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Diagram: A SWOT AnalysisWe should aim to turn our weaknesses into strengths, and our threats into opportunities. The main purpose of the analysis has to be to add value to our products and services so that we can recruit new customers, retain loyal customers, and extend products and services to customer segments over the long-term. It should distinguish between where your organization is today, and where it could be in the future. Once key issues have been identified with your SWOT analysis, they feed into marketing objectives. Some of the problems that you may encounter with SWOT are as a result of one of its key benefits i.e. Having arrived on this page you have probably surfed the Internet and scoured books and journals in search of the history of SWOT Analysis.
As we know from our lesson on the marketing environment the wider macroenvironment impacts upon how marketing managers make decisions. The sociocultural environment embodies everything which is social and cultural within a nation or society. In a more general sense consider influences such as the increase in life expectation of Western consumers, and demographics which is the study of populations. Environmentalism and marketing connect where marketing may affect the environment when serving consumers with products and services. When marketing overseas your business will need to take into account laws in the local market. More specifically you’ll be at looking elements such as where a business is in terms of the current business cycle, and whether or not you are trading in a recession. It is very important that an organization considers its environment before beginning the marketing process. 2.Do the technologies offer consumers and businesses more innovative products and services such as Internet banking, new generation mobile telephones, etc? The political arena has a huge influence upon the regulation of businesses, and the spending power of consumers and other businesses.
So as we said in our earlier lesson, examples of the influencers would include your company itself, your suppliers, any marketing or advertising agencies with whom you have a close working relationship, the segments and markets which you target and your competition. Don’t forget to review your stakeholders which are those people and organisations that interconnect with your business that might not be paying for your products or services i.e. Stakeholders are those members of the microenvironment that have a direct influence on your business although they are not generally paying customers. Suppliers are those companies that supply your business with goods and services to which you add value through transformation.
Focus groups are made up from a number of selected respondents based together in the same room. An omnibus study is where an organisation purchases a single or a few questions on a ‘hybrid’ interview (either face-to-face or by telephone). The marketing mix and the services marketing mix should be adapted for different organizational and business contexts.
Service organizations are more likely to use the services marketing mix, which is also known as the 7Ps of marketing. Pricing is relatively expensive in comparison with the public sector which tends to be subsidised through taxation in many countries, for example Spain. The services are delivered through healthcare professionals and privately owned hospitals and dental surgeries.
Bupa invests large sums in marketing communications in order to attract business from a number of profitable segments.
The process begins when you first have a health assessment and might end if you are unfortunate enough to need to use your healthcare insurance. People would include the individuals that manage your healthcare as well as those that actually deliver the service such as nurses, dentists and doctors. Voluntary and not-profit-organizations also apply the marketing mix in a slightly different way. Strategic Plan - Adapting the firm to take advantage of opportunities in its constantly changing environment.
This usually related to setting objectives based on Sales, Profitability, Market Standing, Return On Investment, Customer Satisfaction or some other measure. The Business Portfolio is the collection of businesses & products that make up the company. Stars require heavy investment to fund growth but will turn into Cash Cows which are established low growth businesses that need little investment & produce a lot of cash to support other SBU’s. This involves funding businesses & products that the firm should consider in the future.
The firm must also develop downsizing strategies due to growing too fast, changing marketing environment or within markets where the firm lacks experience. In addition to Customer Relationship Management firms must use Partner Relationship Management to form an effective internal value chain (within departments) to serve the customer e.g. The Marketing Strategy is the marketing logic by which the company hopes to create customer value & achieve profitable relationships to capture value in return. Guided by a marketing strategy, a marketing mix can be created – product, price, promotion, place, people, physical evidence & process. Market Segmentation is the process of dividing a market up into distinct groups of buyers who have different needs, characteristics or behaviours, and who might require separate products or marketing programs. A Marketing Mixis the set of controllable tactical marketing tools that the firm blends to produce the response it wants in the target market.
Promotion – Activities that communicate the merits of the product in order to persuade target customers to buy it. Management of the marketing process requires 4 functions – analysis, planning, implementation & control.
