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This system is composed of five modules: Definition, Organization, Process, Campaign as well as Report. Definition module: this module includes all the items needed defining such as Country, City, Language, Organization Type, Card Type, Gift Type as well as Order Status. Organization module: this module enables users to define organization and to set hierarchal relations among different organizations.
Process module: this module not only allows users to create new products, gifts, clients as well as cards, but also enables users to create orders.
Campaign module: this module allows users to create the activity, including specifying the type, time and places of the activity. With a wealth of experience in MVC and Telerik third-party components, Nova have completed many related projects for different clients and won their unanimous approval and recognition. Most importantly, agile development, together with relatively low proposal, allows clients to get high quality products with the least input of time and money. We send to the clients daily and weekly report, indicating our progress and time we spend on each task.
We develop faster than the client expects and the functionalities developed by us fully match with the client??s requirements. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS.
For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. When you visit your physician, you want to think that her training and education have completely prepared her for dealing with whatever condition sent you there. Recognize the role professional selling plays in society and in firmsa€™ marketing strategies. Youa€™ve created a great product, youa€™ve priced it right, and youa€™ve set a wonderful marketing communication strategy in motion.
In addition to acting on behalf of their firms, sales representatives also act on behalf of their customers. From societya€™s perspective, selling is wonderful when professional salespeople act on behalf of both buyers and sellers. At the beginning of the chapter, we described a real-life situationa€”a cardiac surgeon with a high-risk patient is wondering what to do. All these are true stories of how salespeople create value by understanding the needs of their customers and then create solutions to meet those needs. Adapting a message or product on the fly isna€™t something that can be easily accomplished with other types of marketing communication. Because their time is limited, sales representatives have to decide which accounts they have the best shot at winning and which are the most lucrative. Salespeople are boundary spannersPeople who work both inside and outside their organizations. Similarly, salespeople interact directly with customers and, in so doing, gather a great deal of useful information about their needs. Aplicor is a computer software program that enables salespeople to capture and track information on their accounts. A missionary salespersonA salesperson who calls on people who make decisions about products but dona€™t actually buy them. There are salespeople who also work with a€?market influencers.a€? Mary Gros works at Teradata, a company that develops data warehousing solutions.
A trade salespersonSomeone who calls on retailers and provides them assistance with merchandising and selling products to consumers.
Trade salespeople like Eddy Patterson for Stubba€™s help retailers promote and sell products to consumers.
A prospectorA salesperson whose primary responsibility is prospecting, or finding potential customers. In some B2B situations, the prospector finds a prospect and then turns it over to another salesperson to close the deal. Account managersA salesperson responsible for ongoing business with a customer who uses a product. Taylor Bergstrom, who began his career as a sales representative for the Texas Rangers baseball team, is now an account manager for the club. Taylor Bergstrom, a Baylor University graduate, began his career as a sales representative prospecting for the Texas Rangers baseball team. Account managers also have to identify lead users (people or organizations likely to use new, cutting-edge products) and build relationships with them.
Sales support work with salespeople to help make a sale and to take care of the customer after the sale.
Salespeople act as representatives for other people, including employees who work in other parts of their companies. Be able to select the selling strategy needed to achieve the desired customer relationship.
Some buyers and sellers are more interested than others in building strong relationships with each other. Firms can often achieve economies of scale, such as lower delivery costs by sending full trucks, when they sell to bigger customers. Marketers also want stronger relationships with customers who are innovative, such as lead users. Salespeople are also tasked with maintaining relationships with market influencers who are not their customers.
As this figure depicts, business relationships range from transactional, or one-time purchases, to strategic partnerships that are often likened to a marriage.
At one end of the spectrum are transactional relationships; each sale is a separate exchange, and the two parties to it have little or no interest in maintaining an ongoing relationship. Functional relationships are limited, ongoing relationships that develop when a buyer continues to purchase a product from a seller out of habit, as long as her needs are met. Affiliative selling relationships are more likely to occur when the buyer needs a significant amount of expertise needed from the seller and trust is an issue.
A strategic partnership is one in which both the buyer and seller to commit time and money to expand a€?the piea€? for both parties. GEa€™s GEnx aircraft engines were developed to meet air travel and cargo companiesa€™ needs for better fuel efficiency and faster flights.
Going back to the value equation, in a transactional relationship, the buyer calculates the value gained after every transaction.
Note that these types of relationships are not a processa€”not every relationship starts at the transactional level and moves through functional and affiliative to strategic. A salespersona€™s selling strategies will differ, depending on the type of relationship the buyer and seller either have or want to move toward. Salespeople memorize and deliver sales pitches verbatim when they utilize a script-based sellingA form of selling in which the salesperson memorizes a sales pitch and delivers it verbatim to each prospective customer. National Cash Register, now NCR, was one of the first companies to professionalize selling with a sales school in 1894. The process of asking questions to identify a buyera€™s problems and needs and then tailoring a sales pitch to satisfy those needs is called needs-satisfaction sellingThe process of asking questions to identify a potential buyera€™s needs and then tailoring the sales pitch to satisfy those needs.. When the quality of the relationship between the buyer and seller moves toward a strategic partnership, the selling strategy gets more involved than even consultative selling. The sales-strategy types and relationship types we discussed dona€™t always perfectly match up as we have described them.
