Treatment of bladder cancer in india,pain physician salary,constipation remedies for child earache,erbs palsy - PDF 2016

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Successful Cancer surgery at We Care India partner hospital allows Henry Stolz to live a normal life despite a microendoscopic Decompression. Although medical treatments are fairly standardized, different doctors have different philosophies and practices in caring for their patients.
You may want to talk to more than one urologist to find the one with whom you feel most comfortable.
After you have chosen a urologist to treat your cancer, you will have ample opportunity to ask questions and discuss the treatments available to you.
Your doctor will describe each type of treatment, give you the pros and cons, and make recommendations based on published treatment guidelines and his or her own experience.
The decision of which treatment to pursue is made with your doctor (with input from other members of your care team) and your family members, but the decision is ultimately yours. Be certain you understand exactly what will be done and why, and what you can expect from your choices. Like all cancers, bladder cancer is most likely to be cured if it is diagnosed early and treated promptly.
The most widely used therapies are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, either alone or in combination.
Immunotherapy or biological therapy, which takes advantage of the body's innate cancer-fighting ability, is used in some cases, especially for patients with stages Ta, T1, and CIS. Your treatment team will also include one or more nurses, a dietitian, a social worker, and other professionals as needed.
This information is not designed to replace a physician's independent judgment about the appropriateness or risks of a procedure for a given patient. We Care Health Services - India a€“ Mumbai (Bombay), Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad, Kolkata, Delhi, Bangalore. Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and female urinary system (right panel) showing the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Adenocarcinoma: Cancer that begins in glandular (secretory) cells that are found in the lining of the bladder.
Past treatment with radiation therapy to the pelvis or with certain anticancer drugs, such as cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide. Having a history of bladder infections, including bladder infections caused by Schistosoma haematobium. Physical exam and history : An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. Urinalysis : A test to check the color of urine and its contents, such as sugar, protein, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Urine cytology : A laboratory test in which a sample of urine is checked under a microscope for abnormal cells. Cystoscopy : A procedure to look inside the bladder and urethra to check for abnormal areas. Biopsy : The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. The stage of the cancer (whether it is superficial or invasive bladder cancer, and whether it has spread to other places in the body). The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the bladder lining and muscle or to other parts of the body is called staging.
A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. Bone scan : A procedure to check if there are rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, in the bone.
Bladder cancer typically begins in the lining of your bladder,the balloon-shaped organ in your pelvic area that stores urine. Most bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas (cancer that begins in cells that normally make up the inner lining of the bladder). Chemotherapy and radiation therapy : - Treatment with the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) and ifosfamide (Ifex) increases your risk of bladder cancer. Chronic bladder inflammation : - Chronic or repeated urinary infections or inflammations (cystitis), such as may happen with long-term use of a urinary catheter. Personal or family history : - Having bladder cancer once makes it more likely you'll get it again.
Exposure to arsenic : - Drinking water containing high levels of arsenic increases risk of with bladder cancer.
Bladder birth defect : - Rare birth defects of the bladder may lead to an unusual form of bladder cancer called adenocarcinoma. To diagnose bladder cancer, the doctor will take a medical history, do a physical examination and request a urine test.
An x-ray procedure, called an Intravenous pyelogram (IVP), is used to detect any abnormalities or growths in the bladder.
A Cystoscopy is a procedure using a thin, lighted tube called a cystoscope that is inserted into the bladder through the urethra. There are four main types of treatment for bladder cancer: surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and biological therapy. Transurethral resection (TUR) is an operation that uses a cystoscope inserted into the bladder through the urethra. Urinary diversion is an operation to make way for urine to pass out of the body so that it does not go through the bladder. Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) may be needed when the cancer cannot be removed with TUR because it involves a larger area of the bladder. When cancer involves the pelvis or has spread to other parts of the body, the doctor may suggest chemotherapy. Depending on the specific drugs, most patients take chemotherapy as an outpatient at the hospital, the doctor's office or at home.
Often a form of intravesical chemotherapy, biological therapy uses materials made by the body or made in a laboratory to boost, direct or restore the body's natural defenses against the cancer. When several tumors are present in the bladder or when there is a risk that the cancer will recur, TUR may be followed by treatment with drugs. Successful heart surgery at We Care India partner hospital allows Robert Clarke to live a normal life despite a rare genetic disorder We Care india helped Robert find best super specialised surgeon for his rare conditions. In this section of our website we present some selected productions in the form of short "making-Of's".


In the following article we have listed the most of our project in recent years in a chronological order.
