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If you are a beginner, you may want to subscribe here to get access to my newsletter, which will give you more great info. To do a risk assessment, you need to understand what, in your business, might cause harm to people and decide whether you are doing enough to prevent that harm. This is not the only way to do risk assessment as there are no fixed rules about how a risk assessment should be carried out.
Your risk assessment should include consideration of what in your business might cause harm and how and, the people who might be affected. Any paperwork that is produced should help with communicating and managing the risks in your business. You should carry out an assessment before you do work which presents a risk of injury or ill health.
Health and safety legislation does not, in general, impose duties upon someone who is not an employer, self-employed or an employee. Additionally, think about any other groups, such as members of the public and groups of people who share your workplace. We have produced Microsoft Word and Open Document Format templates to help you record your assessment.A The template can also be used to record your health and safety policy. Remember that any paperwork that is produced should help with communicating and managing the risks in your business.
Remember that you only need to record your risk assessment if you employ five or more people and any paperwork that is produced should help with communicating and managing the risks in your business.
This means balancing the level of risk against the measures needed to control the real risk in terms of money, time or trouble. Elimination - Redesign the job or substitute a substance so that the hazard is removed or eliminated.
Administrative Controls - These are all about identifying and implementing the procedures you need to work safely.
Personal protective clothes and equipment - Only after all the previous measures have been tried and found ineffective in controlling risks to a reasonably practicable level, must personal protective equipment (PPE) be used. You need to make sure that, based on the findings of the assessment, you take adequate and appropriate fire safety measures to minimise the risk of injury or loss of life in the event of a fire. As an employer or a self-employed person, you are responsible for health and safety in your business.
As an employer, however, you must appoint someone competent to help you meet your health and safety duties.A A competent person is someone with the necessary skills, knowledge and experience to manage health and safety. You may need extra help or advice if you do not have sufficient experience or knowledge in-house.
You may need extra help or advice if you do not have sufficient experience or knowledge in-house. You may find that there are a number of issues which need action, so you need decide on your priorities for that action. Having identified the priorities, you need to decide on the controls which you will put into place. Remember, the greater the risk the more robust and reliable the control measures will need to be.
Significant risks are those that are not trivial in nature and are capable of creating a real risk to health and safety which any reasonable person would appreciate and would take steps to guard against. What can be considered as 'insignificant' will vary from site to site and activity to activity, depending on specific circumstances. You will need to review your risk assessment to check whether you need to make any changes in the measures you take to control risk.A This is particularly important when, for example, people return to work following surgery etc, as new or expectant mothers or if an employee develops a disability.
Most employers will be able to find a way to make adjustments to work that are suitable for their employees. There is no set amount of time that you need to keep your records relating to general risk assessment.
I have a question about risk assessment for a specific topic or in a specific industry sector.A  Where can I get help?
A hazard is anything that may cause harm, eg chemicals, electricity, working from ladders, noise etc. Risk is the chance, high or low, of somebody being harmed by the hazard, and how serious the harm could be. A risk assessment is simply a careful examination of what, in your work, could cause harm to people, so that you can weigh up whether you have enough precautions or whether you should do more. As an employer or self-employed person, you must do a risk assessment but you only need to record it if you employee five or more people. Whether safety method statements are used or not, it is essential to make sure that risks are controlled.
If you have a complaint about your employer or any other work activity, please go to our concerns webpage for further information.
An engineering drawing, a type of technical drawing, is used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items.
Engineering drawing and artistic drawing are both types of drawing, and either may be called simply "drawing" when the context is implicit. The process of producing engineering drawings, and the skill of producing them, is often referred to as technical drawing or drafting, although technical drawings are also required for disciplines that would not ordinarily be thought of as parts of engineering (such as architecture, landscaping, cabinet making, and garment-making).
The various fields share many common conventions of drawing, while also having some field-specific conventions. An engineering drawing is a legal document (that is, a legal instrument), because it communicates all the needed information about "what is wanted" to the people who will expend resources turning the idea into a reality. Some of the tools of manual drafting include pencils, pens and their ink, straightedges, T-squares, French curves, triangles, rulers, scales, erasers, and tacks or push pins. Producing drawings usually involves creating an original that is then reproduced, generating multiple copies to be distributed to the shop floor, vendors, company archives, and so on.
