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Filling the need for trusted information on national health issues, the Kaiser Family Foundation is a nonprofit organization based in Menlo Park, California. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Hey, you had some great information in your slides but it was little hard to understand what was happening. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. Revenues in the fiscal year ended May 31, 1999, declined by 8% over the prior year to $8.777 billion.
Our greatest challenge in 2000 will be to maintain the operational and financial initiatives we worked so hard to implement in 1998 and 1999.
In 1962, Knight received the first shipment of 200 pairs of Tiger shoes to his parent’s garage in Oregon. In 1998, Americans spent approximately $38 billion to purchase more than 1.1 billion pairs of shoes.
This segment has reached a point of maturity in the domestic market and can look forward to only modest sales growth for the long term.
The theory behind the slowdown in sales is that growth in athletic footwear and apparel is cyclically sensitive to the Olympics.
When a company decides to exit from this industry it must be aware of things such as indebtedness and its ability to meet those obligations. Nike’s management analyzes its internal environment and makes decisions based on that analysis.
Nike has established corporate objectives in relation to our perceived corporate responsibility. For our grand strategy, Nike utilizes innovation to produce top quality athletic footwear and apparel.
The competitive strategy that Nike introduced at the end of the 1990's concentrates on honing the focus of our marketing strategies and product offerings through product differentiation.
In 1985, thirteen years after the company was founded, Nike was blindsided when Reebok developed its multicolored aerobic shoes. Nelson Ferris, a 47 year-old head of its corporate education department states that, "The Swoosh represents something other than just a company.
In late spring of 1999, Nike Retail, Nike's subsidiary consisting of the Nike Town shops and employee stores around the world, upgraded their hardware and software.
Nike’s top management’s leadership style can be characterized by the team management approach. While Nike employees have been loyal and committed workers, after the cost-reductions that took place in the fourth quarter of 1998 resulting in a reduction of the number of employees, we have had to place greater emphasis on motivation among the retained employees. A comprehensive establishment of profitability standards has assisted Nike in our evaluation of individual performance as well as a comparison to other competitors.
Nike thoroughly examines and compares the aforementioned performance standards to the actual results that have occurred as a result of implementing strategies to meet or exceed performance standards. Though Nike has established profitability and performance standards, correction of discovered deviations has been a slower and less timely process. Nike has taken the lead in e-commerce by being the first to market with its e-commerce web-site.
Nike’s brand images, including the Nike name and the trademark Swoosh, are considered to represent one of the most recognizable brands in the world.
Though Nike leads the apparel division among industry competitors, Nike has not claimed to be leading the race among the apparel industry as a whole. We are also spending more time on continuing to support and develop programs to gain a better understanding what our customers would like to see in the market.
Nike has had much success as a result of collaborating with other companies within the sports and fitness industry.
In general, Nike’s products are considered to be of higher quality and as a result have higher prices relative to our competitors. Nike primarily conducts marketing research on a continual basis to assist in maintaining our company’s position as the leader in the athletic footwear and apparel industry. Expanding our current independent monitoring programs to include non-governmental organizations, foundations and educational institutions. Funding university research and open forums to explore issues related to global manufacturing and responsible business practices such as independent monitoring and air quality standards. While establishing these policies is a step in the right direction for Nike, the difficult task at hand will be the implementation of the aforementioned goals to ensure the success of the program. Although Nike conducts continuous, basic research that benefits numerous facets of the sports and fitness industry, our primary focus is directed towards applied research. Our posture is primarily innovative, while at times adjusting to a protective position, and other times a catch-up stance.
Increasing support of its current micro-enterprise loan program to 1,000 families each in Vietnam, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Thailand.
While establishing these policies is a step in the right direction for Nike, the difficult task at hand will be the implementation of the aforementioned goals of the new labor initiative to ensure the success of the program.
Accusations of unethical behavior, whether or not they are true, only serve to injure Nike’s image, and, as a result, product sales.
