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Promotion plays a role in the perception the possible target audience may have about your service. Services marketing is that elusive concept which stays incomplete without a thorough understanding of 7 Ps.
Also did you read our article on the The 4 P’s of Marketing – The Marketing Mix strategies? The paradigm of marketing mix can be defined as “a unique blend of product, place, promotion, and pricing strategies designed to produce mutually satisfying exchanges with a target market” (Lamb et al, 2011, p.47). The product element of the marketing mix relates to decisions about product design, name of the brand, packaging, warranties etc.
Promotion includes, advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations, and any other activities that are aimed to advertise brand and its products and services.
Nargundkar (2008) convincingly argues that the main benefit of marketing mix paradigm relates to its assistance in selecting competitive edge for the business.
In other words, marketing mix paradigm communicates the idea that it is not possible for businesses to have competitive edge for all four aspects of the business – product, place, promotion, and price, and adopting one element of marketing mix as a source of competitive edge would mean compromising other elements.
For instance, UK clothing retailer Primark has adopted price element as the source of competitive edge for the business, and thus the brand has to compromise on some of the other elements of the marketing mix. There have been many additional Ps added by business researchers over the course of the last several decades, however as Baker and Hart (2007) inform, the most acknowledged additional Ps apart from the original four elements are physical evidence, people, process. Despite the convenience the paradigm of marketing mix offers to marketers and other senior-level managers in terms of decision making, it has faced criticism from a range of business researchers and practitioners and the amount of criticism has increased with the changing market environment in the global level. Specifically, it has to be stressed that “basic criticism has been that the 4Ps represent the seller’s mind-set, not the buyer’s mind-set” (Kotler, 2011, p.69). However, there is no provision for customer relationship management within the paradigm of marketing mix, and this fact can be highlighted as one of the most significant shortages of the concept. The same issue has been discussed during the presentation with the case studies of Apple and Nikkon. Moreover, according to Lambin (2008) the marketing mix paradigm emphasises an “inside-out” approach to marketing, whereas the general marketing concept is supposed to have “outside-in” approach.
To put it simply marketing mix paradigm downplays the role of data about customers when making decisions related to individual ingredients. One of the main advantages of customer relationship management, as it has been discussed in the presentation involves learning about customer needs and desires and offering new products and services to satisfy these needs. Nikons consumer data collection strategy, on the other hand, involves asking relevant questions from customers when they sign up in company website with their e-mails. Marketing mix has been one of the most popular concepts in marketing in the second half of the last century. However, the conditions in the marketplace have changed dramatically and irreversibly mainly during the first decade of the twenty first century due to the increasing forces of globalisation, rapid advancement in technology, increasing role of internet and other factors. Due to these changes the level of competition along all industries has greatly intensified.
At the same time, it would be inappropriate to brand the concept of marketing mix as inadequate the changing marketing environment. In conclusion it can be stated that marketing mix paradigm is still an adequate tool for marketing decision making, however businesses cannot afford to rely on the paradigm as an only tool in terms of satisfying customer needs and wants in the current highly dynamic marketing environment.
Instead, companies are recommended to integrate the use of marketing mix paradigm with proactive customer relationship management practices that would enable to adopt a proactive approach in terms of identifying the future needs and wants of customers and develop products and services in order to satisfy these needs.
This can be defined as “set off controllable, tactical marketing tools by which a company blends to produce the desired response in targeted market. After deciding objectives and goals of company then companies makes its marketing strategy. The old marketing concept was based on “sold products or services what your company made or produced but the modern marketing concept is based on “a company must produce and sell what the customer wants”. Product refers to goods and services or combination of these two which a company offers to sale in a targeted market. Price refers to the amount of money which a company charges against its particular product or services or the amount of money which customer have to pay to obtain a particular product.
Promotion refers to all those activities that communicates the merits, features and attributes of a product and persuade targeted customers to purchase it.
Many marketer and other marketing specialists are now seeing the 4Ps of marketing mix as too product-oriented and they also adopted the 4Cs marketing mix.
A firma€™s product line or lines refers to the assortment of similar things that the firm holds.