Bladder cancer is a cancer of the lining of the bladder, a piece of muscle that has multiple layers. The National Cancer Institute estimates that that there will be 74,690 new cases and 15,580 deaths from bladder cancer in the United States in 2014. Smoking is the greatest risk factor for bladder cancer, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, causing approximately 30 percent of bladder cancers among women and 50 percent of bladder cancer among men. Certain professionals, such as bus drivers and auto mechanics, leather workers and hairdressers, may also be at increased risk because of chemicals they work with, such as benzene, naphthylamine and ortho-toluidine.
Family history of bladder cancer can also increase risk, said Dr.David Samadi, the chairman of urology and chief of robotic surgery at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. Other symptoms of bladder cancer may also include frequent urination, painful urination, urinary tract infection and lower back pain, Samadi said.
When a patient comes to the office, doctors may take a urine test to look for blood in the urine or for any abnormal cells that are shed by the bladder. If the cancer cells are flat, it indicates that the cancer is aggressive and has a tendency to spread, he said.
Superficial bladder cancer, which originates from the lining of the bladder, can often be treated, according to the National Cancer Institute. Transurethral resection (TUR), with or without radiation therapy or chemotherapy, is one of the main treatments for superficial cancer, according to the Mayo Clinic.
Segmental cystectomy, where only one part of the bladder is removed, may be used to treat invasive cancer that is low grade and has invaded only one area of the bladder wall.
Intravesical therapy for bladder cancer means putting liquid drugs directly into the bladder through a tube called a catheter.
After surgery to remove early bladder cancer you have a catheter (tube) put into your bladder through the urethra.
People who have a moderate risk of the cancer coming back usually have further treatment with chemotherapy into the bladder (intravesical chemotherapy). The chemotherapy is a liquid given into the bladder through a flexible tube (catheter) put into the urethra.
For 6 hours after the treatment, you have to be careful when you pass urine so that you don't get the urine on your skin.
Giving chemotherapy into the bladder does not have as many side effects as having chemotherapy tablets or injections.
A review of medical studies in this area has found that this treatment does help to stop bladder cancers coming back in many people. Your doctor may suggest electrically stimulated chemotherapy if you have a high grade cancer that remains or comes back after chemotherapy or BCG into the bladder. To have EMDA treatment you have a tube (catheter) with a small electrode put into your bladder. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has announced that this procedure can be used, either before or after surgery, for early (superficial) bladder cancer.
Your doctor may suggest this treatment either before or after surgery to remove early bladder cancer. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has announced that this procedure could be used, either before or after surgery, for bladder cancer that has not grown further than the bladder lining.
The main side effect is irritation of the bladder, and you may feel as if you have a bad urine infection (cystitis). Cancer Research UK is a registered charity in England and Wales (1089464), Scotland (SC041666) and the Isle of Man (1103). Many communities, medical societies, and cancer centers offer telephone or Internet referral services. Factors such as your age, your overall health, and whether you have already been treated for the cancer before are included in the treatment decision-making process.
Cancer that has spread through the lining of the bladder and invades the muscle wall of the bladder or has spread to nearby organs and lymph nodes is called invasive bladder cancer. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
Cancer cells break away from where they began (the primary tumor) and travel through the lymph system or blood. Some bladder cancer remains confined to the lining, while others cases may invade other areas.
Other types include squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). He or she may order an x-ray test and perform a cystoscopy (described below) and if needed, a biopsy for bladder cancer. For the IVP x-ray, a special dye containing iodine is given to the patient through a needle inserted in the vein. If the doctor sees any abnormal areas or growths, he or she will remove some of that tissue (biopsy) for further examination under a microscope. The type and staging of the cancer, age, and overall health, determine which treatment method(s) will be used.
The doctor then uses a tool with a small wire loop on the end to remove the cancer or to burn the tumor away with high-energy electricity.
Sometimes, it may be necessary to stay in the hospital for a period of time to monitor the effects of the treatment. The doctor may put a solution containing the bacteria bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), a form of biological therapy, directly into the bladder via a catheter (intravesical biological therapy).
We made a complete list of all of our projects in chronological order and we picked some of our productions described them in a more detail form. This examples show productions of topics such as medical illustrations for print ads, exhibition design, operating instructions, website design, online training, medical apps, patient education films, TV animations, stereoscopic movies,  etc. Bladder cancer occurs more frequently among older men, with the median age of diagnosis being 73 and the media age of death being 78, based on data collected in the United States from 2003 to 2007.
About 70 to 80 percent of new diagnoses for bladder cancer are superficial, noninvasive bladder cancer, according to the National Cancer Institute. It is characterized by urine that may appear dark yellow, bright red or cola-colored, according to the Mayo Clinic. If invasive bladder cancer is suspected, the doctor may also order MRIs, CT scans and X-rays in order to determine if the cancer has spread to the kidneys, ureters and other internal organs.