In response to accusations by consumer groups over unfair labor practices, Nike has developed a Corporate Responsibility Policy that discusses how we will improve working conditions for our international employees. Despite the lower percentage of assets that are borrowed to finance Nike, our times interest earned ratio is weaker than the industry average. Nike’s distinctive competency lies in the area of marketing, particularity in the area of consumer brand awareness and brand power. Two key attributes of a distinctive competency are its inability to be easily replicated and the value or benefit it offers to consumers. As a result of reducing our marketing budget by $100 million and eliminating 7% of our employees, Nike’s net income has increased for fiscal year 1999. Competitors can exploit our financial weakness by emphasizing their own individual strengths and attempting to gain greater shares in the market while we are revamping processes from within. The athletic footwear and apparel industries will benefit from the currently strong economic backdrop in the United States.
Cost cutting due to restructuring of operations will give many companies the chance to price products more competitively.
Increasing financial recovery in overseas markets proves to be an area of expansion for the athletic footwear and apparel industry. In terms of market saturation, many of the key manufacturers in this industry have been around for many years.


Yes, we can protect our market share among female consumers within the industry by targeting some of our promotions to female consumers. The leading cause of Reebok’s recent tumbles stemmed from problems relating to poor marketing. Yes, Reebok’s chances of growing their market share are slim as long as their advertising endeavors remain to be so unsuccessful.
Yes, Nike can take advantage of Reebok’s marketing woes by doing one of the things we do best: marketing. The phenomenon of the aging of our most loyal market segment questions whether there is a threat that the new generation will not be exclusively loyal to Nike. An opportunity produced by pressure groups is the ability to react in a positive manner to concerns of the public as well as customers. In the same manner, not responding to these consumer activist groups poses a threat to Nike. To exploit this opportunity, Nike needs to focus on who the next generation of loyal customers will be and cater to their needs. In response to this threat, we would focus on keeping our market share and making sure that competitors like Old Nay do not steal away our market share.
Poor management foresight in predicting consumer and fashion trends moving away from athletic shoes. An over reliance on Michael Jordan as a central marketing figure, his departure caused a decline in sales. We choose finance as our major problem because continuing success for Nike is based on our ability to generate future cash flows by producing higher revenues and net income.
This article presents a detailed statistical overview of the production and consumption of energy from renewable sources in the European Union (EU). After a period up to 2010 during which renewables were growing strongly, the combined effect of warm weather, slower progress by Member States in implementing the Renewable Energy Directive and Europe’s faltering economic situation led to a decrease in the use of renewable energy in 2011.
Hydropower plants generate by far the largest share of electricity from renewable energy sources. The available capacity of renewable electricity generation has increased significantly over the last 20 years. Another complication arises because of missing data on feedstock input for the transformation sector — for example, the raw materials for production of biofuels.
Trade in liquid biofuels that can be blended with — or used as a substitute for — gasoline or diesel (for example, ethanol in E85 for use in flex-fuel vehicles) serves as an illustration. Gross inland consumption of renewables is closely related to primary production of renewables. Renewable energy available for final consumption (Figure 7) tends to rise and fall in line with changes in gross inland energy consumption from renewable sources. The latest data for 2005 shows a small variation with respect to data available during the preparation and adoption of the Directive in 2007-2008. Table 1 presents data for all Member States and also the values of the indicative trajectory.
For all countries, there is a common 2020 target of 10 % for the share of renewable energy in the transport sector. Gross inland energy consumption represents the total quantity of energy resources used for all purposes.
Energy available for final consumption represents the total quantity of energy resources available to consumers (private, commercial and industrial). Energy production from non-renewable municipal wastes was deducted from the contribution of biomass to heating and electricity generation. The Commission has only recently established definitive guidelines for accounting of energy from heat pumps. Data for 2011 onwards: Compliance with Article 17 (Sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids) has to be assessed with respect to Article 18 (Verification of compliance with the sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids). For the purpose of calculating the share of renewable energy in heating and cooling, final consumption of energy from renewable sources is defined as the final consumption of renewable energy in industry, households, services, agriculture, forestry and fisheries for heating and cooling purposes, plus district heating produced from renewables.
