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Experimental results are shown for three energies in a coplanar symmetric geometry, and for three energies in an asymmetric geometry.
Ionization of atomic and molecular targets is one of the most complex and fundamental collision processes that can be studied in detail. To fully characterize these interactions, it is necessary to perform sophisticated measurements where an incident electron of well controlled momentum scatters and ionizes the target. In these (e,2e) experiments, information about the collision is obtained by measuring the outgoing momenta of the collision products.
For molecular targets, it is difficult to know the orientation and alignment of the molecule prior to the interaction occurring, unless this can be defined prior to the collision or can be measured following the collision. The interaction of low to intermediate energy electrons with molecular targets has been much less studied compared with high energy electron collisions. Experiments on molecular targets often employ effusive beams produced at room temperature, and so the targets may have internal rotational and vibrational energy.
Results are presented here for an H2O target at significantly lower energies than has been studied before.
Figure 1.1 Representation of the 1b1 state of H2O, showing an incident electron ionizing the molecule.
The experiments described here were carried out in the fully computer controlled and computer optimized (e,2e) spectrometer that operates in Manchester. For the coplanar symmetric experiments described here, the electron detectors were moved so that their angles with respect to the incident beam direction were equal to each other throughout measurement (see figure 1.2). For coplanar asymmetric experiments, analyzer 1 was fixed at a scattering angle thetaa = 22A°, while analyzer 2 was swept around the scattering plane.
The fixed scattering angle thetaa = 22A° was chosen as this was the smallest angle that could be used without the incident electron beam from the gun striking the side of the analyzer (and so producing unacceptable levels of noise on the coincidence signal).
The energy resolution of the spectrometer is set by the resolution of the electron gun and the pass energy of the analyzers.
Production of a high quality molecular beam of H2O required careful monitoring of the experiment as it progressed. The de-gassed water was then transferred to a 150mm long tubular stainless steel flask which was connected to the main vacuum system using a swagelok fitting. An AD590 sensor was secured to the aluminium block surrounding the flask, so that the temperature of the insulated assembly could be monitored and controlled. To monitor the molecular beam inside the vacuum chamber produced from the water, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was installed onto the spectrometer.
Figure 1.3 shows a typical coincidence energy spectrum obtained from the experiment during operation.
The experiments were carried out over a period of several months, using electron beam currents ~200nA for all data runs. As the incident energy increases, the ratio of forward to backward scattering cross section increases, as has been seen for most atomic targets in this geometry. The measured coplanar asymmetric data is shown in figure 4, again normalized to unity at thetab = 45A°. As the incident energy is increased to 55eV above threshold, the forward lobe splits into two clear peaks of approximately equal magnitude, as seen in figure 1.5(b). Results from the 1b1 state of water have been presented for coplanar symmetric and asymmetric energies.
These results have been compared to a DWBA theory in the paper J Phys B, however the averaging used in this theory was not a good approximation, and so is not expected to yield accurate results for this state.
Experimental results are presented for electron impact ionization of water in the energy regime from near threshold to intermediate energies.
Results of a sophisticated model which approximates the random orientation of the target using a spherical averaging of the wave-function prior to the collision, using sophisticated distorted wave Born calculations that include post-collisional interactions in first order and to all orders of perturbation theory are also shown for comparison (see J. The calculations predict the data most accurately at the lowest energy studied (4eV above threshold) in a coplanar symmetric geometry, whereas the comparison between theory and experiment is generally poor for higher energies and for non-coplanar geometries.
Energy deposition and angular distributions resulting from electron collisions with water are used in charged particle track structure analyses to model radiation damage in biological samples. These low energy electrons have an effect over a much wider volume than the targeted cancer site. At incident energies less than ~200eV, the collision dynamics are strongly influenced by effects including post-collision interactions, target polarization, distortions in the wave-functions for the participating electrons and multiple collisions.
Current models now yield reasonable agreement with experimental data for a range of atoms, implying a good understanding of the collision dynamics under the conditions used in the experiments, and these models are now being extended to low energy (e,2e) collisions from molecules. Recent experiments studying simple diatomic targets including H2 and N2 have provided benchmark data.
The apparatus at Manchester can also access non-coplanar geometries, and so has provided additional data to further test these models. In a previous study the groups at Manchester and Missouri investigated the 1b1 (HOMO) state of H2O in coplanar kinematics.
By contrast, the 3a1 orbital of interest here is involved in the O-H bonding and has a charge density distribution distorted from that of a symmetric atomic like orbital.
The experimental triple differential cross sections (TDCS) presented here were measured in the (e,2e) apparatus at the University of Manchester. The spectrometer can be operated in a standard coplanar geometry where the momenta of all three electrons (the incident and two outgoing electrons) are within the same detection plane (psi = 0A°, figure 2.1).
The power supplies for the electrostatic lenses in the electron gun and the electron analyzers are fully computer controlled and computer optimized, allowing for automated tuning at regular intervals, with the analyzers being re-optimized each time they move to a new angle. The energy of the spectrometer was re-calibrated at the start of each new kinematic arrangement, by measuring the coincidence binding energy spectrum. Over the course of this study the binding energy spectra were recorded for various energies and geometries, and it is estimated that contamination from neighbouring orbitals was always less than 10%, and is more typically in the range of 0.5%. The distilled water sample used to provide the molecular target beam was contained within a 50mm diameter 100mm long stainless steel vessel sealed by a CF-70 flange to a 6.35mm swagelok fitting.
The sample vessel and gas handling line were held at a constant temperature of 50A?C throughout data collection, so as to create sufficient driving pressure for the target beam.
The purity of the target beam was verified with a Spectra VacScan mass spectrometer fitted to the scattering chamber.
The background pressure within the scattering chamber was set to 1.1 x 10-5 torr during operation, and was found to remain constant throughout all data runs. During these experiments we observed an unusual behaviour of the tungsten hairpin filament used as the incident electron source. To facilitate this, the current measured by the Faraday cup located on the opposite side of the interaction region to the electron gun was monitored by the computer control software, and the current through the filament adjusted to maintain a beam current of 300nA throughout data collection. In the present study we also measured the coincidence energy resolution from ionization of helium, and found this did not change, indicating that the temperature of emission remained approximately constant. The data presented in figures 3-5 were then averaged over these angular sweeps, and the uncertainties in the measurements determined from the complete set of data for each scattering angle. The experimental data are not measured on an absolute scale and so experiment and theory are normalized to a maximum of unity at each energy, as shown in figure 2.2.
As the energy of the outgoing electrons is lowered, it would be expected that the Coulomb repulsion between the outgoing electrons should play an increasingly important role, driving the electrons apart. The best agreement between experimental data and theory is at the lowest energy, where the experimental data and MDW model are in excellent agreement for the binary peak. A key advantage of the spectrometer in Manchester is the ability to measure data for kinematics in non-coplanar geometries. Non-coplanar measurements were hence taken here with both outgoing electrons having an energy of 10eV. As shown in figure 1, the geometry adopted in this spectrometer provides a common normalization point (xi1 = xi2 = 90A°) for all gun angles psi, which allows ALL data at a given energy to be referenced to a common point. For the current measurements, the coplanar data have been normalized to a maximum of unity, as before. The data in figure 2.3 show a clear trend indicating the binary and recoil peaks diminish in magnitude as the angle of the electron gun angle increases. The data contrasts strongly with the theoretical models for the larger gun angles y, where the theories predict significantly more structure than is seen in the data. The final kinematic configuration used symmetric geometries and 20eV excess energy as above, however in this case the data are for unequal energy sharing between the outgoing electrons.
The data were only taken for coplanar and perpendicular plane geometries, so as to contrast differences in these two extremes. The key differences that can be seen in these data for the coplanar geometry are that the binary peak moves to a smaller angle as the energy asymmetry increases, as might be expected from post collisional interactions. Agreement is mixed, and rather surprisingly gives best results at low energies, where it might be expected that the approximations are least accurate. The experimental results for both equal and non-equal energy sharing in the perpendicular plane show almost no structure, whereas the theoretical calculations predict that three clearly defined lobes should be seen.