Screening and evaluation: Some products that after some analysis are clearly not feasible or are not consistent with the core competencies of the firm are eliminated. Market testing: Frequently, firms will try to a€?testa€? a product in one region to see if it will sell in reality before it is released nationally and internationally. Commercialization: Facilities to manufacture the product on a larger scale are now put into operation and the firm starts a national marketing campaign and distribution effort. The diffusion of innovation refers to the tendency of new products, practices, or ideas to spread among people. Usually, when new products or ideas come about, they are initially only adopted by a small group of people. Several specific product categories have case histories that illustrate important issues in adoption. The case of credit cards was a bit more complicated and involved a a€?chickenA­and-egga€? paradox.
Rap music initially spread quickly among urban youths in large part because of the low costs of recording.
Homophily: The more similar to each other that members of a culture are, the more likely an innovation is to spreada€”people are more likely to imitate similar than different models.
Physical distance: The greater the distance between people, the less likely innovation is to spread. Co-branding involves firms using two or more brands together to maximize appeal to consumers. Certain a€?peripherala€? characteristics of products may a€?signala€? quality or other value to consumers.
Wouldn’t you rather have your direct mail piece in the in-box of an IT director with two or three pieces today than with 10 other pieces like it was a few years ago? You can most certainly take something old fashioned and make it new - perhaps some especially beautiful paper, gorgeous graphic design or some witty and innovative copy writing? Some of the individuals posting to this site, including the moderators, work for Cisco Systems. The company’s goal in terms of price is really to reduce costs through improving manufacturing and efficiency, and most importantly the marketer needs to increase the perceived value of the benefits of its products and services to the buyer or consumer. In order to actively explore the nature of a product further, let’s consider it as three different products – the CORE product, the ACTUAL product, and finally the AUGMENTED product. Promotion includes all of the activities marketers undertake to inform consumers about their products and to encourage potential customers to buy these products. There are a number of perceptions of the concept of process within the business and marketing literature. Marketing Teacher designs and delivers online marketing courses, training and resources for marketing learners, teachers and professionals. As business owners we all want to maximize our profits in any way we can, especially now during the economic downturn.
Adding new revenue streams to an existing business is a great way to improve cash flow during tough times.
These are just a few examples of ways to add revenue streams to your exisitng products and services. During the next week I will be traveling with my schoolteacher wife as she begins her well deserved Summer Vacation. Seeing how different cultures work, how they shop, and what their marketing messages present is an interesting way to evaluate your own business in your own culture. Other things that I will be paying attention to are the displays stores use to sell their wares, the outdoor signage promoting various businesses, and the pricing strategies for market type businesses.
Using your vacations and travel experiences to gain practical  knowledge all while relaxing and enjoying the pool or ocean is a valuable tool toward greater business success. Many managers and business owners face the pitfall of being too close to other managers within the company. Knowing where your business and your employees need to be in one, five, and ten years is essential to the planning process for any business.
By the end of the year we will have reduced variable expenses by 5%, contacted 100 new business prospects, and created an action plan for entering a new market.


Wage Pyramid showing relationship between experience, responsibility and growth opportunities. Who would want to travel 10 miles to have a regular dinner, even if that is priced very competitively and has a super quality? Services being intangible, processes become all the more crucial to ensure standards are met with. These form the critical success factors for any service as evaluated by a possible customer.
Our authors are educators from top QS ranked universities and practitioners from multinational enterprises. The pricing element, on the other hand, relates to decision-making about the pricing strategy and the calculation of total costs of products and services to customers. Place element of the marketing mix mainly involves the location where products and services are sold.
Specifically, if Primark management decide to increase the quality of products and promotion this would result in the prices of its products to be increased, thus its current competitive advantage of low prices would be compromised. In other words, decisions marketers take regarding individual elements of the marketing mix represent their own viewpoint that do not take into account customer’s perspective on these issues. Namely, the presentation has revealed successful consumer relationship management to be critical condition for surviving in the modern marketplace.
