tests be used for diagnosing genital herpes. People diagnosed with genital herpes should also be tested for other sexually transmitted diseases.
At this time, experts do not recommend screening for HSV-1 or HSV-2 in the general population. Genital herpes can be caused by either HSV-1 or HSV-2. It is important to determine which virus is involved, as the type of herpes infection influences prognosis and treatment recommendations.
Recurrences of genital herpes, and viral shedding without overt symptoms, are much less frequent with HSV-1 infection than with HSV-2. False-negative (testing negative when herpes infection is actually present) or false-positive (testing positive when herpes infection is not actually present) results can occur. Your health care provider may recommend that you have a test repeated. Virologic TestsViral culture tests are made by taking a fluid sample, or culture, from the lesions as early as possible, ideally within the first 48 hours of the outbreak. PCR tests are much faster and more accurate than viral cultures, and the CDC recommends PCR for detecting herpes in spinal fluid when diagnosing herpes encephalitis.
PCR can make many copies of the virus' DNA, so that even small amounts of DNA in the sample can be detected. However, many labs now use PCR for herpes testing because it is highly accurate. An older type of virologic testing, the Tzanck smear test, uses scrapings from herpes lesions. The scrapings are stained and examined under a microscope for the presence of giant cells with many nuclei or distinctive particles that carry the virus (called inclusion bodies). The Tzanck test is not reliable for providing a conclusive diagnosis of herpes infection and is not recommended by the CDC. Serologic TestsSerologic (blood) tests can identify antibodies that are specific for either HSV-1 or HSV-2.
When the herpes virus infects you, your body's immune system produces specific antibodies to fight off the infection. If a blood test detects antibodies to herpes, it is evidence that you have been infected with the virus, even if the virus is in a non-active (dormant) state. The presence of antibodies to herpes also indicates that you are a carrier of the virus and might transmit it to others. Serologic tests can be especially useful for people who do not have active symptoms, but who have other risk factors for herpes (such as other STDs, multiple sex partners, or a monogamous partner who has genital herpes). Although glycoprotein (gG) type-specific tests have been available for many years, many of the older nontype-specific tests that cannot distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 are still on the market. Canker sores frequently crop up singly or in groups on the inside of the mouth, or on or underneath the tongue. They usually heal within 2 weeks without treatment. Canker sores (Aphthous ulcers) are very common. The drugs are used initially to treat a first attack of herpes, and then afterward to either treat recurrent outbreaks (episodic therapy) or reduce frequency of recurrences (suppressive therapy). Drugs can, however, reduce the severity of symptoms, improve healing times, and prevent recurrences. If people experience very severe disease or complications, they need to be hospitalized and receive an antiviral drug intravenously. Your health care provider will prescribe one of the three antiviral medications, which you will take for 7 to 10 days. You should begin the medication as soon as you notice any signs or symptoms of herpes, preferably during the prodrome stage that precedes the outbreak of lesions. If taken during prodrome, episodic therapy may help prevent an outbreak from occurring or reduce its severity. Valacyclovir is taken once a day. Suppressive treatment can reduce the frequency of outbreak recurrences by 70 to 80%. It is generally recommended for people who have frequent recurrences (6 or more outbreaks per year).
Because herpes recurrences often diminish over time, you should discuss annually with your health care provider whether you should stay with drug therapy or discontinue it. While taking any suppressive therapy for genital herpes, it is still important to regularly use latex condoms and to avoid any sexual activity during recurrences. A new form of acyclovir (Sitavig) is administered orally as an adhesive tablet; it is applied to the gum region of the mouth, where it dissolves during the course of the day.
In addition, acyclovir is available in topical form, as is the related drug penciclovir (Denavir). Topical TreatmentsThese ointments or creams can help shorten healing time and duration of symptoms. However, none are truly effective at eliminating outbreaks. Penciclovir (Denavir) heals HSV-1 sores on average about half a day faster than without treatment, stops viral shedding, and reduces the duration of pain.
Ideally, you should apply the cream within the first hour of symptoms, although the medication can still help if applied later. Apply the cream 5 times a day, beginning at the first sign of tingling or pain. Over-the-counter topical ointments may provide modest relief. They include Anbesol gel, Blistex lip ointment, Camphophenique, Herpecin-L, Viractin, and Zilactin. Some contain a topical anesthetic such as benzocaine, tetracaine, or phenol. Lip balm that contains sunblock, or sunscreen applied around the lips may help prevent sun-triggered outbreaks. Herbs and SupplementsGenerally, manufacturers of herbal remedies and dietary supplements do not need FDA approval to sell their products. Just like a drug, herbs and supplements can affect the body's chemistry, and therefore have the potential to produce side effects that may be harmful. There have been several reported cases of serious and even lethal side effects from herbal products. Always check with your provider before using any herbal remedies or dietary supplements. Many herbal and dietary supplement products claim to help fight herpes infection by boosting the immune system. There has been little research on these products, and little evidence to show that they really work. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and antibody response to primary infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in young women. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among persons aged 14 - 49 years -- United States, 2005-2008.
Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions. Epub 2013 Jan 28. Martin ET, Krantz E, Gottlieb SL, Magaret AS, Langenberg A, Stanberry L, et al. Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus among symptomatic and asymptomatic persons with HSV-2 infection.




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