This work was supported by the University of Manchester and the US National Science Foundation under Grant.
12.A A  Naja A, Staicu-Casagrande E M, Lahmam-Bennani A, Nekkab M, Mezdari F, Joulakian B, Chuluunbaatar O and Madison D H 2007 J. In this web page we provide detailed (e,2e) studies of electron impact ionization of noble gases including helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon from near threshold to intermediate energies, where the outgoing electrons carry equal energy from the interaction.
The experiments were conducted in the perpendicular plane, where the outgoing electrons are detected orthogonal to the incident electron beam. The data show the cross sections undergo complex variations as a function of incident energy, and in particular ionization of the heaviest target is at variance to all others that have been studied here. The (e,2e) process provides the most precise experimental data for the study of the ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact.
By determining the momenta of the scattered and ejected electrons in a time correlated coincidence measurement, the differential ionization cross section (DCS) is derived for comparison with theoretical models. Since the scattered and ejected electrons may emerge over a wide range of different angles, experiments usually define a specific scattering geometry in which to carry out the measurements.
In the present work, we have constrained the spectrometer to measure the DCS only in the perpendicular geometry, where psi = 90A°. For both electrons to emerge in this geometry it is necessary for an interaction with the target nucleus to occur, and this provides a stringent test of current ionization models. We have taken measurements with the incident electron energy E0 ranging from near the ionization threshold of the selected target, through to energies up to 80eV above the ionization potential (IP).
Understanding these processes is hence important in areas ranging from the production of plasmas in stellar and planetary atmospheres, through to electron impact ionization in lasers and in nuclear reactors.
In all cases results are presented for the outgoing electrons having equal energies at the analysers. The apparatus can measure the DCS from the coplanar to the perpendicular plane geometry by moving the electron gun, gas jet and Faraday cup together around the interaction region (figure 2). The electron analysers consist of a 3-element electrostatic lens that focuses electrons from the interaction region into a hemispherical energy selector. The data were taken over a period of several months, and the electron gun current was varied for each of the data sets so as to ensure linearity of the detection system. The energy of the incident electron beam was determined by observing the negative ion elastic scattering resonance in helium at ~19eV, so as to determine the offset in the gun due to contact potentials. The energies of the outgoing electrons were determined by observing inelastic scattering from the excited targets, and by considering the location of Fano resonances in the ionization continuum. The experimental data for helium are taken from previous work carried out in Manchester re-presented here normalised to unity at the peak of the DCS to allow comparison with other noble gases.
The ground state of helium is 1S0, with an electronic configuration 1s2, and so both bound electrons occupy s-shell orbitals prior to the interaction. For helium, neon and argon targets, the bound electrons occupy either s-orbitals or p-orbitals in their ground state. It was not possible to resolve these individual channels in our experiment (due to the limited energy resolution of the spectrometer) apart from for xenon, where results were taken for production of the different ion states at incident electron energies from 10eV to 30eV above the IP.
Figure 3 presents results for ionization of helium in the perpendicular plane for ten different incident energies ranging from 3eV to 80eV above the IP. As the incident electron energy increases, additional peaks are seen at angles around 90A° & 270A°. By 20eV above the IP three distinct peaks are clearly visible, the relative strength of the central peak to outer lobes decreasing monotonically as the energy increases.
The physical reasons behind these structures has been described by several models, ranging from DWBA calculations through to TDCC models. There is only one process that can produce a peak at 180A? in the perpendicular plane without interaction with the target nucleus. The peaks at around 90A° & 270A° are found to result from elastic scattering of the incident electron from the core, followed by a single binary collision between the incident electron and a bound electron.
It should be noted that although agreement between theory and experiment in the perpendicular plane has proven to be very good, the results in a coplanar geometry are not as satisfactory, particularly for non-equal outgoing electron energies. The results at the lowest energy are similar in shape to that for helium, with a single broad peak observed centred around 180A°. As the incident energy increases, the DCS for neon shows a very different character to that for helium.
The mechanisms that produce these structures in neon must be quite different to that proposed for helium, apart from at the lowest energy where PCI is expected to dominate for all targets. Al-Hagan and co-workers recently considered the low energy regime for both He and H2 from threshold to ~10eV above threshold, and concluded that for these targets PCI dominates at energies <2eV, which is also consistent with the observations for neon presented here. The results in figure 4 indicate that the interaction is clearly more complex, and may be due to the momentum distribution of the ionized p-electron and polarizability of the atom (which is 1.9 times greater for neon than for helium).
A similar study was carried out for argon, whose outer electronic structure ([Ne]3s23p6) is similar to neon ([He]2s22p6).
In the frozen-core approximation as used in many theories, the inner electrons are considered as spectators during the interaction, and so in this approximation the structure of the DCS should be similar for neon and argon. For argon, nine separate energies were chosen for study, so as to reveal the complex variation in the DCS as a function of energy.
Once again the results for argon are not consistent with the simple models found successful for helium. Figure 6 shows the results for krypton, which unlike helium, argon and neon also has bound electrons occupying the 3d-shell. Once again results were taken for a lowest energy 2eV above the IP, with the data having much better statistical significance compared to those for argon at the same energy.
As the energy increases, the results for krypton show a similar trend to that for argon, with the central minimum deepening until around 10eV above the IP where a central peak starts to emerge. The similarity between argon and krypton data tends to indicate that the d-shell electrons in the heavier target are not playing a significant role in the ionization process. As the heaviest isotopically stable noble gas target, xenon has the largest calculated size (108 pm) due to full occupation of the 4d, 5s and 5p shells. The ionic ground states of Xe+ are sufficiently separated that it was possible to resolve ionization to individual states during the experiments, for energies up to 30eV above the IP.
The data are particularly surprising since they do not follow the general trend seen for all other noble gas targets at higher energies. The minimum at 180A° is significantly deeper than for krypton under the same outgoing energy conditions, and unlike krypton this minimum then becomes shallower as the incident energy increases.
These results show that the mechanism for ionization of xenon must once again be different to all other targets that have been studied. As far as we are aware this phenomenon has never been observed for any other target, and it remains to be seen why this should occur for xenon. Only three energies were selected for these experiments, due to the difficulty of obtaining good statistical data. The set of data presented here for isotopically stable noble gases shows there is a large variation in the probability of ionization in the perpendicular plane. The perpendicular plane is particularly poignant for testing the most sophisticated electron impact ionization models, since multiple scattering must occur for electrons to emerge in this plane.
The perpendicular plane has proven to be a fertile ground to test recent theoretical models, which have found success for simple targets such as helium and molecular hydrogen. It appears that PCI plays a role at the lowest measured energy for each target, although the significance of this process reduces as the target weight increases. The most surprising result is for the heaviest target xenon, since the relative magnitude of the central peak continues to increase as the incident energy increases, and the side lobes reduce to insignificance. It is worth noting that the resolved data for ionization to the different Xe+ states indicate there is little variation to the measured cross section due to fine structure effects. KLN thanks the Royal Society for an International Newton Research Fellowship held at the University of Manchester. To report on the performance of the line stage AND the phono stage at one time would be too much information. A pair of 6922-family tubes is used in the phono stage and a pair of 6922 is used as the a€?nominala€? tube type for the line stage. One of the unique design aspects of the WV is its support of 12-volt based tubes (12AU7, E180CC, 7062, 6829, 5965, etc.) in the line stage.
Another attractive WV feature is the ability to use this as a home-theater pass-through and NOT require the WV to be powered on. As nice as the stepper-motor based remote volume control is here, I wish I had remote mute capability rather than simply the level adjustment. When I heard the ARC SP-8 at a dealer in 1983, the preamp bar had been raised; I came to realize the significant role that a preamp played in the result of a systema€™s musicality. After a few years with the BAT units, I was ready for a major leap in performance like I had attained with the SP-10 purchase 17 years before.