Doyle (2008) asserts that the adoption of marketing mix paradigm as the main tool in terms of satisfying customer needs and wants present short-term approach to the important issue of sustaining long-term growth of the business. Specifically, it has been identified that Apple and Nikkon customer relationship management initiatives pursue the primary objective of achieving lifetime customer loyalty through maintaining these relationships in a strategic level.
Muller (2010) specifies that “inside-out” approach involves devising products and services and attempting to raise the interests of the target group to these products and services, whereas “outside-in” approach is more proactive, in a way that initially the needs of customers are studied and only then products and services are devised in order to satisfy these needs. The importance of the role of data about customers is stressed by Kitchen (2010), who specifies customer data as an integral component of customer relationship management. As presentation informs, following this principle has allowed Apple and Nikon to attain leadership positions in their respective markets. The types of data collected include website preferences, behaviour as an internet user, application preferences, demographics etc.
Regardless, of the manner in which customer information is collected, the information plays vital part in devising new products and services for customers. By relying on this concept as the main tool in terms of satisfying customer needs and wants a wide range of companies such as Coca-Cola Company, McDonald’s, Sony Electronics have been able to reach leadership positions in their industries.
As a result, markets are imposing to companies the requirements of establishing relationships with their customers in order to increase the levels of customer attraction and retention, and thus survive in current highly competitive marketplace.
This is because companies still need to make decisions regarding product, price, promotion and place aspects of their products and services and they would also need to base their competitive edge in one or two of these elements.
This refers all those company activities make the products and services available to targeted customers. 4Cs provide useful reminders to marketers for example marketer need to bear in mind the convenience of the customer when deciding where to offer a product or service. Consumer products can be categorized as convenience goods, for which consumers are willing to invest very limited shopping efforts. For example, facing a saturated market for baking soda in its traditional use, Arm & Hammer launched a major campaign to get consumers to use the product to deodorize refrigerators. Until some time in the 1800s, few physicians bothered to scrub prior to surgery, even though new scientific theories predicted that small microbes not visible to the naked eye could cause infection.
Since the cards were used in public, others who did not yet hold the cards could see how convenient they were. Accepting credit cards was not a particularly attractive option for retailers until they were carried by a large enough number of consumers. Later, rap music became popular among a very different segment, suburban youths, because of its apparently authentic depiction of an exotic urban lifestyle. Although hybrid corn provided yields of about 20% more than traditional corn, many farmers had difficulty believing that this smaller seed could provide a superior harvest. In some countries, such as Britain and Saudi Arabia, tradition is greatly valueda€”thus, new products often dona€™t fare too well. Some innovations, such as infant formula adopted in developing countries, may do more harm than good. In a similar manner, some brands often start in a narrow nichea€”either nationally or regionallya€”and may eventually work their way up to a more inclusive national brand.
Some ice cream makers, for example, use their own brand name in addition to naming the brands of ingredients contained. For some products, packaging accounts for a large part of the total product manufacturing cost.
And since we know online marketing tactics have been proven effective, it’s important to find the balance between new and old.
To earn points and badges for participating in the conversation, join Cisco Social Rewards. I enjoy Social Media Marketing mostly, but your blog reminds me to remember classic strategies reborn.
Opinions expressed here and in any corresponding comments are the personal opinions of the original authors, not of Cisco. The marketer mixes the prime colours (mix elements) in different quantities to deliver a particular final colour. Strictly speaking there are no physical attributes to a service, so a consumer tends to rely on material cues. Services tend to be produced and consumed at the same moment, and aspects of the customer experience are altered to meet the individual needs of the person consuming it. Some see processes as a means to achieve an outcome, for example – to achieve a 30% market share a company implements a marketing planning process.
Services can range from financial services provided by the banks, technology services provided by the IT company, food and ambiance as a service provided by restaurants or even a blog where an author provides a service (information presentation, interesting reading etc) to his audience. The attributes of the product, vis-a-vis the attributes offered by competing products and substitutes, are important in estimating the competitive scenario for the marketing strategy formulation.
Promotion leads to service (brand) recognition and further establishes a proxy to evaluate quality of services based by potential customers. Process mapping ensures that your service is perceived as being dependable by your target segment.