However, the share of renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy did increase, since the consumption of fossil fuel energy fell more than that of renewables. In fact, with the exception of years 2002 and 2011 (when primary production of renewables decreased) this is the lowest annual increase in the last 15 years. Wind power capacity had already begun to increase rapidly in the late 1990s and from 2005 there was a boom in solar generation capacity. There were rapid increases — especially after 2002 — producing an average annual growth rate between 2000 and 2010 of 32 %. It is even more difficult to provide figures corresponding to import dependency that would be comparable with fossil fuels (coal, crude oil, natural gas). Trade volumes of liquid biofuels (blended part within mineral fuel plus pure biofuels) shipped between EU Member States, and internationally, are increasing.
Changes are due to revisions in data sets transmitted by Member States in response to annual energy questionnaires. There is a huge variation between EU Member States - please see the detailed presentation of the share of electricity from renewable sources in gross electricity consumption in Table 2. The most recent data available are for the reference year 2014 (for the purposes of comparing the EU-28 with other third countries 2011 data have been used). It excludes energy used in transformation processes (for example electricity power plants, fuel refineries, blast furnaces).
Consumption for pipeline transport was included in gross final consumption of energy, in line with the sectoral classification of the Energy Statistics Regulation. Despite the lack of an approved statistical methodology at the time of data collection and for reasons of completeness, the contribution of renewable energy from heat pumps was taken into account in cases where sufficient information was submitted by Member States. This split is possible in the accounting tool (SHARES tool[3]) developed by Eurostat, where reporting countries have to provide additional information in this respect. As of reference year 2011, countries are to report as compliant only those biofuels and bioliquids for which compliance with both Article 17 and Article 18 can be fully demonstrated. The Directive also requires electricity production from hydropower and wind energy to be normalised. The total final consumption for heating and cooling is the final consumption of all energy commodities, except electricity, for purposes other than transport, plus the consumption of heat for own use at electricity and heat plants and heat losses in networks.
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While the EU as a whole is on course to meet its 2020 targets, some Member States will need to make additional efforts to meet their obligations for the share of energy from renewable sources in the gross final consumption of energy.
Between 1990 and 2014, total electricity generation from renewables increased by 191 %.


This is due to the more rapid expansion of electricity generation from other renewable sources. Additional capacity increases for other renewables were much more modest than for these two. Energy balances place solid, liquid and gaseous biofuels produced in the EU in the category of ‘primary production’; this is in contrast to production of fossil-based secondary fuels, which are categorised as ‘transformation output’ (for example, the ‘primary production’ of motor gasoline or automotive diesel is zero in EU energy balance sheets).
In 2012, EU-28 net imports of liquid biofuels accounted for 20 % of their gross inland consumption. As some countries have not yet fully implemented all provisions of the Renewable Energy Directive, some biofuels and bioliquids are not counted as compliant (sustainable) in the period 2011-2014. Comparing the average of 2011-12 to the indicative trajectory set out in the Renewable Energy Directive, it can be seen that France and the Netherlands were below the first indicative trajectory values, while all other countries were above.
In 2014, also the Czech Republic, Italy, Lithuania, Romania and Finland were above their 2020 target. Increases in industrial sectors, services and residential use (building sector) contributed to this growth.
Data are available for all EU Member States, as well as European Economic Area countries Iceland and Norway. It also includes energy products that might be used for non-energy purposes (for example in chemical processes).
To improve accuracy and consistency with national statistics in calculating renewable energy shares, national calorific values were used, where available, for converting quantities of all energy products into energy units, instead of the default calorific values. For these reasons, some small differences exist between data used for this publication and those published in the energy balances. It should be borne in mind, therefore — unless explicitly stated — that renewables include all renewable energy sources, both those meeting sustainability criteria and those that do not comply with such criteria.
