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People are an essential ingredient in service provision; recruiting and training the right staff is required to create a competitive advantage. Staff require appropriate interpersonal skills, aptititude, and service knowledge in order to deliver a quality service. The Service Marketing Mix involves Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Process and Physical Evidence. To certain extent managing services are more complicated then managing products, products can be standardised, to standardise a service is more difficult as there it can be affected by factors outside the service providers control.
Vicky has over fifteen years working in client and operations management, domaining and online marketing. One of the most common complaint (or excuse) I hear from potential new bloggers is they don’t know how to install WordPress. Marketing mix is the decision which came out as the result of blending the 4P’s to stimulate the demand of firm product and services. Product are the goods and services offered by the company to the target market.Marketing mix use in a variety of ways by the firms to pursue the customer to buy and use their products.
Price is the amount which is paid by the customer to buy the product and service.Price can also attract customer towards firm products and services such as Southwest Airlines offer low price services to their customers by offering normal service. Place are the set of activities which allow the firm to spread the availability of the products and services for the customers. There are two perspective of marketing mix one is from buyer point of view and other is from customer point of view. The firm see themselves as the seller of the product the above discussion about the 4P’s tells the benefits of the seller not the customer. Buyer looking toward the offering not as the 4P’s, buyer is searching a solution within the product if the needs and wants are meet then first P(product) match the customer first C(customer solution).
Firm offer their product at many location does not means that their availability is high, deep analysis is required before selecting the location for firm product and services. The basic major marketing management decisions can be classified in one of the following four categories, namely Product, Price, Place (distribution) and Promotion.
Product: It is the tangible object or an intangible service that is getting marketed through the program. Promotion: This represents all of the communications that a marketer may use in the marketplace to increase awareness about the product and its benefits to the target segment. So how does a marketer strategize to attain success in a marketing program, using these 4 P’s? Offering specificity introduces the contextual customization of what needs to be done to address the questions raised in each of these 4 Ps of Marketing. I agree to Shutterstock's Website Terms, Privacy Policy, Licensing Terms and to receive emails that I can opt out of at any time. All plans come as a Standard license, and can be upgraded to an Enhanced license at any time. In this article we look at how the marketing mix for marketing a service is different to the marketing mix for products. Customers make judgments about service provision and delivery based on the people representing your organisation. Imagine you walk into Burger King and order a Whopper Meal and you get it delivered within 2 minutes.
A post graduate in Retail Management, he has worked with retail companies like Shoppers Stop and Spar, before venturing out on his own, and now is a successful entrepreneur running a manufacturing business.
She has worked with many different online businesses, both large and small, plus put their online marketing strategies into practice. Terms like FTP and CPanel are like a foreign language and setting up a database might as well be setting up the space shuttle for a launch.
The idea of this term is generated back in 1948 by James Culliton he said marketing decision should be the result of something like receipt. Marketing mix can be also defined as the tactical,strategic and controllable marketing tool contain product,price,place and promotion use by the firm to generate response from the target market. The variety of options that firm can adopt came out from only four variable product,price,place and promotion. It means they want to capture the target market on cost differentiation not on product differentiation.The price variables encompassed the following factors such list price,discount,allowances,payment period and credit terms. Physical existence is not the only criteria of place but virtual firms like amazon,eBay is also the part of third P(place). The other 3Ps (product,price and place) message is transferred via the 4th P(promotion), target market feel happy to know about the new product and services offered to them.
Buyer always wish to get a good retail price for the product to increase his profit margin  but its not the thing most of the customers are not rarely bother about the price of the product,what they are looking for? Firm must look third customer C(convenience) for the buyer third P (place).Firms most of the time promote their product by spending huge amount on advertising,personal selling,sales promotion and public relation.
This is one of the preliminary knowledge every marketer must have and is considered to be the basics of every marketing theory, which emerged henceforth.
Tangible products may be items like consumer goods (Toothpaste, Soaps, Shampoos) or consumer durables (Watches, IPods).
If the price outweigh the perceived benefits for an individual, the perceived value of the offering will be low and it will be unlikely to be adopted, but if the benefits are perceived as greater than their costs, chances of trial and adoption of the product is much greater. Promotion has four distinct elements: advertising, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion.
Our authors are educators from top QS ranked universities and practitioners from multinational enterprises. Everyone who signs up gets full access to our entire library, including our curated collections. Our Standard license allows you to use images for anything, except large print runs over 500,000+ or for merchandising. Once you have downloaded your image, you have life-long rights to use it under the terms of the license purchased. Just like the marketing mix of a product the service marketing mix comprises of Product, Price, Place and Promotion.