The appropriateness of this statement has been illustrated using the case studies of Apple and Nikkon, where it has been identified that these companies have achieved considerable success due to their effective use of consumer data management and consumer relationship management. Nevertheless, this important issue is overlooked within marketing mix paradigm, and thus the concept attracts criticism from some business researchers and practitioners.
Product placement paradigm offers a theoretical tool to accomplish this task in an effective manner.
To apply the 4Cs approach marketer must consider the impact of the “uncontrollable” elements on company’s marketing mix. Thus, it is essential to have these products readily available and have the brand name well known.
In contrast, the firma€™s product mix describes the combination of different product lines that the firm holds. Finally, products can be differentiated in terms of offering different levels of servicea€”for example, Volvo offers a guarantee of free, reliable towing anywhere should the vehicle break down. Some firms have stockholders who want to minimize risk and avoid investing in too many new innovations. The figure will almost certainly be well below that for video games that, even when spread out to a large part of the population, will be of interest to far from everyone. Younger and more progressive physicians began scrubbing early on, but they lacked the stature to make their older colleagues follow.
Although some people were concerned about security, the convenience factors seemed to be a decisive factor in the a€?tug-of-wara€? for and against adoption. Consumers, in contrast, were not particularly interested in cards that were not accepted by a large number of retailers. They were usually reluctant to try it because a failed harvest could have serious economic consequences, including a possible loss of the farm. For example, early buyers of the CD player risked that few CDs would be recorded before the CD player went the way of the 8 track player. For example, birth control is incompatible with religious beliefs that predominate in some areas, and a computer database is incompatible with a large, established card file.
Very little usually changes from year to year in automobiles, and even automobiles of the 1990s are driven much the same way that automobiles of the 1950 were driven.


Some products, such as cellular phones, fax machines, and ATM cards, have a strong relative advantage. While 3M puts its brand name on a great diversity of products, Proctor & Gamble, on the opposite extreme, maintains a separate brand name for each product. For example, Mars was originally a small brand that focused on liquor filled chocolate candy. Long warranties often signal to consumers that the product is of good quality since the manufacturer is willing to take responsibility for its functioning.
A computer, for example, is a tangible product, but it often comes with a warranty and software updates. Brilliant marketers know to use social media tools in conjunction with other forms of marketing.
The content is provided for informational purposes only and is not meant to be an endorsement or representation by Cisco or any other party. So for a high profile brand, increase the focus on promotion and desensitize the weight given to price. There are many examples of physical evidence, including some of the following buildings, equipment, signs and logos, annual accounts and business reports, brochures, your website, and even your business cards.
However in reality it is more about the customer interface between the business and consumer and how they deal with each other in a series of steps in stages, i.e. Services marketing are dominated by the 7 Ps of marketing namely Product, Price,  Place, Promotion, People, Process and Physical evidence. What is important to note that services being all the more intangible, the price becomes an important factor for the actual service consumption to happen, after service awareness and service acknowledgement. Many different promotional tools are often used like internet advertisement, special events, endorsements which happen out of the store or in-store merchandising like branded boxes from Custom Boxes Now, plastic dump bins and digital signage. Intensive training for your human resources on how to handle customers and how to deal with contingencies, is crucial for your success.
Would you like eating at a joint where the table is greasy or the waitresses and cooks look untidy and wear a stained apron? McCarthy who originally developed the 4Ps, he stated it “It is combination of controllable factors at a marketer’s command to satisfy a target market”. Companies also need to focus on that how the seller is demonstrating their products to potential customer, this refers to shelf policy of a company.
Shopping goods, in contrast, are goods in which the consumer is willing to invest a great deal of time and effort.
Boeing, for example, has both a commercial aircraft and a defense line of products that each take advantage of some of the same core competencies and technologies of the firm. Some firms can only survive if they innovate frequently and have stockholders who are willing to take this risk. Frequently, unfortunately, the product will reach a maturity stage where little growth will be seen. Thus, it was necessary to a€?jump starta€? the process, signing up large corporate accounts, under favorable terms, early in the cycle, after which the cards became worthwhile for retailers to accept. Agricultural extension agents then sought out the most progressive farmers to try hybrid corn, also aiming for farmers who were most respected and most likely to be imitated by others. Other products, such as automobile satellite navigation systems, entail some advantages, but the cost ratio is high. For example, travel agents who get used to booking online may be unable to process manual reservations.
