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From A to Z, GIS professionals, students and everyone with an interest can sharpen their GIS knowledge with these GIS dictionary definitions and meanings. Active Sensors: [Remote sensing] Active sensors illuminates its target and measures the reflected backscatter that returns back to the sensor. Adjacency: [geometry] Adjacency occurs when two objects share the same boundary and are next to or adjoining with a common side or vertex. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR): [Remote sensing] AVHRR is operated by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and collects infrared, visible and thermal images with an approximate 1 kilometer spatial resolution cell size.

Affine transformation: [geometry] An affine transformation changes points, polylines, polygons in a plane by scaling, rotating, skewing, or translating coordinates in two or three-dimensional spaces preserving points, straight lines and planes. Arc: [data structure] Arcs are lines or polygon boundaries, represented as a series of vertices or coordinate points.

ArcGIS: [software] ArcGIS is a GIS software package produced by the Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri) which allows you to collect, store, manage, visualize, export, analyze and map geographic data. American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII): [file format] ASCII uses a set of numbers between 0 and 255 for information storage and processing. Atmospheric window: [remote sensing] An atmospheric window are wavelengths at which electromagnetic radiation (sunlight) from the sun will penetrate the Earth’s atmosphere overall constricting these spectrum bands from reaching the Earth. Azimuth: [surveying] An azimuth is an angle between 0° and 360° measured clockwise from North. Base station: [surveying] A base station is a precisely surveyed location used as a fixed Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) recording station. Basemap: [cartography] A basemap is a background georeferenced image that gives a point of reference on a map. Bearing: [surveying] A bearing is a direction expressed as a geographic angle measured from a base line used in surveying and navigation. Benchmark: [surveying] Benchmarks are precisely surveyed points usually marked with a brass or metal disk in the ground. Bilinear interpolation: [mathematics] Bilinear interpolation is a technique for calculating values of a grid location based on four nearby grid cells. Boolean Algebra: [mathematics] Boolean algebra are conditions used to select features with a set of algebraic conditions. Buffer: [GIS processing] The buffer tool is a proximity function that creates a polygon at a set distance surrounding a selected feature or features. Bundle adjustment: [geometry] Bundle adjustment consists of simultaneously removing geometric distortions given a set of images of three dimensional points at different viewpoints.

Carrier-phase GPS: [surveying] Carrier-phase GPS signals are relatively slow but are very accurate to determine position on the ground.

Cartesian coordinate: [surveying] A Cartesian coordinate system specifies each point uniquely with a pair of numerical coordinates.

Cartography: [GIS dictionary] Cartography is the study and science of representing real-world entities on maps. Cartometry: [GIS dictionary] Cartometry is a division of cartography concerned with depicting objects with a high level of spatial accuracy. Centroid: [geometry] A centroid (or geometric center) is a central point of an area feature. Clip: [geometry] A clip is an overlay tool that involves clipping an input layer with the extent of a defined feature boundary. Coordinate Geometry (COGO): [editing] COGO is the entry of spatial coordinate data points, usually obtained from field survey equipment. Conformal Projection: [map projection] A conformal map projection preserves the correct shapes of small areas.

Conic Projection: [map projection] A conic projection uses a cone to develop its surface on a plane. Connectivity: [geometry] Connectivity is the representation of the connectedness of linear features when arcs share a common node. Continuous raster: [data structure] Continuous rasters are grid cells with gradually changing data.

Contour Line: [data structure] A contour line is a constant value for mapping any variable such as elevation and temperature maps. Control point: [coordinate system] Control points are XY locations known to have a high degree of accuracy. Coordinate Transformation: [coordinate system] A coordinate transformation is the conversion from a non-projected coordinate system to a coordinate system using a series of mathematical equations. Coordinates: [coordinate system] Coordinates are pairs (X, Y) or triplets (X, Y, Z) of values that are used to represent points and features on a two and three-dimensional space. Cubic Convolution Interpolation: [mathematics] Cubic convolution interpolation is similar to bilinear interpolation because it averages surrounding cells. Cylindrical Projection: [map projection] A cylindrical projection uses a cylinder to develop a plane surface on a map and can be equidistant, conformal and equal-area. Database Management System (DBMS): [data structure] A DBMS is a collection of tools that permits the entry, storage, input, output and organization of data. Database Schema: [data structure] A database schema is supported in relational database management systems (RDBMS) and acts as blueprints for how database entry will be constructed.