With my focus on portrayal of space, other sonic attributes such as a strong bass foundation, low-level resolution and upper-frequency extension and detail have been secondary to me. I think we often equate sonic characteristics such as tonal coherency, extended trebles and dynamic contrasts as contributors to clarity and purity. I was scrambling for a high-resolution source to get a handle on the WVa€™s line stage capability compared to the Bent. A return to the Bent and the silence along with the carry-on of the harmonics as they decayed, was much diminished.
A return to the WV and the difference was significant: midrange and upper-midrange piano tones had much more energy in their harmonics. After the initial impressions of the WV line stage with the Io Sig and APL player for a couple nights, I played a little bit with the WVa€™s phono stage before I started the line-stage tube-rolling trials. As stated earlier here, with the flip of an internal switch, the line stage supports tubes of the 12au7 family. With the 7062s in the line stage and the Amperex 6922 PQa€™s in the WVa€™s phono stage, I played for a few nights with various PS tubes. Throughout the tube evaluation process, I had one primary thing on my mind: I wanted to recover some of the 3-dimensionality midrange magic that was so inherently strong with the Callisto Sig and somewhat lacking with the Bent. As I was assembling my notes from the last 2-3 months for this report, I wanted to try the Bent one last time this week. The differences between the WV and the Bent are greater now than before due to the WV custom tube set. With the WV loaded with the custom tube set, I have bottom-to-top resolution and dynamic contrasts like never before. Not only has this retest confirmed to me the incredible performance of the WV, but I have greater respect for the Bent as well. Line Stage Output Impedance: This is not a fixed number, it varies according to the tubetype used. 3.1 Students learn to explain why the concentration of water in cells should be maintained within a narrow range for optimal function. It follows that a fixed concentration of substrate and enzymes is necessary for reactions to proceed at an ideal rate.
3.2 Students learn to explain why the removal of wastes is essential for continued metabolic activity. 3.3 Students learn to identify the role of the kidney in the excretory system of fish and mammals. 3.4 Students perform a first-hand investigation of the structure of a mammalian kidney by dissection, use of a model or visual resource and identify the regions involved in the excretion of waste products.
Renal dialysis is similar to kidney function except that essential substances passively filtered from the blood are replaced by adding them to the blood. Active animals produce considerable quantities of nitrogenous wastes that must be removed quickly. 3.7 Students learn to distinguish between active and passive transport and relate these to processes occurring in the mammalian kidney. In the first part of the nephron after the Bowmana€™s capsule, called the proximal tubule (see below), many of these molecules are a€?pumpeda€? back into the blood vessels as they wrap around the tubule. The way the kidney filters the blood is analogous to a student tidying his desk by throwing everything onto the floor, then replacing only the materials he needs on the desk. 3.8 Students learn to explain how the processes of filtration and reabsorption in the mammalian nephron regulate body fluid composition.
The material collected in the Bowmana€™s capsule then passes into the proximal tubule where selective (active) reabsorption of all the glucose, amino acids, vitamins and hormones occurs.
The filtrate then passes down and up the loop of Henle in the medulla (inner) part of the kidney.
The distal (distant from the glomerulus) convoluted tubule is mainly responsible for the regulation of potassium, pH (acidity) and calcium concentration in the body. From the distal tubule, the filtrate passes to the collecting tubule which joins other tubules, connects to the ureter and transports the urine to the bladder.
3.9 Students learn to outline the role of the hormones, aldosterone and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) in the regulation of water and salt levels in blood.
You will know that tea and coffee increase the amount of urine produced - they are diuretics. Sense organs in the pituitary gland detect falls in osmotic pressure caused by a reduction of blood volume. A range of other sensors (including stretch receptors in the atria of the heart) detect falls in blood pressure due to dehydration and loss of salts from the blood. Aldosterone and ADH are both hormones that increase the reabsorption of water and sodium ions from the filtrate in the tubules of the nephron. 3.11 Students learn to define enantiostasis as the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment and discuss its importance to estuarine organisms in maintaining appropriate salt concentrations.
Work extra hard and reduce your social activities so that you can maintain your standard and avoid getting into trouble with parents or teachers? Do the same amount of work as usual and keep up your social life but tolerate the lower assessment ranking and criticisms you are bound to get?
Estuaries are places where the salinity of water changes during the day as the tides move in or out. If you can handle these concepts, it would be in your interest to find out the meaning of the words a€?osmoregulatorsa€? and a€?osmoconformersa€? so that you can improve the quality of your answers to questions on this dot point.
3.12 Students analyse information from secondary sources to compare and explain the differences in urine concentration of terrestrial mammals, marine fish and freshwater fish. Marine fish have no trouble getting enough minerals - the oceana€™s water is full of minerals.
Freshwater fish have the opposite problem - water tends to move into their cells by osmosis and minerals tend to diffuse out. 3.14 Students process and analyse information from secondary sources and use available evidence to discuss processes used by different plants for salt regulation in saline environments. 3.15 Students perform a first-hand investigation to gather information about structures in plants that assist in the conservation of water. 3.16 Students learn to describe adaptations of a range of terrestrial Australian plants that assist in minimising water loss.
In the photograph of an Acacia sp seedling below, you can see that the first leaf to form was a bipinnate (compound) leaf.
In the next photograph, the leaves of a Casuarina sp (She-Oak) are shown to be reduced to tiny brown scales - the stems are acting as leaves. The leaves of Banksia serrata have a thick cuticle (Cu), tough sclerencyma (tough support tissue Sl) and most obviously, stomates in deep pits which have many hairs.
3.A A  Plants and animals regulate the concentration of gases, water and waste products of metabolism in cells and in interstitial fluid.
Osmosis and diffusion are passive - no energy is required from the organism.A  Active transport requires the expenditure of energy. In the first part of the nephron after the Bowmana€™s capsule, called the proximal tubuleA  (see below), many of these molecules are a€?pumpeda€? back into the blood vessels as they wrap around the tubule.A  This process requires energy because the materials must pass against a diffusion gradient. The material collected in the Bowmana€™s capsule then passes into the proximal tubule where selective (active) reabsorption of all the glucose, amino acids, vitamins and hormones occurs.A A  Most of the mineral ions and water are also reabsorbed here.

It is important to keep the volume and salt concentration of blood at a constant level.A  The hormones aldosterone and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) control blood volume and salt concentration.
You will know that tea and coffee increase the amount of urine produced - they are diuretics.A  ADH and aldosterone do the opposite - they reduce the volume of urine produced by the kidney.
2.Do the same amount of work as usual and keep up your social life but tolerate the lower assessment ranking and criticisms you are bound to get? Organisms that live in aquatic environments have the same a€?choicea€?.A A  If the water becomes more or less salty than usual, they can either work hard to maintain homeostasis or they can tolerate the change (and compensate in some way - just like you might keep a low profile). Freshwater fish have the opposite problem - water tends to move into their cells by osmosis and minerals tend to diffuse out.A  As a result, to help overcome these problems, freshwater fish produce large volumes of very dilute urine. This dot point will be (has been) covered in practical lessons.A A  Refer to your Practical Record Book. The leaves of Banksia serrata have a thick cuticle (Cu), tough sclerencyma (tough support tissue Sl) and most obviously, stomates in deep pits which have many hairs.A A  The hairs slow the movement of air and hence reduce the rate of water loss from the pits and hence from the stomates. Laser therapy can be used any time a patient needs a non-invasive procedure for the control of pain, when conventional therapies have been ineffective, or when the acceleration of healing from injuries is desired.Is Laser Therapy Safe?A Laser therapy has been successfully used around the world for over 30+ years, with no reported long-term or irreversible side effects. Coplanar symmetric and asymmetric electron impact ionization studies from the 1b1 state of H2O at low to intermediate impact energies. The experimental data show a wide variation in the cross section over this range of energies.
These ionizing collisions are important in a wide range of different areas, ranging from plasma physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, medical and biological processes involving low energy electrons through to the study of high voltage discharges.