The typical sales process involves several stages, beginning with the preapproach and ending with customer service. In the approach, the salesperson attempts to capture enough of the prospective customera€™s attention and interest in order to continue the sales call.
A typical sales process starts with the preapproach and move through several stages to the close. With the buyera€™s permission, the salesperson then moves into a needs identification section.
A presentation is then made that shows how the offering satisfies the needs identified earlier. When all the objections are resolved to the buyera€™s satisfaction, the salesperson should ask for the sale. When done properly, closing is a natural part of the process and a natural part of the conversation.
The sales process used to sell products is generally the same regardless of the selling strategy used. Some buyers and sellers are more interested in building strong relationships with one another than others. The cycle starts with a leadThe contact information for someone who might be interested a salespersona€™s product., which is often nothing more than contact information of someone who might be interested in the salespersona€™s product. A suspectA person or organization that has an interest in an offering but hasna€™t indicated if they are going to purchase.
As you know, the key metric, or measure, salespeople are evaluated on are the revenues they generate. Salespeople can track their conversion ratios to identify which stages of the sales cycle they need to work on. How many sales calls of each type a representative has to make in a certain period of time are activity goalsThe number and type of sales calls a representative is expected to make in a certain period of time.. A win-loss analysisThe process of reviewing each sales cycle after it is completed to identify key factors that accounted for the win or the loss of a sale.
Commissions are more common when sales cycles are short and selling strategies tend to be more transactional than relationship oriented. In Figure 13.11 "An Example of the Sales Data Sales Managers Utilize", you can see a sample of data a sales manager may review.
Tables such as this provide information that managers use to evaluate sales performance against expected sales, or quota. In addition to tracking complaints, companies measure customer satisfaction levels through surveys. The sales cycle is a basic unit of measurement indicating how long it takes to close a sale. Sales executives track the same metrics as individual salespeople but at the aggregate level.
When faced with an opportunity to exaggerate in job interviews, who would exaggerate more: professors, politicians, preachers, or salespeople? In the second issue, the concern is whether the gift is so extravagant that it is considered a bribe. Lavish gifts like this watch may be nice, but many buyers will consider it too lavish and wonder about the salespersona€™s motives. The third issue is tough for salespeople because there are two factors involved: a possible violation of company policy and providing an unfair advantage to one customer. In the final issue, the question is whether the salesperson is cheating the company out of time and effort. Even though it is a beautiful day for golf, a salesperson who takes time away from the job is stealing time from the company, and losing sales opportunities as well. The first step is to develop policies based on the companya€™s mission and values (recall these from Chapter 2 "Strategic Planning") that describe what is acceptable and what is not.
Note that these codes of ethics, the FSG, and the policies and procedures affect all employees. Recently, one sales manager reported a customer who said he did not want Muslims calling on him. In sales, several laws apply that also apply in other areas of marketing but are more prominent in sales.
Laws that affect sales operations include pricing discrimination, which we discuss in Chapter 15 "Price, the Only Revenue Generator", and privacy laws, discussed earlier. For these reasons, sales managers should develop close working relationships with the human resources department.
Over the past three decades, subtle changes have taken place in the theory and practice of marketing which has been reshaping companies. More and more companies are contemplating the need to control an ever larger and rapidly changing market  structure and the competitive environment. Managing marketing information by means of IT has become one of the most vital elements of effective marketing.  By collecting and sharing marketing information and by using it to promote corporate and brand image, IS offer new ways of improving internal efficiencies of the firm. Few such systems are gaining popularity day by day, thanks to the marketing of the benefits by IBM, Oracle and SAS. These sales and marketing productivity tools combine many of the features of database, catalogue and contact management softwares with often a unique opportunity management and quotation module.
These new generation information systems controls every aspect of your marketing and sales from cold prospecting to even confirmed orders or e-fulfillment. It is time for every marketing manager to rethink, how to drive his sales using the information at his disposal and rethink the entire sales strategy.
The aim of this project is to build a MVC3 mall marketing management platform based on Telerik??s MVC components. Development team send work reports to clients on a daily basis so as to give clients a clear understanding of the progress of the day.
Thus, the client knows how the project is going and can manage the project in an easier and more efficient manner. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Whenever a salesperson goes back to her company with a customera€™s request, be it for quicker delivery, a change in a product feature, or a negotiated price, she is voicing the customera€™s needs. The salesperson has a fiduciary responsibility (in this case meaning something needs to be sold) to the company and an ethical responsibility to the buyer. When a salesperson tells a customer a product will be delivered in three days, she has made a promise that will either be kept or broken by her companya€™s shipping department.
Role conflictA situation in which someone faces competing expectations from two or more people or groups; for example, a salesperson who has a customer who wants one thing and a boss who wants another.
Many people think so in part because certain types of salespeople have earned poor reputations that have tarnished the entire profession. Society benefits because salespeople help buyers make more informed decisions and help their companies succeed, which, in turn, creates jobs for people and products they can use.
While a growing number of universities are offering a major in sales, the demand for professional salespeople often outstrips supply, creating opportunities for marketing majors.