Developable Surface: [map projection] A developable surface (cylinders, cones, planes, etc) is the geometric shape that a map projection can be built on. Differential Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS): [surveying] Differential GNSS is a highly accurate (within centimeters) conventional surveying technique which uses a known location from a receiver to determine an unknown position. Digital Elevation Model (DEM): [GIS processing] A DEM is a bare earth elevation model representing the surface of the Earth.

Digital Line Graph (DLG): [file format] DLG is vector data format developed and distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Digital Orthophotos Quadrangle (DOQ): [file format] DOQ is a geometrically-corrected photograph produced by the USGS.

Digital Raster Graphics (DRG): [file format] DRG is a digital version map of USGS topographic maps. Digital Surface Model (DSM): [file format] A digital surface model is an elevation that includes the top of buildings, tree canopy, powerlines and other features above the bare earth.

Digital Terrain Model (DTM): [file format] DTM is a bare earth representation of the Earth’s surface that is augmented natural features such as ridges and breaklines. Digitize: [editing] When you digitize in a GIS, you are creating geographic computer-compatible stored data with lines, points and polygons in a spatial database.

Dissolve tool: [GIS processing] The dissolve tool is a common GIS processing task where boundaries are merged with neighboring boundaries based on common attribute values.

Easting: [coordinate system] Eastings refer to the x-axis (eastward) approximately parallel to lines of equal latitude commonly used in the Universal Transverse Mercator map projection. Electromagnetic (EM) Spectrum: [remote sensing] The EM spectrum refers to the range of energy wavelengths or frequencies from x-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave to radio waves. Ellipsoid: [surveying] Reference ellipsoids are mathematical models of the shape of the Earth with the major axis along the equatorial radius. Ellipsoid Height: [surveying] The ellipsoid height is the height measured from an ellipsoidal surface to a point on the surface of the Earth. Endlap: [remote sensing] Endlap is the overlap in aerial photographs from end-to-end between flight lines.

Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+): [remote sensing] ETM+ is a sensor equipped on Landsat-7 which generates images of the Earth in 8 spectral bands. Entity: [cartography] Entities represent real-world point, line or polygon features with a geographic location. Equal Interval Classification: [cartography] The equal interval classification method divides attribute values into equal size ranges. Earth Resources Data Analysis System (ERDAS) Imagine: [software] ERDAS Imagine is a GIS and remote sensing processing software owned by Hexagon Geospatial. Aspect is measured clockwise starting North as 0° to 360° North again with flat areas given a value of -1 (or 0 degrees). Basemaps are non-editable and provides aesthetic appeal such as aerial imagery, topography, terrain and street layers. Benchmarks is a generic term sometimes referred as survey marks, geodetic marks and control stations. It assigns the output cell value by taking the weighted average of the four neighboring cells in an image to generate new values.

This process ultimately minimizes error between observed and predicted image points during reprojection. Cartography combines aesthetics and science to communicate spatial information in two or three dimensions. Cartometric maps can be used to measure the perimeter of coasts, areas of countries, volumes, slopes and densities. At any given point on a conformal projected map, graticule lines intersect at 90° and the scale is the same in all directions.

This type of surface generally has no distinct boundaries defining different features such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), temperature data or distance from features.

They are used to convert digitized coordinates from paper maps and georeferencing to standard map projection coordinates.

The X-value represents the horizontal position and Y-value represents the vertical position.

Instead of using the four nearest cells, the output value is based on averaging the 16 nearest cells. DLGs depict information about geographic features about terrain, administrative, hydrography, transportation, man-made features and more. They include imagery (NAIP), roads, place names, hydrography, elevation contours and boundaries.

Reference ellipsoids are mathematical models of the shape of the Earth with the shape of flattened sphere.

Features may refer to fire hydrants, hospitals, state boundaries, roads, rivers, lakes, etc. For example, if you create 5 classes with attribute values from 0-100, the 5 classes will be 0-20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80 and 81-100.