The scattered electron is then detected in time correlated coincidence with either the electron ejected during ionization, or with the resulting ion. This is usually accomplished by determining a cross section that is five fold differential in angle and energy. In most cases, this means that an averaging over the orientation of the target must be included for theory to compare with experimental results. This energy region (from threshold to ~200eV) is important as it is here that the cross section for ionization is largest. The ionization potential from these ground ro-vibrational states is usually less defined than for atomic targets, due to the associated Franck-Condon overlap between the potential energy curves of the neutral molecules and the resulting ions. This apparatus is described in detail on other web pages on this fileserver, and has been designed to operate in the energy regime from ~10eV to ~300eV.
In this configuration, the energies selected for the scattered and ejected electrons were equal.
The inner diameter of this flask was 9mm, and the outside diameter was 12.7mm, so that a standard swaged fitting could be used. This was accomplished using a Newport model 325 temperature controller, which supplied drive current to the TEC.
This proved invaluable, as it was then possible to continuously monitor the background gases in the chamber during operation. In this example, the analyzers were set to pass electrons of energy 20eV, and a symmetric geometry was chosen with thetaa = thetab = 45A°. Over this period of time, the filament current driving the cathode had to be steadily decreased, probably since the water vapour within the vacuum chamber slowly reduced the diameter of the filament.
The data is normalized to unity at thetaa = thetab = theta = 45A°, since the results have not been placed on an absolute scale. Results were taken in symmetric coplanar and non-coplanar geometries, with both equal and non-equal outgoing electron energies.
The human body, and other biological material comprise of ~80% water, which makes it an ideal test case to investigate processes occurring in the body. These models are an active area of research since the observation that high energy radiation that is used to treat cancers also liberates many low energy electrons, causing additional damage to cell DNA. Knowledge of the collision dynamics of low energy electrons with biological systems is hence needed, so as to develop robust models of these processes.
In such experiments the energy and momenta of the outgoing electrons are measured, giving a five fold differential cross section. In this regime these processes must be considered on an equal basis, and so the complexity of the interactions means that theoretical studies have mainly been limited to atomic targets. This contrasts to atoms which have a single nuclear scattering centre, and which can hence be described using a spherical basis.
A further challenge arises since the experiments cannot, at present, align the molecules prior to the collision, so the models must consider the random orientation of the targets for accurate comparison. The majority of data is recorded in a coplanar geometry, where the incident and two outgoing electrons are in the same plane, and were conducted at a higher incident energy than the studies presented here.
The symmetry of the 2py oxygen atomic orbital, representing the lone pair of electrons on the oxygen atoms, prevents it from hybridizing with the H atomic orbital, leaving the molecular 1b1 HOMO orbital essentially atomic like, and therefore symmetric.
However, the orientation averaged molecular orbital used in the theoretical calculation is a bad approximation for that state given the cancellations due to the orbital symmetry. The molecular orbital used in the model therefore should not suffer from the same cancellation problem during the orientational averaging procedure. This apparatus is fully computer controlled and computer optimized, allowing it to operate continuously without user intervention.
A coplanar geometry (psi = 0A?) is defined when all three electrons are in the detection plane. The angular resolution of the apparatus is estimated as A±3A°, based on geometric considerations of the electrostatic lenses at those energies. Several freeze-pump-thaw cycles were performed using a salted ice slurry bath, to remove dissolved gas impurities from the water prior to admission into the scattering chamber.
Over time the emission current from the filament dramatically increased, when a constant current was delivered to the filament.
The data were normalized to a collection time of 1000sec for each measurement, and up to 30 sweeps of the detection plane were used to produce statistically significant results.
The overall shape of the TDCS measured at corresponding energies in a previous study of the 1b1 state are qualitatively similar, however the 1b1 state shows a second peak in the binary region emerging at higher energies that is not observed in the 3a1 state.
PCI would also be expected to shift the recoil peak towards xi = 90A°, although this cannot be confirmed in the data. This agreement diminishes as the energy increases, which is unexpected since the MDW model is usually more accurate at higher energies. The TDCS measured in the perpendicular plane is almost constant over all analyzer angles, which is very different to what is observed for atomic targets.
The progression in both models shows a decrease in cross section from psi = 0A° to 45A°, after which the intensity once again increases.
There also appears to be a narrowing in the main binary peak as the asymmetry increases, with a new shoulder appearing around xi = 60A°. This contrasts markedly with the calculations, which predict triple peaks in the perpendicular plane that change magnitude only marginally with the asymmetry. This discrepancy is seen both for equal energy and for non-equal energy data, which have been taken in coplanar and perpendicular geometries. For electrons to emerge in this geometry they must undergo multiple scattering including scattering from the nucleus of the target, and so this provides a highly sensitive test for scattering theories. In these experiments a single electron of well defined momentum impacts with a target in the interaction region, resulting in target ionization and a scattered and ejected electron which emerge after the interaction has taken place. Our (e,2e) apparatus can access a wide range of geometries from a coplanar geometry, where the incident, scattered and ejected electrons all occupy the same plane, through to the perpendicular geometry, where the scattered and ejected electrons emerge in a plane orthogonal to the incident electron trajectory (figure 1). In this regime the probability of single ionization is a maximum, and so it is here that most ionizing collisions with electrons occur in nature.
Low energy electron ionization has also been attributed to the production of DNA damage in biological tissue, and so it is important to understand these collisions at a fundamental level to describe the physics of these processes. The helium results are reproduced from previous studies carried out in Manchester, re-presented here for completeness. By choosing the analyser residual energy to pass electrons around the selector, a channel electron multiplier detects electrons of the specified energy for subsequent amplification and counting. In the perpendicular plane, only the mutual angle phi = xi1 + xi2 is relevant, where xi1, xi2 are as shown in figure 1. The orbital angular momentum of each electron is hence zero, with a momentum distribution that peaks around zero a.u.
The configuration of the 10 electrons in neon is 1s22s22p6, whereas argon has 18 electrons occupying a configuration [Ne]3s23p6. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Helium.txt.
Experimental results for the ionization of helium in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 3eV to 80eV above the ionization potential for this target. This is considered to be due to the dominance of post-collisional interactions (PCI) between the outgoing electrons, which drives electrons emerging with equal energies from the interaction region asymptotically towards opposite directions. At ~50eV excess energy the three lobes have equal amplitudes, whereas at higher energies the outer lobes dominate.
The DWBA theory most easily allows the different processes involved in the interaction to be switched on and off, and this has explained the origin of these lobes. This process requires the momentum of the incident electron to be exactly matched by the momentum of the bound electron, with both electrons moving in opposite directions prior to the interaction. In this case, since the particles have equal mass and energy, they emerge from the interaction region at a mutual angle of 90A° & 270A° as observed.
It is therefore clear that further work is needed to fully describe the ionization reaction, even for a simple target like helium.
The lowest energy studied was 5eV above the IP, with six measurements being taken up to 50eV above the IP as shown.
Experimental results for the ionization of neon in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 5eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target.
The width for this peak in neon is ~120A°, which is broader than ~80A° for the same outgoing electron energy in helium. As the energy is raised to 10eV above the IP, the broad single peak seen at the lowest energy increases in width, and develops a flat structure at the peak. However, at higher energies the mechanisms proposed for helium ionization described above would be expected to produce similar structures in all targets that have a central ionic core. The calculated atomic radius of argon (71pm) is however significantly larger than that for helium (31pm) or neon (38pm) due to the n=3 shell being occupied. Experimental results for the ionization of argon in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 2eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. The lowest energy studied was 2eV above the IP, the data at this energy having poor statistics due to experimental difficulties working with argon at this energy. This minimum flattens at 10eV above the IP and rapidly evolves into a clear peak 15eV above the IP.
The results further indicate that the use of a A”frozen-coreA• approximation is unlikely to be accurate in any theory attempting to emulate these data.
The physical size of krypton (88pm) is slightly larger than argon due to occupation of this shell, and due to closed occupation of the 4s and 4p shells. Experimental results for the ionization of krypton in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 2eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target.