In general, the use of brand extensions should be evaluated on the basis of the compatibility of various productsa€”can the same brand name represent different products without conflict or confusion? It is widely believed, for example, that the a€?Intel insidea€? messages, which Intel paid computer makers to put on their products and packaging, reduced the value of the computer makersa€™ brand names because the emphasis was now put on the Intel component. They may not be the cool kids on the block, but smart marketers know how to leverage under-utilized tactics to their advantage. The aforementioned direct mailer can easily be brought into the 21st century with a QR code and Facebook or Twitter URLs for example. The set of controllable tactical marketing tools – product, price, place, and promotion – that the firm blends to produce the response it wants in the target market.
However, you can alter the final cake by altering the amounts of mix elements contained in it.
Whilst there is no absolute agreement on the specific content of a marketing communications mix, there are many promotions elements that are often included such as sales, advertising, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, online communications and personal selling.
The environment in which the service is delivered, and where the firm and customer interact, and any tangible components that facilitate performance or communication of the service. All human actors who play a part in service delivery and thus influence the buyers’ perceptions; namely, the firm’s personnel, the customer, and other customers in the service environment.
The actual procedures, mechanisms, and flow of activities by which the service is delivered – this service delivery and operating systems. The 7 P framework is one of the most popular framework for deciding a marketing strategy, right from strategy formulation to actual implementation.
With the help of 4ps of marketing mix a particular company can easily influence the demand and price of its products and services.
For example, consumers will spend a great deal of time looking for a new car or a medical procedure. For example, Hewlett-Packard has to constantly invent new products since competitors learn to work around its patents and will be able to manufacture the products at a lower cost.
Products can also be new to the firma€”another firm invented the product, but the firm is now making its own version.
Lower priced products often spread more quickly, and the extent to which the product is trialable (farmers did not have to plant all their land with hybrid corn at once, while one usually has to buy a cellular phone to try it out) influence the speed of diffusion. Store, or private label brands are, as the name suggests, brands that are owned by retail store chains or consortia thereof. The services marketing mix is also called the 7Ps and includes the addition of process, people and physical evidence. This represents a wide product mix 3M, for example, makes a large assortment of goods that are thought to be related in the sense that they use the firma€™s ability to bond surfaces together. Some products may also reach a decline stage, usually because the product category is being replaced by something better.
For example, IBM did not invent the personal computer, but entered after other firms showed the market to have a high potential.
Instead, many started out with a fraction of their land, and gradually switched to 100% hybrid corn when this innovation had proven itself useful.
Finally, the extent of switching difficulties influences speeda€”many offices were slow to adopt computers because users had to learn how to use them. In the old days, available sweeteners such as saccharin added an undesirable aftertaste, implying a clear sacrifice in taste for the reduction in calories.
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For example, typewriters experienced declining sales as more consumers switched to computers or other word processing equipment. In general, discontinuous innovations are more difficult to market since greater changes are required in the way things are done, but the rewards are also often significant.
You also grant to Cisco a worldwide, perpetual, irrevocable, royalty-free and fully-paid, transferable (including rights to sublicense) right to exercise all copyright, publicity, and moral rights with respect to any original content you provide. Maybelline offers a great deal of depth in lipsticks with subtle differences in shades while Morton Salt offers few varieties of its product. However, because the chains do not have the external brand building costs, the margins on the store brands are often higher.
When a new product comes out, it is likely to first be adopted by consumers who are more innovative than othersa€”they are willing to pay a premium price for the new product and take a risk on unproven technology. Retailers have a great deal of power because they control the placement of products within the store. It is important to be on the good side of innovators since many other later adopters will tend to rely for advice on the innovators who are thought to be more knowledgeable about new products for advice. Because consumers tend to be attracted to a€?new and improveda€? products, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) only allows firms to put that label on reformulated products for six months after a significant change has been made. Many place the store brand right next to the national brand and place a sign highlighting the cost savings on the store brand.



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