The values in these years are not used for any measurement of legislative compliance with the indicative trajectory defined in part B of Annex I of the Directive. Only reported compliant biofuels and bioliquids are counted towards the respective shares of renewables.
Given the 15-year normalisation requirement for hydropower production and the availability of energy statistics (for the EU-28, starting from 1990), long time series of this indicator are not available.
They contribute to Europe’s industrial innovation and technological leadership, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve the security of our energy supply and reduce our energy import dependency. In 2014, renewable electricity generation accounted for 28 % of total gross electricity generation[2].
Wind power generation more than tripled over the period 2005-2014: since 2000, it has been the second largest contributor to renewable electricity, replacing wood and other solid biomass, which had held that position since 1990. Solar and wind generation are intermittent energy sources: their utilisation rate is much lower than for those renewables used in conventional thermal power stations (as well as compared with fossil fuels and nuclear power). For example, wood can be used as material for furniture production and as building material on construction sites. Wood and other solid biomass continues to be the largest contributor to the mix of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy available for final consumption increased by 69 % between 2004 and 2014.
Some countries have also not yet improved their national statistical system to fully account for all renewable energy sources (for example for the renewable energy with respect to heat pumps).
Comparing the average of 2013-14 to the indicative trajectory set out in the Renewable Energy Directive, it can be seen that the Netherlands was below the second indicative trajectory values, while all other countries were above. Due to revision of data for biomass consumption in the residential sector, the updated data for Croatia indicates that its consumption of energy from renewable sources is above its 2020 target since 2004 (the first year for which values are available). Aerothermal, geothermal and hydrothermal heat energy captured by heat pumps is taken into account, to the extent reported by Member States.
While the share of renewable energy as a whole is increasing since 2004, between 2010 and 2011 its share in transport decreased. This facilitates a harmonised comparison of the EU-28 aggregate with other OECD countries; however, in this comparison, EU-28 values are not equivalent to the values presented earlier in this article.
It was decided that for the years 2004-2010 all biofuels and bioliquids would be counted towards the numerator of the share of energy from renewable sources.
The Renewable Energy Directive requires that — for accounting purposes — hydropower and wind power production is normalised[1] for annual variations.
Solar power electricity generation has increased rapidly in recent years and in 2014 accounted for 11 % of all renewable electricity.
Pumped-storage hydropower plants can be reliably used to deal with surplus electricity generation from intermittent sources. Energy statistics track only quantities of renewable products for energy purposes; stocks of renewable products for non-energy purposes are not part of energy balances. In 2014 the renewable energy available for final consumption decreased by 1 % compared to 2013.
The increased share between 2010 and 2011 is not due to increased use of renewables but rather because of a decline in the use of fossil energies (oil products and natural gas).
This can be attributed in part to the total absence of compliant biofuels reported by several EU countries (countries did report some biofuel use, but none or very little of it compliant in 2011). The 2011 comparison of the EU-28 with other OECD countries and Russia is presented in Table 5 and Figure 8.
Also, in 2013 the electricity generated from solar energy surpassed wood and other solid biomass and is now the third most important contributor to the electricity production from renewable sources. The capacity of pumped-storage hydropower plants did not increase at the same rate as solar and wind. However, the rate of increase since then has been much slower than for other sources notwithstanding that wood more than doubled by 2010.
Installed capacity for renewable sources, nuclear power and pumped-storage hydropower is shown in Figure 4. To put into perspective electricity generation capacities from renewable sources, which in 2014 was in total around 400 GW, the existing electricity generation capacity of fossil fuel plants in the EU was around 450?GW in 2014. Gross inland consumption of renewable energies is shown in Figure 6 (electricity production is not normalised). Electricity generation from renewable sources is shown in Figure 3 (in this Figure electricity production is not normalised in the area chart but the dashed line shows the total normalised electricity generation).



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