Marketing Planning – Deciding on marketing strategies to attain overall strategic objectives.


Marketing Plan - Executive Summary, Situational Analysis, SWOT, Brand Objectives, Marketing Strategy, Action Programs, Budgeting & Control.
Marketing Implementation – Process of converting marketing strategies in to market actions to accomplish strategic marketing objectives (who, where, when & how).
Marketing ROI - The net return from a marketing investment divided by the costs of the marketing investment.
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Then finally, SWOT will give managers options to match internal strengths with external opportunities.
The tool can be used in conjunction with other tools for audit and analysis, such as PEST analysis and Porter’s Five-Forces analysis.
During this lesson we’re going to look at how we audit and evaluate our external business environment. There are plenty of examples of society and culture on the marketing teacher website, so we recommend that you go to our lesson store and look through some of the consumer behaviour pages.
As we saw from our lesson on the functions within an organisation all departments use information technology or technology in one form or another.
There is an environmental movement which puts pressure on businesses, governments and everyday people to be green. For example cars sold in mainland Europe and the United States tend to be left-hand drive, whilst cars which are marketed in Japan and the United Kingdom right-hand drive.
If your government is socialist then perhaps there is a policy to tax more and to invest in the public sector. Obviously if you are studying marketing there is a huge element of economics within the topic itself, and you should be no stranger to the principles of economics. Does technology allow for products and services to be made more cheaply and to a better standard of quality? Marketing research is a huge topic area and has many processes, procedures, and terminologies that build upon the points above. Marketing research is a huge topic area and has many processes, procedures, and terminologies that build upon the points above. A window manufacturer might sell directly to the homeowner whereby there are no intermediaries.
Employees are an important because they drive value through customer satisfaction and embody the marketing concept.
When we define marketing we often talk about customer needs, how we identify needs, satisfy them and anticipate them into the future. If a competitor launches a new product for example, you will review your own marketing plan.
There are examples of alliances and joint ventures in the car industry such as those between Toyota, Peugeot and Citroen in Europe.
From a manufacturing point of view suppliers would supply raw materials and components which are transformed into finished goods.
Lists are collated, or purchased, and a predesigned questionnaire is mailed to a sample of respondents. Often used in banking, retailing, travel, cafes and restaurants, and many other customer focused organizations, mystery shoppers will enter, posing as real customers. Highly experienced researchers work with the focus group to gather in depth qualitative feedback. They are asked to complete a diary that lists and records their purchasing behavior of a period of time (weeks, months, or years). The organisation will be one of many that simply want to a straightforward answer to a simple question.
The examples below consider the contexts of FMCG, B2B, services marketing, voluntary and not-for-profit marketing and online marketing.
So let’s consider a well-known service organization and evaluate how it adapts and modifies the marketing mix. So the business would use TV advertising, newspaper advertising and direct mail campaigns amongst others. Volunteering might include helping to clear land the good of the whole community or visiting elderly people in your area to care for them. Question Marks require heavy investment to maintain market share, can be built into stars or phased out.
Detailed planning by functional departments (in unison) helps to accomplish strategic objectives. To determine the best marketing mix, marketing analysis, planning, implementation & control is used.
A Segment is a group of consumers who respond in similar way to a given set of marketing efforts. Positioning is arranging for a product to occupy a clear, distinctive & desirable place relative to competing products in the minds of consumers. It can create customer value by offering lower prices or offering more benefits to justify higher prices. The outcome should be an increase in ‘value’ for customers – which hopefully will improve our competitive advantage. So SWOT is a very popular tool with marketing students because it is quick and easy to learn. Two people rarely come-up with the same final version of SWOT.  TOWS analysis is extremely similar. Some notable examples would include the influence of learning, memory, emotion and perception, motivation, lifestyle and attitude and consumer culture.
Smart phones such as Android and iPhone are now common – all – garden, and we are used to being able to access information and communication technology instantly no matter where we are. There are a number of examples of how companies can be greener internally and externally, from addressing manufacturing today, to designing a much more sustainable future.