This is because people are one of the few elements of the service that customers can see and interact with. The marketing mix for a service has additional elements because the characteristics of a service are different to the characteristics of a product. The newer concept does not have 4Ps, but it has 7Ps, providing a comprehensive categorization of Marketing decisions which a marketer would have to take.
She has helped online businesses better their conversion rates quite significantly and raised their online revenue. It analogues to the the restaurants offer same recipe but customer always go for the tasty one. Some firms like to focus on their product so they will spend more on product packaging,quality,design,features,brand name and service, to offer the high brand products and services to the target market. Wal-Mart with the huge number of retail outlets around the world move them to the number one company in the world.


Price factor in marketing mix encompassed the following factors channels,coverage,assortments,locations,inventory.transportation and logistics. Marketing budget is not the only thing to promote the product,what  matters is the communication message to the target market, seller should find out whether the message is quite clear to change the perception of the buyer,to make them understand about the product,to communicate the merits of the product,channels are appropriate or not.
Intangible products are service based like the tourism industry and information technology based services or codes-based products like cellphone load and credits. This may include any physical store (supermarket, departmental stores) as well as virtual stores (e-markets and e-malls) on the Internet. Advertising may include using specialty packaging to showcase products, utilizing promotional products for your company, or online ads. In there very essence, the 4 Ps of marketing is actually a framework that allows the marketer to structure the value proposition of an existing product (or a new product at the time of launch) so as to garner the highest mindshare by distinctly structuring the same. If at any time you're unsatisfied with your experience with us, you can cancel your subscription.
How ever as a service is not tangible the marketing mix for a service has three additional elements: People, Process and Physical Evidence. The praise received by the volunteers (games makers) for the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympics demonstrates the powerful effect people can create during service delivery. Banks that send out Credit Cards automatically when their customers old one has expired again require an efficient process to identify expiry dates and renewal. Physical evidence can be used to charge a premium price for a service and establish a positive experience. Such as Mercedes Benz is an expensive car  but have its own niche market people feel proud to buy and drive the car just because of the product is completely differentiated from their competitors having numerous features. The second P(price) should take care of second C(customer cost) will lead the product towards the success, customer feel easy to buy the product at good market price. If the firm find the answers of these question then their promotion strategy will work otherwise its a waste of money. This is crucial as this provides the place utility to the consumer, which often becomes a deciding factor for the purchase of many products across multiple product categories. A certain amount of crossover occurs when promotion uses the four principal elements together (e.g in film promotion).
However, that is easier said that done and many marketers fumble when it comes to playing with the real life nuances and bringing out a crisp value proposition. An efficient service that replaces old credit cards will foster consumer loyalty and confidence in the company.
For example all hotels provide a bed to sleep on but one of the things affecting the price charged, is the condition of the room (physical evidence) holding the bed. Suppose the company wants to launch low- priced product, the promotion has to follow suit and the same channels where premium products are sold cannot be used to provide access to this segment of customers.
Every product is subject to a life-cycle including a growth phase followed by an eventual period of decline as the product approaches market saturation. Second, each element of marketing mix contains countless variables.Third, the 4Ps of marketing have been the key areas where marketing managers allocate scarce corporate resources to achieve the business objectives. For example if you walk into a restaurant you expect a clean and friendly environment, if the restaurant is smelly or dirty, customers are likely to walk out.
To retain its competitiveness in the market, continuous product extensions though innovation and thus differentiation is required and is one of the strategies to differentiate a product from its competitors. Fourth, to show the differences between services and physical products, Booms and Bitner suggested the extension of the 4Ps framework to include three additional factors: People, Physical evidence and Process. Finally, the marketing mix will vary from industry to industry and organisation to organisation because of different offerings. Thus, not only a fridge, but fixed deposit facilities provided by a bank, lunch at a restaurant, polio vaccination campaign of UP Government, and promoting Jaisalmer during winters are all products.It means every good (Sony TV), service (domestic maid), idea (eradication of TB), event (Wimbledon), etc.
The second level comprises of supplemental features (Kotler calls them as expected and augmented product levels).For a midway restaurant between Delhi and Jaipur, one expects clean wash rooms.
Supplemental features add value to the core benefit in the form of TV, different kind of foods, free drinking water, bar, shopping arcade, lawns, fountains, etc.For a tyre, supplemental products mean installation, delivery, training, financing, replacement, etc. Cinthol soap is a product item of the Soaps product line of Godrej Consumer Products Limited, as the product line (Group of closely related products) includes Godrej No.