For centuries, engineering drawing was the sole method of transferring information from design into manufacture. Almost all engineering drawings (except perhaps reference-only views or initial sketches) communicate not only geometry (shape and location) but also dimensions and tolerances for those characteristics. Lines can also be classified by a letter classification in which each line is given a letter.
Type B lines are dimension lines and are used for dimensioning, projecting, extending, or leaders. Type F lines are Type F[typo] lines, except they are used for drawings in electrotechnology. Type K lines indicate the alternate positions of an object and the line taken by that object. Symbols used to define whether a projection is either Third Angle (right) or First Angle (left). In most cases, a single view is not sufficient to show all necessary features, and several views are used. The orthographic projection shows the object as it looks from the front, right, left, top, bottom, or back, and are typically positioned relative to each other according to the rules of either first-angle or third-angle projection. In first-angle projection, the projectors originate as if radiated from a viewer's eyeballs and shoot through the 3D object to project a 2D image onto the plane behind it. As shown above, the determination of what surface constitutes the front, back, top, and bottom varies depending on the projection method used. An auxiliary view is an orthographic view that is projected into any plane other than one of the six principal views.[8] These views are typically used when an object contains some sort of inclined plane. The isometric projection show the object from angles in which the scales along each axis of the object are equal. In both oblique projection and orthographic projection, parallel lines of the source object produce parallel lines in the projected image.


Perspective is an approximate representation on a flat surface, of an image as it is perceived by the eye.
Foreshortened: the size of an object's dimensions along the line of sight are relatively shorter than dimensions across the line of sight. Projected views (either Auxiliary or Orthographic) which show a cross section of the source object along the specified cut plane. Plans are usually "scale drawings", meaning that the plans are drawn at specific ratio relative to the actual size of the place or object. With linear dimensions, two parallel lines, called "extension lines," spaced at the distance between two features, are shown at each of the features.
With ordinate dimensions, one horizontal and one vertical extension line establish an origin for the entire view. Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is a method of specifying the functional geometry of an object.
All ISO paper sizes have the same aspect ratio, one to the square root of 2, meaning that a document designed for any given size can be enlarged or reduced to any other size and will fit perfectly. Technical lettering is the process of forming letters, numerals, and other characters in technical drawing. Here is an example of an engineering drawing (an isometric view of the same object is shown above). Engineering drawing symbols — Symbols in engineering drawings is the method of communicating and detailing the characteristics of the drawing. Engineering technician — An engineering technician is a person who has relatively practical understanding of the general theoretical principles of the specific branch of engineering in which they work. Engineering process outsourcing — (EPO) for the AEC industry is a vertical domain for the industries of the built environment.EPO industry is playing crucial role in efficiently supporting dynamic architecture, engineering and construction industries worldwide. Engineering bill of material — (EBOM) is a form of bill of material reflecting the product as designed by engineering, referred to as the as designed bill of material. Engineering — The Watt steam engine, a major driver in the Industrial Revolution, underscores the importance of engineering in modern history. First impressions are very important and selecting a header image that isA pleasing A to the eye can grab a new visitors attention.
When uploading a header image to your website keep in mind that a very tall image can force the page content down. We have listed a few Free Header Websites below, hopefully you will be able to find a header that matches the scope of you website. Features Photographs, textures, 3d Renderings, Digital Art and Abstract images are available. FreeWordpressHeaders is well structured website offering a small number of good quality images that are free to download and use in personal website headers. If you can manage to find your way to the free header images on FreeWebHeaders you will be pleasantly surprised.
Features: Search by color option is a great feature if you are trying to match a header with your websites color theme. ThemeHeaders have a small selection of free header images loaded into a basic gallery template. Once you have decided that, you need to identify and prioritise putting in place, appropriate and sensible control measures. These are quick and easy tools for low-risk environments (eg offices, shops and classrooms).A See Interactive tools. However, we believe that the controlling the risks in the workplace guidance provides the most straightforward way for most businesses. It should take into account any controls which are already in place and identify what, if any, further controls are required. You do not need to include risks from everyday life unless your work activities increase the risk. If you are a voluntary organisation, our Health and safety made simple site takes you through the basic steps you need to follow to ensure you comply with the law in relation to your employees.
For example, where you cannot eliminate the risk of a fall, use work equipment or other measures to minimise the distance and consequences of a fall (should one occur). It is a legal requirement for every employer and self-employed person to make an assessment of the health and safety risks arising out of their work. The fire safety assessment can be carried out either as a separate exercise or as part of a single risk assessment covering other health and safety risks.