ERDAS Imagine is a leading remote sensing software package with a range of classification, NDVI and image processing tools for satellite, hyperspectral, radar, LiDAR and other remote sensing data. Entities are stored in databases, where they can be retrieved and displayed using GIS software.

Affine transformation: [geometry] An affine transformation changes points, polylines, polygons in a plane by scaling, rotating, skewing, or translating coordinates in two or three-dimensional spaces preserving points, straight lines and planes. Arc: [data structure] Arcs are lines or polygon boundaries, represented as a series of vertices or coordinate points.

ArcGIS: [software] ArcGIS is a GIS software package produced by the Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri) which allows you to collect, store, manage, visualize, export, analyze and map geographic data. American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII): [file format] ASCII uses a set of numbers between 0 and 255 for information storage and processing. Atmospheric window: [remote sensing] An atmospheric window are wavelengths at which electromagnetic radiation (sunlight) from the sun will penetrate the Earth’s atmosphere overall constricting these spectrum bands from reaching the Earth. Azimuth: [surveying] An azimuth is an angle between 0° and 360° measured clockwise from North. Base station: [surveying] A base station is a precisely surveyed location used as a fixed Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) recording station. Basemap: [cartography] A basemap is a background georeferenced image that gives a point of reference on a map. Bearing: [surveying] A bearing is a direction expressed as a geographic angle measured from a base line used in surveying and navigation. Benchmark: [surveying] Benchmarks are precisely surveyed points usually marked with a brass or metal disk in the ground. Bilinear interpolation: [mathematics] Bilinear interpolation is a technique for calculating values of a grid location based on four nearby grid cells. Boolean Algebra: [mathematics] Boolean algebra are conditions used to select features with a set of algebraic conditions. Buffer: [GIS processing] The buffer tool is a proximity function that creates a polygon at a set distance surrounding a selected feature or features. Bundle adjustment: [geometry] Bundle adjustment consists of simultaneously removing geometric distortions given a set of images of three dimensional points at different viewpoints.

Carrier-phase GPS: [surveying] Carrier-phase GPS signals are relatively slow but are very accurate to determine position on the ground.

Cartesian coordinate: [surveying] A Cartesian coordinate system specifies each point uniquely with a pair of numerical coordinates.

Cartography: [GIS dictionary] Cartography is the study and science of representing real-world entities on maps. Cartometry: [GIS dictionary] Cartometry is a division of cartography concerned with depicting objects with a high level of spatial accuracy. Centroid: [geometry] A centroid (or geometric center) is a central point of an area feature. Clip: [geometry] A clip is an overlay tool that involves clipping an input layer with the extent of a defined feature boundary. Coordinate Geometry (COGO): [editing] COGO is the entry of spatial coordinate data points, usually obtained from field survey equipment. Conformal Projection: [map projection] A conformal map projection preserves the correct shapes of small areas.

Conic Projection: [map projection] A conic projection uses a cone to develop its surface on a plane. Connectivity: [geometry] Connectivity is the representation of the connectedness of linear features when arcs share a common node. Continuous raster: [data structure] Continuous rasters are grid cells with gradually changing data.

Contour Line: [data structure] A contour line is a constant value for mapping any variable such as elevation and temperature maps. Control point: [coordinate system] Control points are XY locations known to have a high degree of accuracy. Coordinate Transformation: [coordinate system] A coordinate transformation is the conversion from a non-projected coordinate system to a coordinate system using a series of mathematical equations. Coordinates: [coordinate system] Coordinates are pairs (X, Y) or triplets (X, Y, Z) of values that are used to represent points and features on a two and three-dimensional space. Cubic Convolution Interpolation: [mathematics] Cubic convolution interpolation is similar to bilinear interpolation because it averages surrounding cells. Cylindrical Projection: [map projection] A cylindrical projection uses a cylinder to develop a plane surface on a map and can be equidistant, conformal and equal-area. Database Management System (DBMS): [data structure] A DBMS is a collection of tools that permits the entry, storage, input, output and organization of data. Database Schema: [data structure] A database schema is supported in relational database management systems (RDBMS) and acts as blueprints for how database entry will be constructed.