The physician calls Ted Schulte at Guidant to get his input on how to handle the situation. Salespeople can adapt the offering, such as in the Sanderson Farms example, or they can adapt how they present the offering so that it is easier for the client to understand and make the right decision. Granted, some Web sites are designed to adapt the information and products they display based on what a customer appears to be interested in while he or she is looking at the sites. Once a salesperson has decided to pursue an account, a strategy is devised and implemented, and if a sale happens, the salesperson is also responsible for ensuring that the offering is implemented properly and to the customera€™s satisfaction.
Salespeople recognize that business is not about making friends, but about making and retaining customers.
Salespeople are boundary spanners., in that they operate outside the boundaries of the firm and in the field.
The salespeople then pass the information along to their firms, which use it to create new offerings, adjust their current offerings, and reformulate their marketing tactics.
This information can then be used by marketing mangers to design better marketing strategies and offerings. They can be categorized by the customers they work with, such as whether they are consumers, other businesses, or government institutions. Gros calls on college faculty who have the power to influence decision makers when it comes to the data warehouses they use, either by consulting for them, writing research papers about data warehousing products, or offering opinions to students on the software. The salesperson might be responsible for closing the sales or simply turning the prospects over to someone else to close.
Or the prospector may take the prospect all the way through the sales process and close the sale. Satisfying long-term customers and persuading them to reorder products are important activities for account managers. Bergstrom spent a lot of time calling people who had purchased single game tickets in an effort to sell them fifteen-game packages or other special-ticket packages.
At ResearchNow, a marketing research company headquartered in Dallas, sales support help salespeople price projects and prepare bids. Salespeople create value for their customers, manage relationships, and gather information for their firms. Generally speaking, however, all marketers are interested in developing stronger relationships with large customers. Similarly, marketers seek out customers with status or who are recognized by others for having expertise.
As mentioned earlier, Mary Gros at Teradata works with professors and with consultants so that they know all about Teradataa€™s data warehousing solutions. Somewhere in between are functional and affiliative relationships that may look like friendships. For example, when you fill up your car with gas, you might not care if ita€™s gas from Exxon, Shell, or another company. If therea€™s a gas station near your house that has good prices, you might frequently fill up there, so you dona€™t have to shop around.
Ted Schulte describes one segment of his market as affiliative; the people in this segment trust Schultea€™s judgment because they rely on him to help them make good decisions on behalf of patients. As the relationship strengthens, value calculations become less transaction oriented and are made less frequently. There are essentially four selling strategies: script-based selling, needs-satisfaction selling, consultative selling, and strategic partnering. Today, the company is a major seller of not only cash registers but also many other products, such as the scanner shown here, which you may see in a grocery or clothing store.


Even if they do, a script can provide a salesperson with a polished and professional description of how an offering meets each of their needs. This form of selling works best if the needs of customers vary, but the products being offered are fairly standard. The key difference between the two is the degree to which a customized solution can be created. In strategic-partner sellingA situation in which a buyer and seller jointly invest resources and share their expertise to create solutions designed to grow one anothera€™s businesses., both parties invest resources and share their expertise with each other to create solutions that jointly grow one anothera€™s businesses.
Again, it depends on how the buyer wants to buy and what information the buyer needs to make a good decision. In between are other stages, such as the needs-identification stage (where you would ask SPIN questions), presentation stage, and closing stage (see Figure 13.8 "The Typical Sales Process").
During this stage, a salesperson may use LinkedIn to find the right person to call and to learn about that person. Good salespeople continue with making sure the customer gets the product, uses it right, and is happy with it. Asking for the sale is called the closeA request for a commitment or decision from the buyer., or a request for a decision or commitment from the buyer. But if pushed inappropriately, buyers can feel manipulated or trapped and may not buy even if the decision would be a good one. The four types of relationships between buyers and sellers are transactional, functional, affiliative, and strategic. To follow up on the lead, the salesperson might phone or drop by to see the person identified in the lead. If the relationship between the company and the buyer is one that will be ongoing, the buyer is considered one of the salespersona€™s a€?accounts.a€? Note that the buyer made a decision each step of the way in the cycle, thereby moving further down the funnel.
Sometimes the average revenue generated per customer and the average revenue generated per sales call are measured to determine if a salesperson is pursuing customers that are the most lucrative. Conversion ratiosThe rate at which a salesperson moves, or converts, potential customers from one stage of the sales cycle to the next. As Figure 13.10 "How Activities and Conversions Drive Sales" illustrates, activities and conversions drive sales. Most salespeople are paid some form of incentive pay, such as a bonus or commission, which is determined by how much they sell.
The metrics we discussed earlier can be used by the sales manager to evaluate salespeople, promote them, or pinpoint areas in which they need more training.
Sales by product or by product line, especially viewed over time, can provide the sales executive with insight into whether a product should be divested or needs more investment. If the firma€™s sales are declining, is the company in a seasonal slump it will come out of, or does the firm have a serious, ongoing problem? Salespeople examine their performance at each stage of the sales cycle in order to identify specific areas for improvement. If many salespeople are struggling with one stage of the sales cycle, for example, then additional training or marketing may be needed, or a new strategy is necessary.
Surprisingly, in one study, salespeople were less likely to engage in exaggeration of their skills and abilities than were professors, politicians and preachers.