They will have useful information about how work is done which will help you understand the actual risks. We are an independent regulator and act in the public interest to reduce work-related death, illness and serious injury across Great Britain's workplaces. When you take on work or go to a new site, cover any new or different risks with a specific assessment. However, they can be used to help you work out the level of risk associated with a particular issue. It describes in a logical sequence exactly how a job is to be carried out in a safe manner and without risks to health. Other concerns may be dealt with by other government departments, local authorities or organisations. Our photographs have all been released into the public domain, which means you can use them for any purpose. More than just the drawing of pictures, it is also a language—a graphical language that communicates ideas and information from one mind to another.[1] Most especially, it communicates all needed information from the engineer who designed a part to the workers who will make it.
For example, even within metalworking, there are some process-specific conventions to be learned—casting, machining, fabricating, and assembly all have some special drawing conventions, and within fabrication there is further division, including welding, riveting, pipefitting, and erecting.
It is thus a part of a contract; the purchase order and the drawing together, as well as any ancillary documents (engineering change orders [ECOs], called-out specs), constitute the contract. This standardization also aids with internationalization, because people from different countries who speak different languages can share the common language of engineering drawing, and can communicate with each other quite well, at least as concerns the technical details of an object.
Since the advent of computer-aided design (CAD), engineering drawing has been done more and more in the electronic medium with each passing decade.
The classic reproduction methods involved blue and white appearances (whether white-on-blue or blue-on-white), which is why engineering drawings were long called, and even today are still often called, "blueprints" or "bluelines", even though those terms are anachronistic from a literal perspective, since most copies of engineering drawings today are made by more modern methods (often inkjet or laser printing) that yield black or multicolour lines on white paper.
In recent decades another method has arisen, called model-based definition (MBD) or digital product definition (DPD).
For example, a mass-marketed product usually requires a much higher surface quality than, say, a component that goes inside industrial machinery. The origin and vector direction of the projectors (also called projection lines) differs, as explained below. The 3D object is projected into 2D "paper" space as if you were looking at a radiograph of the object: the top view is under the front view, the right view is at the left of the front view. In addition to the 6 principal views (front, back, top, bottom, right side, left side), any auxiliary views or sections may be included as serve the purposes of part definition and its communication.
Using the auxiliary view allows for that inclined plane (and any other significant features) to be projected in their true size and shape. Isometric projection corresponds to rotation of the object by ± 45° about the vertical axis, followed by rotation of approximately ± 35.264° [= arcsin(tan(30°))] about the horizontal axis starting from an orthographic projection view. These views are commonly used to show internal features with more clarity than may be available using regular projections or hidden lines. Distances may be indicated with either of two standardized forms of dimension: linear and ordinate. A line perpendicular to the extension lines, called a "dimension line," with arrows at its endpoints, is shown between, and terminating at, the extension lines. Radial dimensions use an "R" followed by the value for the radius; Diametral dimensions use a circle with forward-leaning diagonal line through it, called the diameter symbol, followed by the value for the diameter.


These developed further refinements in the second half of the twentieth century, when photocopying became cheap. Given this ease of changing sizes, it is of course common to copy or print a given document on different sizes of paper, especially within a series, e.g. Male nude by Annibale Carracci, 16th century Drawing is a form of visual art that makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two dimensional medium. With the websites menu structure being attached to the header the image serves a vital role.
A visitor is more likely to stay on your website when first landing on a page if they can see content relevant to the search term that brought them to your website. It’s almost comical that not all of the free headerA websites listed below actually have a graphic based header but either way they do have a large selection of Free Website header images for you to choose from. The site is very modern and functional with a good range of high quality images that are free to download and use in personal website headers.
With over one thousand images and regular user submitted additions this is a great website to visit if your looking for headers.
The header images are listed in well structured categories that include sub sections which indicate the type of websites the headers might be useful for. With a very large selection of 800 x 200 pixel website headers available for download, this is another good resource for Free Website Headers. If you are still looking for the perfect header for your website then it could be of some interest.
The purpose of the assessment is to identify what needs to be done to control health and safety risks.