In this procedure, a tool with a small wire loop on the end is inserted into the bladder through a cystoscope.
However, radical cystectomy, where the entire bladder is removed, is the most common type of surgery for invasive bladder cancer according to the National Cancer Institute. The aim of this treatment is to treat the cancer and stop it from coming back or spreading into the deeper layers of the bladder.
You should try not to get any urine on your hands because the chemotherapy may irritate your hands. It is also very good at helping to stop or delay bladder cancers growing back or spreading into the deeper layers of the bladder.
Your doctor or nurse put the liquid into your bladder through a tube (catheter) in the urethra. It seems to encourage cells of the immune system to grow and become very active in the lining of the bladder. It is important that you tell your doctor straight away if you have any of these symptoms or have a high temperature for more than 48 hours. They put the chemotherapy drug into your bladder through the catheter and switch the generator on. The treatment uses a microwave probe to heat the wall of the bladder, at the same time as putting in the chemotherapy drug mitomycin C. The cells that form squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma develop in the inner lining of the bladder as a result of chronic irritation and inflammation. A urine sample is taken and then examined under a microscope for cancerous cells (for bladder cancer). Segmental cystectomy is an operation to take out part of the bladder where the cancer is located. Internal radiation therapy, with radioactive material placed in the bladder, may be combined with external radiation, which comes from a machine located outside the body. Chemotherapy may be given in different ways - by mouth or injection into a muscle or a vein, or by catheter into the bladder (intravesical chemotherapy).
If the cancer spreads further into the muscle wall of the bladder or to nearby lymph nodes and organs, it is called invasive bladder cancer. However, hematuria can be intermittent, even when caused by serious disease, and its severity is not correlated to the severity of the underlying cancer. The tumor and the surrounding area are then burned with an electric current (fulguration) or special high-energy laser. Some surrounding tissues, nearby lymph nodes and organs may also be removed during the procedure in order to get rid of any remaining cancerous growth.
Doctors are not quite sure how it works for bladder cancer, but they know from research that it helps to stop or delay bladder cancers growing back. They sometimes call this device assisted chemotherapy, or device assisted intravesical therapies. You have a solution of a chemotherapy drug (mitomycin, epirubicin or doxorubicin) put into your bladder weekly for 6 weeks. If you have this side effect you will feel that you want to pass urine very often and it may be uncomfortable when you do pass urine. You may need treatment with anti TB drugs and should not wait until your next appointment to let your doctor know.
The doctor then washes out your bladder with sterile water and sticks two patches on to your skin, on the lower part of your tummy (abdomen). It is called hyperthermic mitomycin, intravesical microwave hyperthermia with chemotherapy, or the Synergo technique. NICE says there is not enough evidence for how well this procedure works to make it more widely available.
Although the surgery has a high rate of success, patients are still advised to undergo regular cystoscopy every three months afterwards to monitor for any relapses, Samadi said. You may also have this treatment if your cancer comes back after the initial surgery and chemotherapy treatment. About 1 out of 10 people (10%) develop a rash on their hands or feet for a short time after having the treatment. You may also have another BCG intravesical therapy 6 weeks after your last weekly treatment, and then every few weeks or months for the next 3 years.
This treatment has sometimes worked well for people with high grade, early bladder cancer after BCG treatment into the bladder has not worked.
A device heats the mitomycin C and your doctor puts the heated chemotherapy drug into the catheter. It may also have a tool to remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer.EnlargeCystoscopy. In women, this operation includes removing the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and part of the vagina. These include using an electric current (called electrically stimulated chemotherapy or electromotive drug administration (EMDA)).
During this time you will need to change position every now and again to make sure the drug reaches all parts of your bladder. When you do pass urine, you need to be careful for 6 hours after the treatment because the vaccine contains live TB. This heat treatment appears to make the cancer cells more sensitive to the chemotherapy and doctors hope this will make the chemotherapy work better and improve results.
A cystoscope (a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing) is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. And using heated agents (called hyperthermic mitomycin, intravesical microwave hyperthermia with chemotherapy, or the Synergo technique, or hyperthermic intravesical chemotherapy (HIVEC)).
These treatments are specialised and may only be available in hospitals with a special interest in treating bladder cancer.
There is a very small chance that some of the TB could get into your system and give you TB symptoms. After you've been to the loo, pour about half a pint of neat bleach into the toilet bowl and leave it for 15 minutes before flushing. After the procedure the doctor or nurse drains the chemotherapy out of the bladder and takes out the catheter.



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