In some companies, such as IBM and Walmart, buyers are not allowed to accept so much as a free cup of coffee from a seller. Customers may not know that their special request could get the salesperson in trouble and the request may be reasonable, just against company policy.
Some argue that a salesperson who is paid straight commission (paid by the sale) is not stealing anything from the company, but others argue that even in that instance, the company is being deprived of possible sales that would be gained if the salesperson was working. Taking a customer to play may be a different story; such a game may be a time to strengthen a relationship, as long as the customer does not feel manipulated or obligated.
In the United States, two basic principles of business are that everyone should have an equal opportunity to earn business, and the customer remains free to make a choice.
Even inside salespeople may be able to get away with less than ethical behavior as no supervisor can watch or hear everything. Good ethical policies not only list or describe appropriate and inappropriate behaviors; they also describe the underlying principles. One reason for such training is to secure greater support and application of the policy, but another reason is that, should a salesperson engage in an unethical or illegal activity, the company is protected.
The company must also enforce the policy and have procedures in place that make enforcement possible.
Another sales manager said when she and her salesperson (another woman) sat down with a buyer (a male), the buyer had pornography on his computer monitor.
In addition, laws regarding hiring practices, workplace safety, and others can affect sales managers. These professionals, along with the legal department, are charged with staying abreast of legal changes that influence management practice. These changes have also been evident in marketing and management related information systems.
The information processing requirements of companies are expanding  as their industries become more dynamic and volatile. Information systems allow dynamic marketing  communication between personnel in corporate planning, accounting, advertising and sales promotion, product management, channels of distribution and direct sales. One such of the more popular systems, an emerging concept of marketing and sales productivity (MSP) systems, consists of four subsystems: salesperson productivity tools, direct mail, telemarketing and sales management, is getting popular day by day.
Also, they combine the rich features provided by decision support systems made for sales forecasting and planning. These even help to integrate and co-ordinate sales and marketing activities for sales pipeline tracking and maximize potential return. Our authors are educators from top QS ranked universities and practitioners from multinational enterprises.
At present, Nova has several teams which are engaged in developing projects based on Telerik third-party components.
At the same time, weekly work reports are also delivered to clients, which enable them to have a better project management. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (19 MB) or just this chapter (1 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). Yet Schulte, an account representative who sells pacemakers for Guidant, was on the phone talking to one of his clients, a cardiologist. Similarly, the house or apartment you live in may have been designed by an architect, but that architecta€™s choices in materials and design elements were influenced by salespeople, each of whom are experts in a particular product category. In this chapter, we explore the role professional selling plays in terms of a companya€™s marketing strategy.
Companies count on their sales and marketing teams not only to sell products but to the lay the groundwork to make it happen.
When the salesperson accepts a contract with certain terms, she has made a promise to the customer that will either be kept or broken by her companya€™s credit department. As a result, some business students avoid sales despite the very high earnings potential and personal growth opportunities. Sales is a great place to start a career not only because the earnings are at the top of any business major but because sales is the only place to really learn what is happening in the market. Schulte recommends the appropriate pacemaker and offers to drive one hundred miles early in the morning in order to be able to answer any questions that might arise during the surgery. The result is that customers dona€™t get their invoices in a timely fashion, so they dona€™t pay quickly and dona€™t pay the correct amounts.
The chamber representative from Waco, though, locates an enterprise zone that reduces the companya€™s taxes for a period of time, and then works with a local banker to get the company better financing. But unless the site has a a€?chat with a representativea€? feature, there is no real dialogue occurring.
There are other ways in which they deliver value, but it is how much they sell that determines most of the value they deliver to their companies. Or the need to sell at a very low cost may make retail stores or online selling more attractive. Although buyers tend to purchase products from salespeople they like, being liked is not enough. The system also helps salespeople manage their accounts better, because they have access to more customer information. For example, a pharmaceutical representative might call on a physician to provide the doctor with clinical information about a medicationa€™s effectiveness.
In an effort to influence what they write about Teradataa€™s offerings, Gros also visits with analysts who write reviews of products. The primary responsibility is to make sales, but the activity that drives the salespersona€™s success is prospecting. Account managers work closely with these lead users and build relationships across both their companies so that the two organizations can innovate together. At Oracle, an information systems provider, sales support assist by engineering solutions and, like at ResearchNow, pricing offerings and preparing proposals. There are four types of salespeople: missionary salespeople, trade salespeople, prospectors, and account managers. For example, Holt Caterpillar is a Caterpillar construction equipment dealer in Texas and is recognized among Caterpillar dealers for its innovativeness.
Professors who teach data warehousing influence future decision makers, whereas consultants and market analysts influence todaya€™s decision makers. The more you trust a certain friend or family member, the more you share intimate information with the person, and the stronger your relationship is. For example, GE manufactures the engines that Boeing uses in the commercial planes it makes. There will be times when either the buyer or the seller engages in actions that are not related directly to the sale but that make the relationship stronger.