We also provide advice through our website and publications which are freely available to download. They do this by categorising the likelihood of harm and the potential severity of the harm. However, it does require expertise and experience to judge the likelihood of harm accurately. It includes all the risks identified in the risk assessment and the measures needed to control those risks. For example, food safety is regulated by the Environmental Health Department of your local council. Thus, if the resulting product is wrong, the worker or manufacturer are protected from liability as long as they have faithfully executed the instructions conveyed by the drawing. Today most engineering drawing is done with CAD, but pencil and paper have not disappeared.
The English idiom "to go back to the drawing board", which is a figurative phrase meaning to rethink something altogether, was inspired by the literal act of discovering design errors during production and returning to a drawing board to revise the engineering drawing.
In MBD, the information captured by the CAD software app is fed automatically into a CAM app (computer-aided manufacturing), and is translated via postprocessor into other languages such as G-code, which is executed by a CNC machine tool (computer numerical control). The simplest dimensioning system just specifies distances between points (such as an object's length or width, or hole center locations). Third-angle projection is primarily used in the United States and Canada, where it is the default projection system according to British Standard BS 8888 and ASME standard ASME Y14.3M. View lines or section lines (lines with arrows marked "A-A", "B-B", etc) define the direction and location of viewing or sectioning. The true size and shape of any feature in an engineering drawing can only be known when the Line of Sight (LOS) is perpendicular to the plane being referenced. The distance is indicated numerically at the midpoint of the dimension line, either adjacent to it, or in a gap provided for it. Distances along the x- and y-axes to other features are specified using other extension lines, with the distances indicated numerically at their ends. A radially-aligned line with arrowhead pointing to the circular feature, called a leader, is used in conjunction with both diametral and radial dimensions.
Engineering drawings could be readily doubled (or halved) in size and put on the next larger (or, respectively, smaller) size of paper with no waste of space.
There were also once British paper sizes, which went by names rather than alphanumeric designations. With the goals of legibility and uniformity, styles are standardized and lettering ability has little relationship to normal writing ability. The size of the free website header images are very restrictive at only 800 pixels wide, if you intend on using a half page header image then they will work very well. The width of the header images are big enough to cover a full width screen, with a typical size being 1204 x 300 pixels. Most of the images are photographic with only a small selection of abstract headers listed. The images are not grouped into categories but they are well labeled which makes the search function on the site very useful. Getting this wrong could result in applying unnecessary control measures or failing to take important ones.
A more detailed list of concerns and who is responsible can be found on the concerns webpage. Thus today it is often the case that the information travels from the mind of the designer into the manufactured component without having ever been codified by an engineering drawing.
Since the advent of well-developed interchangeable manufacture, these distances have been accompanied by plus-or-minus or min-and-max-limits tolerances. Sometimes a note tells the reader in which zone(s) of the drawing to find the view or section. One of the things that makes isometric drawings so attractive is the ease with which 60 degree angles can be constructed with only a compass and straightedge. All types of dimensions are typically composed of two parts: the nominal value, which is the "ideal" size of the feature, and the tolerance, which specifies the amount that the value may vary above and below the nominal. And the metric technical pens were chosen in sizes so that one could add detail or drafting changes with a pen width changing by approximately a factor of the square root of 2. You are free to remix or adapt the work provided by the copyright holder and all license agreements can be potentially waved by the copyright holder if you get their personal permission. Because manufacturing and construction are typically very expensive processes (involving large amounts of capital and payroll), the question of liability for errors has great legal implications as each party tries to blame the other and assign the wasted cost to the other's responsibility. In the case of CAD drawings, the original is the CAD file, and the printouts of that file are the "prints". Coordinate dimensioning involves defining all points, lines, planes, and profiles in terms of Cartesian coordinates, with a common origin. This is the biggest reason why the conventions of engineering drawing have evolved over the decades toward a very precise, unambiguous state.
The term "technical data package" (TDP) is now used to refer to the complete package of information (in one medium or another) that communicates information from design to production (such as 3D-model datasets, engineering drawings, engineering change orders (ECOs), spec revisions and addenda, and so on). However, even in the MBD era, where theoretically production could happen without any drawings or humans at all, it is still the case that drawings and humans are involved. These workers often use drawings in the course of their work that have been produced by rendering and plotting (printing) from the MBD dataset.
In these cases, the drawing is still a useful document, although legally it is classified as "for reference only", meaning that if any controversies or discrepancies arise, it is the MBD dataset, not the drawing, that governs.



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