Ionization of krypton no longer shows the dominance of PCI as predicted by Wannier, since there is now a central minimum at 180A°. This central peak is not as significant in krypton compared to the side lobes, and by 30eV above the IP is once again diminishing. It also appears that the variation in cross section as a function of energy follows a similar pattern for each of these targets. A coincidence energy loss spectrum is shown in figure 7 to illustrate this separation at an incident electron energy 10eV above the IP for this target.
The results were taken from 2eV above the IP to 70eV above the IP for this target, so as to establish the variation in the cross section that is observed. At the lowest energy 2eV above the IP, a clear two-peak structure is observed which is similar to that observed from krypton.
The results at higher energies are surprising, as the mechanism that produces the central peak with the electrons moving opposite each other is clearly dominating all other scattering processes. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Xenon2.txt. These data indicate that fine structure in the final ion state does not play a significant role in the ionization process, since the comparison between this data and that reproduced from figure 8 shows that the shapes of the cross section for each energy are very similar.
This contrasts to the coplanar geometry most often adopted, where the dominant scattering mechanism is usually a single binary scattering between electrons, resulting in a high probability that forward scattering occurs. The results presented here will hence further test these models for heavier targets, so as to elucidate the scattering mechanisms that result in the observations. Argon, krypton and xenon also all evolve a central peak as the incident electron energy increases from near threshold, which cannot be due to PCI. The side lobes observed previously in the perpendicular plane have been attributed to a binary collision between the incident electron elastically scattered into this plane and a bound electron. It is hence likely that the results for neon, argon and krypton are also not significantly altered by these effects, even though the spectrometer was not capable of resolving their individual ion states. CK would like to thank the University of Manchester for providing a PhD scholarship while carrying out this work. The WV5 contains a phono stage (MM and MC) and a fully balanced line stage as a single integrated design. Elliot has reported that listening sessions of the WV compared to his Counterpoint preamps, stock or upgraded, result in the WV outperforming them all. Elliot was preparing for a new product line that would take his amplifier designs to a new level. I looked for such a tube line stage a few years ago, and contacted some manufactures to find this feature for the HT system that I have in another room.
One not-so-obvious benefit here is that the amps do not need to be powered off if the user wants to power down the WV.
With the exception of a few ICa€™s, nearly all other components auditioned in my system have retained the portrayal of space and decays to some level of acceptance. Each upgrade here was a refinement from the previous with greater tonal coherency, a lower noise floor and clearly more retrieval of information. With the Bent, there was a presence in the upper octaves that was very much lacking with the Callisto.
The APL Denon player has much more treble extension than the Io Sig, but I needed to hear LPs. The Io Siga€™s strong fundamental was still prominent but there was now some a€?available timea€? for the notes to breathe and show some of their own presence rather than to immediately be smeared by the subsequent note.
It was not in the loudness level of the tones but rather a a€?dimensionala€? signature of the tones.
Elliot discusses in his website, the stock tubes in the WV are a good starting point but the WVa€™s performance will be significantly improved through the efforts of the customer to try many tubes. I was not surprised to learn that the Amperex Bugle Boy rectifier tube had clarity and dynamics compared to the other 3 rectifier tubes I had on hand for this evaluation.
And there is this new experience of depth with sounds so beautifully placed throughout the region behind the speakers.
That top-tiered TVCa€™s are selling for a few hundred to a few thousand $$ makes them an unbeatable choice for someone not willing or not quite ready to jump in to the costly arena of the great active preamps. Our Laser has been cleared by the FDA for the treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and other joint and muscle problems. Theoretical approximations accurate at high impact energies can no longer be applied, and so there are stringent demands on theory which must be satisfied for accurate comparison with data.
The (e,2e) coincidence signal for molecules may then have a correspondingly lower yield compared to an atomic target where the ionization potential is well defined.
A pictorial representation of the water molecule in the 1b1 state is given in figure 1.1 below. The spectrometer allows measurements to be conducted from a coplanar geometry through to the perpendicular plane, although in the present measurements only a coplanar geometry was used. The analyzer pass energy was then set to measure electrons so that the overall resolution of the coincidence signal (as measured using a helium atomic target) was 600meV.
The pump removed background gas from the flask, and extracted dissolved gases held in the water.
The flask was secured to the cold side of a 50mm x 50mm thermo-electric cooler (TEC) using a large aluminium block, and the assembly (flask + block) was insulated from the air using Styrofoam. The 1b1, 3a1 and 1b2 states are clearly resolved in this spectrum, which is fitted to three Gaussian peaks to ascertain the widths of the spectral profiles. These data were measured in a coplanar geometry with outgoing electron energies of 20eV detected at theta1 = theta2 = 55A°. Figure 1.5(a) shows the lowest energy results, with an incident energy 15eV above the ionization threshold.
Molecular wave-functions are generally not spherical, the nuclei within the molecule providing multiple scattering centres.
This becomes a computationally intensive problem, and so approximations are usually made to allow these calculations to become tractable. In this study the analyzers were always kept in a symmetric configuration with xi1 = xi2 = xi. A needle valve at the entrance to the scattering chamber controlled the flow of target H2O vapour into the interaction region. This indicates that an H2O target molecular beam of high purity was created, as confirmed from binding energy spectral studies.
This increase in emission current was often more than a factor of 2 within a 24 hour period. The solid line shows results from the Molecular Distorted Wave Born Approximation (MDW) while the dashed line was generated from the Molecular 3-body Distorted Wave Approximation (M3DW). This trend is much clearer in the present data compared to that from the 1b1 state measured at higher energies. For the theoretical model, the coplanar TDCS has also been normalized to unity for both MDW and M3DW models.
These measurements were taken in a series of symmetric non-coplanar geometries with outgoing electron energies of 10eV.
The M3DW model follows a trend that is closer to the experimental data, although neither model accurately predicts the results that have been obtained.
The theoretical calculations are also shown, where once again the data and theory have been normalized to unity at the peak in the coplanar geometry.
The minimum around 90A° in this geometry does not change substantially as the energy sharing changes. Hence it is possible to accumulate a full range of DCS measurements over all scattering angles using this spectrometer.
The incident electron can move from the coplanar geometry (psi = 0A°) to the perpendicular plane (psi = 90A°), the outgoing electrons being measured in the detection plane. The shape of the DCS for a given energy and target is then of importance, for comparison with theory.
This contrasts with the other noble gas targets whose levels are 1S0, but whose valence electrons occupy closed p-orbitals. By contrast, the bound electrons in both of the heavier targets also occupy d-orbitals, with a correspondingly more complex momentum distribution. As the outgoing electron energy is lowered, the post collisional interaction time increases, resulting in an increased flux in the 180A° direction.
At excess energies over 80eV above the IP the central lobe has virtually disappeared, leaving only the two outer lobes in the DCS. In this case, momentum conservation requires the outgoing electrons to move in opposite directions (180A°) in the perpendicular plane. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Neon.txt. At 15eV above the IP this flat structure has evolved into two peaks with 180A° now being a local minimum. The static polarization of argon is eight times larger than for helium, so scattering effects due to polarization of the target are expected to be significantly larger than for neon or helium.
The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Argon.txt. This central peak is visible for incident energies up to 40eV above the IP, until at the highest energy (50eV above the IP) this has once again disappeared, the side peaks having also moved outwards compared to at the lower energies. The relative magnitude of this minimum compared to the peaks around 110A° & 250A° is however larger than for higher incident energies, so there is probably a contribution to the cross section at this angle due to PCI.
This central peak has virtually disappeared 40eV above the IP and there is no evidence of a peak 50eV above the IP. It might hence be expected that the cross section for the heaviest target (xenon) would follow a similar trend to that of argon and krypton. The data are fitted to two Gaussians, showing that contamination from each ionic state is <10% when the spectrometer is set to each peak in the cross section.