From the sellera€™s perspective, the motivation to relate is a function of an accounta€™s size, innovation, status, and total lifetime value. The salesperson will ask the customer a few questions to uncover his or her need, and then provides the details that meet it as spelled out in the script. With consultative sellingA selling strategy in which a salesperson uses special expertise to create a somewhat customized solution to a buyera€™s problem., the seller uses special expertise to solve a complex problem in order to create a somewhat customized solution. Schulte, for example, positions himself as a strategic partner to the cardiologists he works with.
For example, although script-based selling is generally used in transactional sales relationships, it can be used in other types of sales relationships as well, such as affiliative-selling relationships.
In addition, a Google search may be performed to find the latest news on the company, while a search of financial databases, such as Standard & Poora€™s, can provide additional news and information. A benefit that could apply to just about any customer may also be offered to show that the time will be worthwhile. The automatic zoom would provide no benefit if the customer didna€™t want to take pictures of objects both near and far. A prospect may object in the approach, saying there isna€™t enough time available for a sales call or nothing is needed right now. In complex selling situations that require many sales calls, the close may be a request for the next meeting or some other action. For example, if the problem is a new one that requires a customized solution, the salesperson and buyer are likely to spend more time in the needs identification stage. The four basic sales strategies salespeople use are script-based selling, needs-satisfaction selling, consultative selling, and strategic-partner selling. Theya€™ve agreed to meet with the salesperson and will possibly listen to the sales script or participate in a needs-identification process.
How many prospects and suspects a salesperson has in the pipelineThe amount of time or number of steps it takes to make a sale; also called the sales cycle or funnel.
His conversion ratios also tell him how many sales calls he has to make each day or week to generate a sale and how many calls must be made on leads, suspects, and prospects to convert them.
More calls translate into more conversions, and more conversions translate into more sales.
Each sales opportunity after the customer has bought something (or decided to buy nothing) is examined to determine what went wrong and what went right.
A bonusPay based on overall sales performance; it may be based on how well an individual salesperson does, how the team does, or how the company performs.
Many financial services salespeople are paid a commission but expected to also build a long-lasting relationship with clients.
If the sales for the product line are declining but the producta€™s market share is holding firm, then the entire market is shrinking. Sales executives are also constantly concerned about what the firma€™s sales are doing relative to what was forecasted for them. Was the shortfall due to Jerrya€™s inability to sell, or did something happen in the territory?
Dissatisfied customers not only stop buying a companya€™s products, they often tell their friends and family members about their bad purchasing experiences. The score could mean that everyone is, on average, happy and therefore gave the company a rating of 3.0. A salesperson who shortens the cycle is able to generate more revenue with the same amount of effort.
Sales executives also look at their firma€™s sales relative to their forecasts in order to spot possible trends.
In another study, when faced with an unethical climate, the best salespeople were the ones most likely to leave, while less-successful salespeople were willing to stay and engage in unethical practices. The salesperson may hold that information, such as how many cases of the product they purchase or who their customers are, but that salesperson does not have the right to share that information with the customera€™s competitor.
These companies do not allow their buyers to receive promotional items such as a pen or coffee cup with the sellera€™s logo on it because they want every vendor to have free access to sales opportunities and earn the business on their merits, not their freebies. In that instance, the salesperson should not follow through on the request, though it might make sense to see if the policy can be changed. Manipulation, a form of unethical sales behavior, unfairly reduces or eliminates a buyera€™s ability or opportunity to make a choice. Not all ethical dilemmas can be listed in a policy, so by detailing the principles and values that make up the reasoning behind the policies, salespeople and sales managers will be more prepared to respond appropriately.
Not only do these cover how salespeople (and other company representatives) should interact with customers, they also detail how employees should treat each other and how the companya€™s vendors should be treated.
The Federal Sentencing Guidelines (FSG) were first developed in 1987 and then updated in 2007, and specify what happens to companies when employees commit breaches of ethics. For example, a company should have a mechanism for reporting unethical activity in a way that protects the person making the report.
Marketers have faced ethics challenges in how claims are made in advertising, while supply chain managers have encountered dilemmas in dealing ethically with vendors. If global sales situations arise, the Federal Corrupt Practices Acta€”which prohibits bribery and other practices that might be culturally acceptable elsewhere but that are illegal in the United Statesa€”comes into play. To handle the increasing external and internal information flow and to improve its quality, companies will need to take advantage of the opportunities offered by modern information technology (IT) and information systems (IS). Information technology-based marketing database systems (MkIS) have been in vogue for a pretty long time without getting the importance it deserves, especially from the SMEs. However, these new, more operational, IS are yet to realize their potential in the context  of the MkIS concept. Research has indicated that sales are often boosted by as much as 30% by adopting an MSP system such as these. These systems are expected to encourage best practice and introduces customer focused methodology to the business. Not only was the food you eat sold to the grocery store by a salesperson, but the ingredients were also sold to the food companies by salespeople. We also look at the factors that enhance a firma€™s success when it markets and sells its products through salespeople.
Unless your company is able to sell the product entirely over the Internet, you probably have a lot more work to do.
Like Ted Schulte, the salesperson is the expert but, in this case, an expert representing the customera€™s needs back to the company. For example, what should a salesperson do if the product meets only most of a buyera€™s needs, while a competitora€™s product is a perfect fit?