Developable Surface: [map projection] A developable surface (cylinders, cones, planes, etc) is the geometric shape that a map projection can be built on. Differential Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS): [surveying] Differential GNSS is a highly accurate (within centimeters) conventional surveying technique which uses a known location from a receiver to determine an unknown position. Digital Elevation Model (DEM): [GIS processing] A DEM is a bare earth elevation model representing the surface of the Earth.

Digital Line Graph (DLG): [file format] DLG is vector data format developed and distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Digital Orthophotos Quadrangle (DOQ): [file format] DOQ is a geometrically-corrected photograph produced by the USGS.

Digital Raster Graphics (DRG): [file format] DRG is a digital version map of USGS topographic maps. Digital Surface Model (DSM): [file format] A digital surface model is an elevation that includes the top of buildings, tree canopy, powerlines and other features above the bare earth.

Digital Terrain Model (DTM): [file format] DTM is a bare earth representation of the Earth’s surface that is augmented natural features such as ridges and breaklines. Digitize: [editing] When you digitize in a GIS, you are creating geographic computer-compatible stored data with lines, points and polygons in a spatial database.

Dissolve tool: [GIS processing] The dissolve tool is a common GIS processing task where boundaries are merged with neighboring boundaries based on common attribute values.

Easting: [coordinate system] Eastings refer to the x-axis (eastward) approximately parallel to lines of equal latitude commonly used in the Universal Transverse Mercator map projection. Electromagnetic (EM) Spectrum: [remote sensing] The EM spectrum refers to the range of energy wavelengths or frequencies from x-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave to radio waves. Ellipsoid: [surveying] Reference ellipsoids are mathematical models of the shape of the Earth with the major axis along the equatorial radius. Ellipsoid Height: [surveying] The ellipsoid height is the height measured from an ellipsoidal surface to a point on the surface of the Earth. Endlap: [remote sensing] Endlap is the overlap in aerial photographs from end-to-end between flight lines.

Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+): [remote sensing] ETM+ is a sensor equipped on Landsat-7 which generates images of the Earth in 8 spectral bands. Entity: [cartography] Entities represent real-world point, line or polygon features with a geographic location. Equal Interval Classification: [cartography] The equal interval classification method divides attribute values into equal size ranges. Earth Resources Data Analysis System (ERDAS) Imagine: [software] ERDAS Imagine is a GIS and remote sensing processing software owned by Hexagon Geospatial. Aspect is measured clockwise starting North as 0° to 360° North again with flat areas given a value of -1 (or 0 degrees). Basemaps are non-editable and provides aesthetic appeal such as aerial imagery, topography, terrain and street layers. Benchmarks is a generic term sometimes referred as survey marks, geodetic marks and control stations. It assigns the output cell value by taking the weighted average of the four neighboring cells in an image to generate new values.

This process ultimately minimizes error between observed and predicted image points during reprojection. Cartography combines aesthetics and science to communicate spatial information in two or three dimensions. Cartometric maps can be used to measure the perimeter of coasts, areas of countries, volumes, slopes and densities. At any given point on a conformal projected map, graticule lines intersect at 90° and the scale is the same in all directions.

This type of surface generally has no distinct boundaries defining different features such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), temperature data or distance from features.

They are used to convert digitized coordinates from paper maps and georeferencing to standard map projection coordinates.

The X-value represents the horizontal position and Y-value represents the vertical position.

Instead of using the four nearest cells, the output value is based on averaging the 16 nearest cells. DLGs depict information about geographic features about terrain, administrative, hydrography, transportation, man-made features and more. They include imagery (NAIP), roads, place names, hydrography, elevation contours and boundaries.

Reference ellipsoids are mathematical models of the shape of the Earth with the shape of flattened sphere.

Features may refer to fire hydrants, hospitals, state boundaries, roads, rivers, lakes, etc. For example, if you create 5 classes with attribute values from 0-100, the 5 classes will be 0-20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80 and 81-100.

ERDAS Imagine is a leading remote sensing software package with a range of classification, NDVI and image processing tools for satellite, hyperspectral, radar, LiDAR and other remote sensing data. Entities are stored in databases, where they can be retrieved and displayed using GIS software.

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