The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Xenon1.txt. This indicates that PCI is once again not the dominant mechanism producing the cross section at this energy. The relative magnitude of this peak compared to the lobes at 110A° and 250A° then increases in magnitude as the energy increases, as with krypton and argon. This result indicates that fine structure does not appear to play a significant role in electron collision processes at these energies. The marked contrast between results for helium and all other noble gas targets demand that these models carefully consider the intricacies of the interaction, since a simple extension of the basic physical ideas presented for helium cannot explain the experimental data. For argon and krypton the relative magnitude of this peak increases with respect to the side lobes until it reaches a maximum, then decreases to become insignificant at the highest energies measured. This process has always been considered as the dominant mechanism at higher incident energies, yet the new results presented here indicate these ideas need to be revisited for this heavy target. Only the power transformer is in a separate chassis; this is less than half the size of the main chassis. Beyond this, there are options to upgrade the Cardas RCA jacks to WBT, upgrade to the new top-level Vishay TX2575 resistors and a silver-wired umbilical. I was unsuccessful to find such a product and thus stayed with a solid-state product for the HT setup. With the volume all the way down, the WV in Standby, and then powering down the WV, there was a faint buzz through the speakers for a few seconds. But with regular interruptions, being able to silence the system in an instant would be nice.
However, I have dismissed far too many preamps and line stages as they failed in this key parameter.
But unlike any preamp change before, the Aria WV line stage (and phono stage) has made it clear to me what I have missed up to this point. I could still hear the smearing but the benefits of this new silence between the notes were becoming clear. After hearing the WV for only a short amount of time, returning to the Bent made me only want to get the WV back into the system. The difference was all about the tonal signature of each instrument from its initial sound through the follow-on. And it was only a matter of seconds coming off the Io Sig and into the SUT MC input of the WV, that I realized it was not only the WVa€™s line stage here to redefine performance. The one tube that he has regularly stated to make a major improvement is the power supply rectifier tube. Out of these, the Amperex 6922 PQ pinched waist tubes were my favorite as they have been in the CAT 6922 sockets. A CD getting lots of play here has been the Mike and the Mechanics, a€?Beggar on a Gold Beacha€?. A friend of mine who heard this many times here always commented that something was wrong even though it sounded good. This is plenty good for driving cables with no more than 1200pF capacitance and power amps with no less than 50K ohm imput impedance (higher is always better).
It has successfully treated chronic and acute pain, wounds, sports injuries, and more.How does laser light heal?Low-level lasers supply energy to the body in the form of non-thermal photons of light. The angles that could be accessed in this configuration ranged from thetaa = thetab = 25A° through to thetaa = thetab = 135A°. The acceptance angle of the analyzer lenses was A±3A°, as set by input apertures at the entrance to the electrostatic lenses.
This de-gassing procedure was carried out for ~2 hours before the water sample was used in the experiment, to ensure that the proportion of dissolved gases in the water was minimized.

The hot side of the TEC was attached using thermal conducting paste to an aluminium heatsink to which a 12VDC boxer fan was secured, so that heat from the TEC could be dissipated efficiently. If this ratio reduced, the experiment was halted and the water changed to a newly de-gassed sample. In this case, the 1b1 state was found to have a width of 620meV, which is comparable to that for an atomic target. The contrast between the maximum and minimum in the cross section increases as the energy increases. As the energy increases further to 95eV above threshold (figure 1.5(c)), the double peak in the forward direction is still visible but the magnitudes of the peaks are now different. The purity of this beam was monitored regularly using the mass spectrometer throughout this study.
To ensure constant incident electron beam current throughout the measurements as required, the filament current was hence also placed under computer control. The experimental and theoretical data has been independently normalised to unity at each energy.
Dr Kate Nixon thanks the British Council for funding under the research exchange programme, and the Royal Society for a Newton International Fellowship. For the data presented here, the perpendicular plane was chosen, so only the mutual angle phi = xi1 + xi2 is relevant. The combined coincidence energy resolution of the unselected energy electron gun and the two analysers is ~1eV.
Krypton has 36 electrons and has a ground state configuration [Ar]3d104s24p6, while xenon has 54 electrons with a ground state configuration [Kr]4d105s25p6. This type of threshold behaviour was first predicted by Wannier and was later considered by Peterkop, Rau and others to explain results in this regime. This mechanism was considered as being the main reason for the peak at 180A° until the work of Madison and co-workers in 2009 showed the probability of this occurring was low. As the energy increases further, the peaks separate in angle, and the minimum at 180A° deepens.
This angular shift of the side lobes is consistent with PCI playing a continuing role in the interaction, since as the energy increases the effects of PCI diminish, and the electrons move away from 180A° as is observed.
The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Krypton.txt.
However, unlike krypton and argon whose central peak reaches a maximum and then decreases, the central peak in xenon continues to dominate the cross section as the energy rises. Further, the frozen core approximation often adopted in these models which treat all non-ionized electrons as spectators does not appear valid for the heavier targets when compared to neon, even thought the outer valence electrons have the same p-type character. The Aria amps got little press coverage but from what I had read about them, and owning an upgraded NPS400 myself, I had a good feeling that they could be special. An umbilical cable of customer-specified length (typically 6 feet) and captive at the transformer-chassis connects to the audio chassis with a 9-pin connector. I still have to wonder what the sound of the WV might have been with the beefy PS design but the added reliability of the simpler design has its merit as well. The model reviewed here is the WV5 XL (line and phono model) with the TX2575 resistors, the silver-wired umbilical, and the remote volume control.
He also notes that rolling the power supply tubes, particularly the rectifier, will significantly increase the WVa€™s performance as well.
This a€?featurea€? is great for tube-rolling tests without the need to power down the amps. However, adding a stepper motor is one thing; adding additional switching or circuitry to accommodate a muting function would likely compromise the performance that Mr.
The BAT brought on a different presentation with the music now at the plane of (and behind) the speakers whereas the ARC projected the sound more out into the room.
There was clearly a compromise for which one set of priorities had to be chosen over another. When a Bent TX-102 TVC (with the rare silver transformers) was available in late 2007 at a local dealer, I took it home to play. Even with the Io Siga€™s softened trebles and average dynamic capabilities, with the WV line stage there was a greater hint of massed strings as a collection of stringed instruments rather than simply a a€?beautifula€? sound. Low-level detail in the music by other musicians was now coming through that had been previously masked. I never had the opportunity to own his previous top models, but I feel mighty fortunate to own the WV.
Light is transmitted through the skin's layers (the dermis, epidermis and the subcutaneous tissue or tissue fat under the skin) at all wavelengths in the visible range; however, light waves in the near infrared ranges penetrate the deepest of all light waves in the visible spectrum.
For asymmetric geometries, thetaa is fixed at 22A° while analyzer 2 is swept around the scattering plane. A glass flask was used for this procedure as this allowed the process to be visually monitored.
This indicates that the energetic effects of ro-vibrational transitions from the ground state to the ion state are negligible for this state.
Further checks were made regularly on the energy of the incident electron beam by monitoring the coincidence energy spectrum (figure 1.3), and regular monitoring of the partial pressures of the gases in the vacuum chamber.
A second peak occurs in the backscatter region, however the maximum of this peak appears to occur at thetab < 225A°. For non-coplanar geometries the electron gun is lifted out of the plane, and is defined by the angle psi. They proposed a triple scattering mechanism to describe this peak, where the incident electron first scatters elastically from the nucleus so as to enter the detection plane, followed by a binary inelastic collision with a bound electron, followed by elastic scattering of one of the electrons back from the nucleus. This trend continues up to the highest energy which was possible to measure (70eV above the IP), where the central peak is seen to be broad with a width ~100A°. It is hence likely that these assumptions will need to be relaxed to accurately model the data. But for a system configured with balanced sources, I would think at least 2 balanced inputs would be neededa€¦.for a digital player and a tuner or balanced external phono stage.
The result was altogether different: the smearing and grain that I had been accustomed to hearing for so many years was gone. The Io Sig renders the fundamental of notes in the mids like no other phono stage I have heard.
I was aware of the cable upgrades (done months ago) to bring on greater resolution to the system, particularly in percussion, but the WV took this to a new level of refinement over its peers. But the WV was altogether in a different league as it was not only about upper-frequency coverage but also in the purity of the delivery of the trebles, and the all-important mids as well.