What if the credit department and shipping department cana€™t agree on the shipping terms the customer should receive? Now couple the situation we just mentioned with the fact that the salesperson has a personal interest in whether the sale is made or not. You might be surprised to learn, however, that one study found that salespeople are less likely to exaggerate in order to get what they want than politicians, preachers, and professors. In addition, the rep gets a local technical college involved so Sanderson will have enough trained employees.
The ability to engage in dialogue helps salespeople better understand their customers and their needs and then create valuable solutions for them. But in situations requiring adaptation, customer education, and other value-adding activities, salespeople can be the best channel to reach customers. An important function for them, then, is to report back to headquarters about their competitorsa€™ new offerings and strategies. Most professional sales positions involve selling to other businesses, but many also sell to consumers like you. Patterson calls on major supermarket chains like HEB for Stubba€™s Bar-B-Q, a company that makes barbecue sauces, rubs, marinades, and other barbecuing products. The potential customers have a need, but for any number of reasons, they are not actively looking for products to meet those needsa€”perhaps because they lack information about where to look for them or simply havena€™t had the time to do so. A new customer may be found by a prospector and then turned over to an account manager, or new accounts may be so rare that the account manager is directly responsible for identifying and closing them. He works with season ticket holders to ensure that they have a great experience over the course of a season, regardless of whether the Rangers win or lose. Order takers include retail sales clerks and salespeople for distributors of products, like plumbing supplies or electrical products, who sell to plumbers and electricians. At ResearchNow, the sales support staff also helps deliver the project, whereas at Oracle, another team takes over when the sale is made. Because serving one large customer can often be more profitable than serving several smaller customers, even when the large customer receives quantity discounts. Customers such as Holt influence others (recall that we discussed these opinion leaders in Chapter 3 "Consumer Behavior: How People Make Buying Decisions").


The relationships between salespeople and customers are similar to those you have, which range from acquaintance to best friend (see Figure 13.5 "The Relationship Continuum"). MRO (maintenance, repair, and operations) items, such as such as nuts and bolts used to repair manufacturing equipment are often sold on the basis of functional relationships. Both companies work together to advance the state of engine technology because it gives them both an edge. For example, a GE engineer may spend time with Boeing engineers simply educating them on a new technology. The term a€?canneda€? comes from the fact that the sales pitch is standardized, or a€?straight out of a can.a€? Back in the late 1880s, companies began to use professional salespeople to distribute their products. Scripts also ensure that the salesperson includes all the important details about a product. For example, Schneider-TAC is a company that creates customized solutions to make office and industrial buildings more energy efficient. An affiliative-sales position may still, for example, need to demonstrate new products, a task for which a script is useful. A salesperson may also search internal data in order to determine if the potential buyer has any history with the company. In this stage, the salesperson is attempting to convince the buyer to spend time exploring the possibility of a purchase.
Highly complex situations may require that questions be asked of many people in the buying organization. When the close involves an actual sale, the next step is to deliver the goods and make sure the customer is happy. The salesperson introduces himself or herself and the company to the buyer and determines if the buyer has any interest in purchasing the firma€™s products.. During the needs-identification stage, the salesperson is trying to qualify the account as a prospect.
Perhaps everyone needs training in a particular stage of the sales process, or perhaps the leads generated by marketing are not effective, and new marketing ideas are warranted. A shrinking market can mean the firm needs to look for new markets or develop new offerings. Forecasts turn in to sales quotasThe minimum level of sales performance for an individual salesperson., or minimum levels of sales performance for each salesperson. Selling 7 percent more is a good thing, but an astute manager would want to know why sales were short by over $200,000. For example, if a hurricane came ashore in the Carolinas or if Jerry had a health problem arise, the managera€™s concern would be different than if Jerry lost a major account or had a history of failing to reach quota.
Because many sales executives are held accountable not only for their firmsa€™ sales levels but also for profit levels. Or the score could mean that half of the customers are wildly enthusiastic and gave the company a 5 while the other half was bitterly disappointed and rated the company a 1.
Salespeople also track their conversion ratios to identify which stages of the sales cycle they need to work on. A firma€™s sales trends affect many of the other decisions the companya€™s executives have to make, including manufacturing and output decisions. In many instances, a buyer may ask the seller to sign a nondisclosure agreement because, in order to serve the buyer, the seller will gain access to important private information about that buyer. The second factor, though, is a bit more difficult because the request can be unfair to other customers, and may cause legal problems. Persuasion, on the other hand, may influence a buyera€™s decision, but the decision remains the buyera€™s. Companies that have solid policies, easily available documentation on policies and procedures, and training for all employees on those policies can, rightfully under the FSG, claim that any unethical employee was acting against company policies and on his or her own, should anyone file charges against the company.
Many companies have anonymous message boxes that enable an employee to report unethical activity. Managers, in any area of the firm, encounter challenges regarding equal opportunity and creating an appropriately professional work environment.
So should a sales manager schedule all training sessions on weekends, when buyers are at home and not available for sales calls?
Information System is the intersection of  technology (IT) with the processes and people that drive the business.
Research has indicated that it is the bigger MNCs which have embraced technology for marketing earlier. These also enable telesales prompts that develop cross selling opportunities which affect the overall sales by often as high as 80%. For example, if you want consumers to be able to buy the product in a retail store, someone will first have to convince the retailer to carry the product.