On the other hand if you have a more conservative or Republican government then the free-market is left to take control, taxation is less and there is often a smaller public sector. As we saw from our lesson on the marketing environment there is a macroenvironment, and internal environment and the microenvironment.
Political (and legal) forces, Economic forces, Sociocultural forces, and Technological forces.
It is not uncommon to find errors in sampling, data collection method, or analytic mistakes.
This will contain charts, tables, and diagrams that will communicate the results of the research, and hopefully lead to a solution to your problem. Let’s just review what microenvironment is again based upon the earlier lesson on the marketing environment which contains the topic. Distributors are important channels since large manufacturing brands do not wish to distribute all the way to the final consumer.
Stakeholders are the publics with whom you interact for example your neighbours, and other interested parties. Competitors, whom are part of your microenvironment and compete for your customers, might try to take your best employees and might distribute through the same channels as your company. From a retail perspective suppliers would deliver produce which is broken down from bulk, packaged and merchandised in stores to attract customers and consumers.
However responses will increase if an incentive is offered such as a free newsletter, or free membership.
There are many examples of such approaches including: Inkblot tests – look for images in a series of inkblots Cartoons – complete the ‘bubbles’ on a cartoon series Sentence or story completion Word association – depends on very quick (subconscious) responses to words Psychodrama – Imagine that you are a product and describe what it is like to be operated, warn, or used.
An omnibus survey could include questions from companies in sectors as diverse as heath care and tobacco.
For this example let’s look at Bupa which provide healthcare such as hospital care, health insurance, health assessments, care homes, dental care and other health services. Not-for-profit organizations will often run on donations or government funding, since they are not free but instead aim to breakeven. External value delivery networks can be formed via partnering with other firms in the marketing system e.g. Differentiation is actually differentiating the firm’s market offerings to create more value for consumers & is essential for Positioning. Have a look at the six living generations in America, social environment and class, the impact of your birth order on how you behave as a consumer and take a look at the eight types of online shoppers. During studies or at work we have access to information on quick PCs and over the Internet, with faster broadband connections arriving in many parts of the world.
Different countries have different laws in relation to maximum speed limits and safety ratings on vehicles, as well as many other bylaws and codes. For example Coca-Cola cannot have a direct supplier relationship with every consumer (although it does have a strong brand relationship with consumers). The key to the microenvironment is that it is relatively controllable and we have some influence over how things happen, whereas with the macroenvironment we have far less influence. Your local community or neighbours are stakeholders, for example think of the local community’s influence when a car firm wants to build a new factory, or when an airport wants to build a new runway. Today suppliers are a vital part of the supply chain, which sees valued-added at all stages from conception to consumption (and post-purchase evaluation). Discussion, opinion, and beliefs are encouraged, and the research will probe into specific areas that are of interest to the company commissioning the research.
Observers will contemplate how the product is handled, how the packing is read, how much time the consumer spends with the product, and so on.
However, by collecting a series of diaries with a number of entries, the researcher has a reasonable picture of purchasing behavior. The research is far cheaper, and commit less time and effort than conducting your own research. Telephone interviews are cheaper to conduct than face-to-face interviews (on a per person basis). Nike Running), successful companies seek full market coverage via offering a range of products to meet the needs of each segment. Here are a few of the leading thinkers on the topic (and if you have more please let us know so that we can add them). Our logistics and warehousing functions use forklifts and lorries as well as order tracking technology and software.
It not only includes ‘market’ research, but also areas such as research into new products, or modes of distribution such as via the Internet. We think less of the Product Life Cycle (PLC) and more about the Customer Life Cycle (CLC) whereby we attempt to recruit and retain customers, and then extend products and services to them throughout their lives. Other face-to-face interviews are more ‘in depth,’ and depend upon more open forms of questioning. Mail surveys are less popular with the advent of technologies such as the Internet and telephones, especially call centers. The customer service department will use communication technology to talk to customers but will also have access to internal systems, such as technology to simplify credit control and stock control for example.
Employees would need to be recruited and trained, motivated and developed, all of which would support the functions and philosophy of marketing.
Okay the Olympics is well-known for attracting huge investment from brands for sponsorship.



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