These tones decayed several seconds from behind the speakers as if the speakers were much further into the room.
But it was the SUT input and the WVa€™s phono stage that I was to use for 2 months for all subsequent listening sessions for the line stage and power supply tube-rolling efforts. Evaluating many tubes in 2 of the other 3 PS sockets allowed me to find a combination of PS tubes that worked incredibly well with the Amperex rectifier tube. One interesting note was that I changed the ECC99 tube in the APL Denon player with a 7062 and I was stunned by the benefits. Perhaps this is what this new experience refers to but I have owned some of the preamps and amps that got high praise of transparency. When low level laser light waves penetrate deeply into the skin, they optimize the immune responses of our blood. There is an offset of 1eV in the position of the peaks which is due to contact potentials in the spectrometer. The full line represents a three-Gaussian fit, whereas the dotted lines show the individual Gaussians from this fit, illustrating the degree of separation measured with the current energy resolution. The results in the backward direction also have structure, with a minimum occurring when thetab ~ 250A°. This complex mechanism was found to emulate the cross section more closely compared to the single scattering process originally envisaged. As for all measurements in this study, the DCS must be zero for the electrons emerging at the same angle (0A°, 360A°), due to post collisional interactions between outgoing electrons of equal energy.
At all energies greater than 40eV above the IP, the outer peaks seen in all other targets have disappeared. This blog has been removed which is unfortunate as it gave the reader an opportunity to follow the design decisions for the power supply, audio circuit, volume control, comparison of several step-up transformers, choice of passive parts, etc. Also, if the WV were to be used in an HT setup, it would likely be part of a top-tier HT setup, and these are often balanced systems as well.
Harmonics, ambiance and decays were there like I had not before heard from an audio system.
And all subsequent preamp models have had this presentation back at the plan of the speakers. But this comes at a cost with the follow-on of the notesa€™ tonal signature highly truncated.
Still the trebles were a bit weak (due to the Io Sig) compared to piano music that I tried on the APL CD player but I was hearing musical details with the Io Sig like I had not before with the Bent or the Callisto Sig.
I would bring in the APL player to confirm the tube differences I heard when changing line stage or power supply tubes. I now had a nice refinement over the stock PS tubes in terms of midrange smoothness, dynamics and treble clarity. Perhaps the colorations from before added to the sense of what I liked about the Callisto Sig with its strengths clearly coming through in the bottom half of the range. After playing a few tracks 2-3 times and the system powered on for nearly 3 hours, I put the Bent into the system. And the WV is in such a different performance level than those that I will continue to be cautious of the use of transparency. To pay $8k for a line stage at this performance level is a bargain with all the $15-20k line stages coming out now. Very little contamination is expected from neighbouring orbitals in the measured TDCS for the 3a1 state.
But two tubes here took the WV to yet another level beyond the Amperex 6922 PQ with one clearly being the top performer in smoothness, harmonic structure and dynamic contrasts without adding any anomalies that the Amperex 6922 did not have.
As outstanding as the Callisto Sig had been for me, the WV is altogether in a whole different league of performance. But a return to the WV and now the decays that fade are those from the fundamental AND the harmonics. A jump to the Bent and the sound is beautiful, but there is no presence of vibrating strings.
And here we have a full function preamp whose phono stage, even with SUTs, significantly outperforming phono stages I have owned that cost from $4-8k.
It is a scientific fact that light transmitted to the blood in this way has a positive effect through-out the whole body, supplying vital oxygen and energy to every cell.A What to Expect During a Laser Therapy Treatment Sessiona€?For most people, laser therapy is quite passive. Elliot, I am sure any customer could have these additional connections made to a WV upon order. I compared the Callisto and Bent for several weeks until I passed the Callisto onto a new owner.
After the first night with the WV, I concluded there was one effect taking place that was a new experience to mea€¦.in a word, purity.
And this was the first night with the WVa€¦with its stock EH tubes in the line and phono stages and stock PS tubes as well. The WV has this same purity that is far beyond any other line stage to ever be tried in my system. And it was mighty coincidental that the tube to become the reference was also Amperex: the 7062 PQ pinched waist.
No doubt the latest Callisto version addresses some of the shortcomings for which the WV excels. It gives a sense of far greater dynamics but I think it is more to do with the notesa€™ loudness levels lasting longer as the tones shift to the higher frequencies. Some patients have reported a slight tingling or tapping in a nerve or along a nerve pathway. The temptation for me to swap those tubes was strong but I needed to hear the WVa€™s sonic signature for a few days.
And this gives each sound that more distinct dimensional signature as it decays in one direction across the room or to the rear for a longer period of time and if there is nothing stopping it. A final return to the WV and the result is layers upon layers of harmonic structured details with the decays seeing no boundaries. When you think of the added cost of another power cord and interconnect for separate phono and line stages, the WVa€™s value is even more apparent.
And I followed Mr Elliota€™s suggested burn-in process for two weeks with the CD player driving the phono stagea€™s MM input during the night and day for 2 weeks to achieve 300 hours.
The Bent and WV have nearly identical bass extension but with the Bent, there is a bit of bass a€?thumpynessa€? vs. And add to this the possibility of custom design work and modifications, which is unheard of with all the top preamp manufacturers out there, the WV customer has more options than ever before.
But for the most part, the treatment, which may last from 15 to 30 minutes, is not noticed at all. Just as a few tubes were able to take the WV to top-end performance, a few, most notably the 6H30, let none of the WVa€™s capability through. Following (and even during) a laser therapy session, approximately 75-80% of patients being treated can notice an immediate improvement in their condition.
This will depend primarily on the type of condition and the length of time the condition has been present.
Once again, the number of treatments depends upon the severity of the condition and its duration. There are some conditions that will never completely resolve but can be helped and maintained with laser therapy.
Cells and tissues that are compromised have been shown to have a significantly higher response to LLLT irradiation than normal healthy structures. Cell membranes, mitochondria and damaged neurological structures exhibit less than optimal metabolism and stasis conditions.
Multiple studies have demonstrated that under these compromised conditions, the introduction of energy transfers response and the resultant enhancement of metabolic activity pronounced in biologically challenged cells, thus selectively targeting compromised cells, in reality, these cells exhibit a lowered reaction threshold to the effects of laser light and are more easily triggered to energy transfer responses. The result is that LLLT has a significant effect on damaged cells and tissues while normative biological constituents are appreciably less affected.1The cellular cascade effect a€” precipitated by the actions of enzymes and having a significant response in the presence of LLLT a€” has a significant impact on cellular and tissue function.
Since a considerable number of the reactive proteins that respond to laser stimulation are enzymes, laser light effects are amplified in the stimulation of beneficial enzymes and depression of deleterious enzymes.A At the cellular level, cytochromes can be defined as electron or proton-transfer proteins that act as energy producers for human biological functions. Both of the cytochrome enzymes, Cytochrome c Oxydase and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) have been found to be particularly reactive to laser photon stimulation. The particular affinity of these and other photo-reactive enzymes to accelerate their functions in the presence of LLLT provides critical increases in the molecule ATP and Nitric Oxide (NO) which enhances cellular activity & repairAlthough the various actions of LLLT in regards to inflammation, pain and healing have been separated categorically here for the purpose of process identification, their interactions are not so easily distinguished.
In response to LLLT, the reduction in inflammation, pain and healing time all compliment each other and many of the processes are either simultaneous or overlapping.Acute Inflammation ReductionImmediately after an acute injury event, the body, in response to the disruption of the integrity of vascular, soft tissue, begins a series of biological responses.
Injury responsive components such as Mast cells, Bradykinins and Prostaglandins are activated along with the vascular responses and cellular membrane reactions. All of these combined processes and events are represented by the symptoms of edema, inflammation, pain and functional debility.