Another study looked at how business students responded to ethical dilemmas versus how professional salespeople responded.
When this belief is coupled with a genuine concern for the welfare of the customera€”a concern that most salespeople sharea€”society cana€™t lose. Jay King, a salesperson from DG Vault, recommends the wholesaler purchase an electronic invoicing system. They also have to recognize that the goal is not to just close one deal, but as many deals as possible in the future.
A companya€™s marketing department, for example, can then use that data to pinpoint segments of customers with which to communicate directly. Patterson makes suggestions about how Stubba€™s products should be priced and where they should be placed in store so they will sell faster. Prospectors often knock on a lot of doors and make a lot of phone calls, which is called cold calling because they do not know the potential accounts and are therefore talking to them a€?cold.a€? Their primary job is to sell, but the activity that drives their success is prospecting. His sales goals include upgrading season ticket holders to more expensive seats, identifying referral opportunities for new season-ticket sales, and selling special-event packages, such as party packages to box-seat holders. Other order takers may work in a call center, taking customer sales calls over the phone or Internet when customers initiate contact. Serving many small customersa€”calling on them, processing all their orders, and dealing with any complaintsa€”is time consuming and costs money. No specific sale may be influenced, but the relationship is made stronger by delivering more value. Companies like National Cash Register (NCR) realized that some salespeople were far more effective than others, so they brought those salespeople into the head office and had them give their sales pitches. SPIN stands for situation questions, problem questions, implications, and needs-payoff, four types of questions that are designed to fully understand how a problem is creating a need.
Schneider-TAC salespeople work with their customers over the course of a year or longer, as well as with engineers and other technical experts, to produce a solution. Likewise, the same questioning techniques used in needs-satisfaction selling might be used in relationships characterized by consultative selling and strategic-partner selling.
Note that such extensive precall planning doesna€™t always happen; sometimes a salesperson is literally just driving by, sees a potential customer, and decides to stop in, but in todaya€™s information age, a lot of precall planning can be accomplished through judicious use of Web-based resources.
In simpler situations, needs may not vary across customers so a canned presentation is more likely. If you look at the viewfinder as I move the camera, you can see how the camera zooms in and out on the objects it sees [Evidence]. For example, the buyer might find that the automatic zoom leads the camera to focus on the wrong object.
Conversely, if ita€™s already clear what the clienta€™s needs are, the presentation stage is likely to be more important. For example, the same questioning techniques used in needs-satisfaction selling might be used in relationships characterized by consultative selling and strategic-partner selling. QualifyingA process of asking questions to determine whether a buyer is likely to become a customer.
The more potential buyers there are in the pipeline, the more revenue a salesperson is likely to generate.
A 10:1 ratio means it took ten leads for the salesperson to get one suspect who agreed to move to the next step. Like a team watching a film after a football game, each member of the sales team can review the process for the purpose of improvement.
As might be expected, these salespeople sell very expensive products that have a very long sales cycle. Sales cycle metrics at the aggregate level can be very useful for making effective managerial decisions. In addition, forecasts turn into orders for raw materials and component parts, inventory levels, and other expenditures of money. Inventory can be balanced against the Southeasta€™s shortfall, but that adds cost to ship from the plant to Atlanta, then to Chicago. Money has to be spent to sell products, of course: If the firm spends too little, the sales force will be unable to perform effectively. Some research studies have shown that average customer satisfaction scores are less important than the number of complaints a company gets. If the latter is the case, then half of the companya€™s customers are telling their friends about their negative experience and discouraging many others from buying. Most salespeople are scrupulously ethical and, like Ted Schulte mentioned at the start of the chapter, they are in sales because they really enjoy working to help people solve problems. But even if there is no nondisclosure agreement, courts are likely to agree with the buyer that the seller has an obligation to protect the buyera€™s information.
Most salespeople agree that lavish entertainment and gifts are becoming less important in business because decision makers know these add to the costs of doing business and theya€™d rather get a better price than be entertained. As long as the special request can be provided to anyone who asks for it, no law is broken.
Manipulation can include misrepresentation, or claiming a product does something it doesna€™t, but it can also include withholding important information, using hard-sell tactics, and other unfair sales tactics.
Solid policies and employee training can then be used as a defense against such charges, and the company would not be held liable. One similar and common practice is to have an ethics office, charged with investigating any complaints.
Does the answer to that question change if the salesperson is paid a salary or a commission? Sales managers have to be aware of such laws in order to avoid creating policies that can be illegal. Traditionally, MkIS has been seen as a system to support marketing management in its decision making. After going through the first module the light in my head went off and I plunged right through the rest. His patient had a number of health problems that caused the doctor to question which pacemaker would best suit her needs. As a result, they have to generate business in order to justify a firma€™s investment in them.
What if managers want the salesperson to sell a product thata€™s unreliable and will swamp the companya€™s customer service representatives with buyersa€™ complaints?
Can you understand how role conflict might result in a person using questionable tactics to sell a product?
In addition to using the data to improve and create and marketing strategies, the information can also help marketing decision makers understand who makes buying decisions, resulting in such decisions as targeting trade shows where potential buyers are likely to be.