LLLT can be effective in mediating both the symptoms and the underlying inflammatory process by the following actions:1. Stabilization of cellular membrane a€” Ca+ +, Na+ and K+ concentrations as well as the proton gradient over the mitochondria membrane are positively in This is accomplished in part by the production of beneficial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) wherein triplet oxygen molecules absorb laser light pro ducing singlet oxygen molecules. These ROS modulate intracellular Ca+ + concentrations and laser therapy improves Ca+ + uptake in the mitochondria.2,3,4A 2. ATP production and synthesis are significantly enhanced, contributing to cel lular repair, reproduction and functional ability. Laser stimulation of Cytochrome c Oxidase, a chromophore found on the mitochondria of cells, plays a major role in this rapid increase in production and synthesis of ATP.3A 3.
Vasodilatation is stimulated via Histamine, Nitric Oxide (NO) and Serotonin increases, resulting in reduction of ischemia and improved perfusion.
Laser-mediated vasodilatation enhances the transport of nutrients and oxygen to the damaged cells and facilitates repair and removal of cellular debris.5,6A 4.
Beneficial acceleration of leukocytic activity results in enhanced removal of non-viable cellular and tissue components, allowing for a more rapid repair and regeneration process.A 5. Increased Prostaglandin synthesis, particularly in conversion of the prostaglandins PGG2 and PGH2 periossides into prostaglandin PGI2.
PGI2 (Prostacyclin), has a vasodilating and anti-inflammatory action with some attributes similar to Cox-I and Cox-II inhibitors.7A  6.
In addition to increasing the number of lymphocytes, laser irradiation mediates the action of both lymphatic helper T-cells and suppressor T-cells in the inflammatory response.
Along with laser modification of beta cell activity, the entire lymphatic response is beneficially affected by LLLT.98.
Both blood capillaries and lymphatic capillaries have been clinically documented to undergo significant increase and regeneration in the presence of laser irradiation. The resulting improvement in circulation and perfusion enhances all repair and healing processes. Laser induced increases in NO and the growth factors a€” in particular cytokine INF-g a€” are contributory to this process.10,11A 9. Areas of inflammation typically demonstrate temperature variations with the inflamed portion having an elevated temperature. Laser stimulated increases in cytokine SOD levels interact with other anti-inflammatory processes to accelerate the termination of the inflammatory process. This rapid initiation of therapy in acute inflammation will assist in limiting the scope and duration of the inflammatory event and minimize the pain and severity associated with it.While the treatment regimen and course of therapy may be modified in chronic situations, the physiological responses and interactions remain consistent.
Chronic conditions may require longer treatment times.Pain ReductionThe unique pain reduction abilities of LLLT have been exten documented in numerous clinical studies and medical papers.
While there remains much to learn in re pain reduction characteristics, there is a wealth of knowledge currently available to demonstrate the effectiveness of laser therapy in this regard.Because the pain amelioration capabilities of LLLT are ac combination of local and systemic actions a€” utilizing enzymatic, chemical and physical interventions a€” the process is very complex. However, there is a preponderance of medical evidence that justifies a conclusion that effective pain reductions can be achieved via LLLT. The localized and systemic in-crease of this endogenous peptide after LLLT irradiation has been clinically reported in multiple studies with subsequent pain reductions.A  2. The pain blocking effect of LLLT can be pronounced, particularly in low velocity neural pathways, such as non-mylenated afferent axons from nociceptors. Laser irradiation suppresses the exci tation of these fibers in the afferent sensory pathway.13,14A  3. As a neurotransmitter it is essential for normal nerve cell action potential in impulse transmission activity and, indirectly, the vasodilatation effect of NO can enhance nerve cell perfusion and oxygenation.A 4. Both compound muscle action potential (CMAP) values and nerve latency values have shown improvement with laser therapy.15A 5. Several studies have documented the ability of LLLT to induce axonal sprouting and some nerve regeneration in damaged nerve tis sues. Where pain sensation is being magnified due to nerve structure damage, cell regeneration and sprouting may assist in pain decrease.16,176. Since Bradykinins elicit pain by stimulating nociceptive afferents in the skin and viscera, mitigation of elevated levels through LLLT can result in pain re Kininase II, and increase in NO are considered the contributors to this Bradykinin decrease.A 7. By increasing the avail-able acetylcholine, LLLT help s in normalizing nerve signal trans-mission in the autonomic, somatic and sensory neural pathways.A 8. LLLT promotes normalization in Ca+ +, NA+ and K+ concentrations resulting in beneficial pain reduction results from these ion concentration shifts. Figure 2 presents a simplified representation of the effects of LLLT on pain improvement at the cellular level.Tissue HealingOne of the truly unique characteristics of LLLT is that it has the ability to actually promote and enhance healing, not just treat symptoms. The irradiation by low-level laser light accelerates and enhances healing activities carried out by the body.
LLLT can provide the following beneficial impacts in both open surface wounds and closed connective or soft tissue injuries as follows:1. LLLT accelerates macrophage activity in phagocytosis, growth factor secretion and stimulation of collagen synthesis.A 3. The significant angiogenesis that occurs with laser therapy promotes revascularization with subsequent improvement in perfusion and oxygenation. The beneficial synthesis active factor ability of keratinocytes are enhanced by proliferation secondary to LLLT.20A 6. Laser-stimulated acceleration of epithelial cell regeneration speeds up wound healing, minimizes scarring, and reduces infection opportunities.A 7.
Two to five fold increases in growth-phase-specific DNA synthesis in normal fibroblasts, mus cells irradiated with IR light are reported. Increases in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) secondary to IR light irradiation have also been reported.8.
Laser-in duced increases in NO, ATP and other compounds that stimulate differentiation into mature cells. Increased numbers of myofibroblasts, myofibrils, myotubes etc., as well as bone cell proliferation, have been clinically demonstrated with LLLT.
Satellite cells, the precursor cells in the process of muscle regeneration, show significant increase in proliferation when irradiated with LLLT.21,22,239. Governmental agencies such as NASA are currently using tech medical conditions in space applications. Olympic training facilities have just released state validate the growing acceptance in mainstream medicine for the medical efficacy of laser therapy as a viable, often superior therapeutic treatment modality.With over 200 clinical studies a€” many of which are double-blind, placebo-controlled a€” and in excess of 2000 published articles on LLLT, this innovative new technology has a well-documented research and application history.
Having grown far beyond its distant Institutional Review Board (IRB) and experimental treatment status, LLLT is now being considered a therapy of choice for many difficult pain management challenges such as fibromyalgia and myofascial pain.
He has served as manager for several biomedical design and service facilities and participated as lead researcher for biomedical devices involved in emergency cardiac care, warmed intravenous fluid therapy and laser therapy. Richard has participated in medical clinical trials for 15 years as a clinical trial analyst and contributing clinician.References1. Analysis in vitro of the cellular proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts with low level laser. In vivo study on mast cells behavior following low-intensity visible and near infrared laser radiation.
What is optimal dose, power density and timing for low level laser therapy in tendon injuries? Abstract from the 7th International Congress of European Medical Laser Association, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 2000.A 9. In vitro effects of low level laser irra diation at 660 nm on peripheral blood lymphocytes. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Wound healing process: influence of LLLT on the proliferation of fi broblasts and on the lymphatic regeneration.
Abstract from the 7th International Congress of European Medical Laser Association, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 2000.12. Diode laser irradiation selectively diminishes slow component of axonal volleys to dor sal roots from the saphenous nerve. Laser therapy as a new modali ty in the treatment of incomplete peripheral nerve in-juries: Prospective Clinical Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study.
Department of Neuro surgery, Rehabilitation and Physiotherapy, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. Abstract from the 7th International Congress of European Medical Laser Association, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 2000.16. Comparison of the low level laser therapy effects on cultured human gingival fibroblasts proliferation using different irradiance and same fluence.
Enhancement of the blood growth promoting activity after exposure of volun teers to visible and infrared polarized light. Low energy laser irradiation pro-motes the survival and cell cycle entry of skeletal muscle satellite cells. The biological ef fects of laser therapy and other modalities on con nective tissue repair processes.
Low level laser therapy of soft tissue injuries upon sport activities and traffic acci dents: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controled clinical study on 132 patients.

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