Using activities as a basis, there are four basic types of salespeople: missionary salespeople, trade salespeople, prospectors, and account managers.
Patterson also works with his clientsa€™ advertising departments in order to create effective ads and fliers featuring Stubba€™s products.
Many salespeople who sell to consumers would be considered prospectors, including salespeople such as insurance or financial services salespeople, or cosmetic salespeople such as those working for Avon or Mary Kay. A new hospital may be built, but chances are good that it is replacing an existing hospital or is part of an existing hospital chain, so the account would already have coverage. While most account managers sell to businesses, some, like Bergstrom, sell to individual consumers. Some companies are reaching out to opinion leaders in an attempt to create stronger relationships.
A stenographer wrote each pitch down, and then NCRa€™s sales executives combined the pitches into one effective script. This zoom will help you capture those key moments in Juniora€™s basketball games that you were telling me you wanted to photograph [Benefit]. Salespeople should probe to find out if the objection represents a misunderstanding or a hidden need. In this case, the salesperson might use a script-based selling strategy, which focuses on presenting a producta€™s benefits rather than questioning the customer. If the buyer shows interest, the salesperson then moves to the next step in the sales process. When the results are fed to managers, the analysis can help a company develop better products. A bonus plan can be based on how well the company, the individual salesperson, or the salespersona€™s team does.
If the forecast is way off, then money is lost, either because the company ran out of products or because too much was spent to build up inventories that didna€™t sell. Accurate forecasts would have put that product in the Midwesta€™s Chicago warehouse to start with. If the budget to attend trade shows is cut, for example, the quantity and quality of leads salespeople get could falla€”and so could their sales.
Sometimes companies hire firms like TeleSight, an organization capable of tracking satisfaction scores for an entire industry. The FSG requires that companies also have internal auditing procedures to ensure that misconduct can be detected.
Yet in both instances, the managers said they fired the customer, an action that both salespeople were happy with, and they were reassured that the loss of the sale wouldna€™t be held against them. However, it has been found out that the impact in terms of  percentage on sales, have been much more for SMEs. The cardiologista€™s questions had to be answered immediately so the right materials and tools would be available for the procedure.
In other words, marketing managers dona€™t have to ask salespeople directly what customers want; they can pull that information from a customer database. For example, JCPenney uses e-mail and Web sites to form relationships with opinion leaders who will promote its products. As a result, the engineers and other personnel from both companies work very closely in an ongoing relationship. In 1894, the company started one of the worlda€™s first sales schools, which taught people to sell using the types of scripts developed by NCR. Further explanation may resolve the buyera€™s concern or there may need to be a trade-off; yes, a better zoom is available but it may be out of the buyera€™s price range, for example. So, if the representative can make only ten sales calls in a day, then the salesperson with the 5:1 ratio will have produced two suspects versus just one suspect for the other salesperson.
A marketing manager who listens carefully to what salespeople say during a win-loss analysis can develop better advertising and marketing campaigns. Some salespeople are paid only on the basis of commission, but most are paid a salary plus a commission or a bonus. They may get a bonus to provide some incentive, or if they receive a commission, it may be a small part of their overall compensation.
But if the firm spends too much on trade shows, the cost per lead generated increases with no real improvement in the sales forcea€™s productivity. Using a service like this, the sales executive can not only track the companya€™s customer satisfaction scores but also see how they compare with the scores of the industry overall. Pricing discrimination laws could come into play if such a discount is not made available to all who ask. In addition to the management perspective, MkIS can be an essential tool for the entire marketing organization.
And instead of the invoices being only 80 percent accurate, they are close to being 100 percent accurate. The four we describe in the following are all types of order getters; that is, they actively seek to make sales by calling on customers. Perhaps this person is more interested in the miles per gallon, or how big a trailer the vehicle can tow, whereas you are more interested in the vehiclea€™s style and the amount of legroom and headroom it has.
Communicating the same message to the entire market can help shorten the sales cycle for all a companya€™s sales representatives.
What if the request isna€™t illegal, but other customers find out and get upset that they werena€™t offered the same benefit?
Some  researchers have classified IS in marketing by the tasks for which they are customarily used.
It is well worth your time (lots of it) and money! “ – Brent Pohlman3-Month No-Risk 100% Money Back GuaranteeIf you don’t think the Ultimate Marketing System can help catapult your business to fame and fortune just ship it back to me and I will cheerfully refund all your money.
The wholesaler no longer has trouble meeting its payroll because customers are paying more quickly. Wea€™ll also discuss order takers and sales support after we discuss the four types of order getters. The effective salesperson would ask you a few questions, determine what your needs are, and then offer you the right vehicle, emphasizing those points that meet your needs best. A BANT has the budget, authority, need for, and time to purchase a product.) to make a purchase. Similarly, how many suspects did the salesperson convert to prospects and finally to customers? Big box retailers such as Home Depot and Best Buy are examples of large customers that companies want to sell to because they expect to make more profit from the bigger sales they can make. The vehiclea€™s miles per gallon and towing capacity wouldna€™t be mentioned in a conversation with you because your needs are about style and room. In other words, the person has the money to make the purchase and the authority to do so; the person also needs the type of product the salesperson is selling and is going to buy such a product soon.



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