These names may be associated with founders (Tata Salt), Sports (Polo shirts), animals (Crocodile tee shirts), invented names (Dalda ground nut oil), abbreviated names (ICICI Bank, 3M, HDFC Bank), Gods (Natraj pencils, Shri Krishna Dhoop and Agarbatti), Forts and Palaces (Lai Quila Rice, Lai Mahal Rice), numbers (555 soap), number and words (7UP), geography (Woodland shoes, Fuji Camera), objective (Boost nutritional food drink granules) and fruits (Fruit of The Loom inner wear and casual wear).
When a brand is registered with trademark authority, the owner gets exclusive authority to use.Trade names refer to company names instead of product names. Some brand names have become so popular that they have become generic names, like Dalda (HLL), Nylon (Dupont), Vim (HUL), etc.
Packaging protects and maintains the functional form of the product, provides convenience to consumers, and promotes the image of the company and the product. Labels are used for identification, legal, informational and promotional purposes.Product decision of marketing mix is concerned with both the existing products and the new products. Price is the one, which creates sales revenue – all other parts of marketing mix are costs. Captive product pricing (Products that complement others, like cheaper tooth paste and costly tooth brush, cheaper printer costly cartridge)3. Bait Pricing (Low price of one item to attract customers to store for selling a higher priced item in the line, like Reality developers)4. Price Lining (Different prices for different combinations – Tata Sky gives different channels packages at different prices)5. Penetration pricing (Low price to gain market share and then increase price, like Tata Telecom)2. Price skimming (High initial price, in future price will come down to parity, like films on release)C. Reference Pricing (Pricing at moderate level a product kept next to a more expensive product, so that customer can differentiate between moderate and better products)2.
Group or Bundle Pricing (Package to contain two or more products and the package is priced, like tour to Europe Price includes air fare, transfers, sight-seeing, hotel, and food)3.
Multiple – Unit Pricing (in Big Bazaar socks with three pairs are per unit cheaper than buying one pair)4. Everyday Low Prices (Instead of declaring frequent short-term price reductions, marketers keep the prices otherwise low, like Wal-Mart-“Always Low Prices. Prestige Pricing (Keeping higher price because customers believe that a higher priced product is of better quality).D.
Price Leaders (Keeping low prices of some products in the hope of sale of other regularly priced items, like lower sugar price and regular pricing for tea leaves, milk and cardamom)2.
Special Event Pricing (Most of the big stores announce lower prices on the eve of Diwali, Id, Gurpurab, 25th December, 15th August)3.
Comparison Discounting (Company writing earlier higher prices along with current lower prices for comparison by the customers)4. Other promotional pricing strategies (Includes Low Interest financing, longer payment terms, extended warranties and Service Contracts, and Psychological Discounting)E. Pricing variations (Early bird discounts, like ticket booking one month in advance at lower price)2.


Geographical pricing (Different prices in different geographies, like Indian Oil charges different prices for petrol and diesel in different cities)4. Value pricing (Difficult economic conditions and marketer making value offering, like restaurant offering value menu)5. Transfer Pricing (Price charged for intra-company or group companies selling).The basis for pricing may be Cost-based methods include Mark-up pricing (Cost plus predetermined Profit), and Target Return (Cost plus say Rs. Thus, it is concerned with the store where the goods shall be displayed and sold, the channels of distribution and logistics management through which goods will flow from marketer to consumers.Chain or path or route in the channels may be marketer to consumer (through factory outlet or internet or company owned stores, or mail order business or door to door sales, or multilevel marketing as done by Amway), or marketer to retailer to consumer, or marketer to wholesaler (also referred to as distributors) to retailer to consumer, or agent to wholesaler to retailer to consumer. Through internet marketer can sell to a geographically disperse market, target and focus on specific segments, relatively keep low costs set-up, and makes use of e-commerce technology (for payment, shopping software, etc).With regard to channel six basic decisions are to be made -direct or indirect channel (in certain sectors, both direct and indirect channels may be used. Hotels, for example, may sell their rooms directly or through travel agents, tour operators, airlines, and tourist boards.With centralized reservation systems, etc. All these decisions have to be made by individual marketer.Selection of a channel which is flexible, effective, and consistent with the declared marketing policies and programmes of the firm is very important.
The nature and the type of the middlemen required by the firm and its availability also affect the choice of the distribution channel.A company prefers a middleman who can maximise the volume of sales of their product and also offers other services like storage, promotion as well as after-sale services. For example Coca Cola uses Grocery Stores, Panwalas, and the restaurant owners to market its beverages, and hul uses not only grocery stores but also chemists to market its soaps and shampoos.
This kind of distribution is suitable for convenience goods, like bread, butter, egg, newspapers, namkins, potato chips, etc.2. Exclusive distribution: Only one outlet in a bigger geographical area is used to sell the product.
The stores seen by you in your colony or street, wherefrom you buy milk, bread, grocery, stationary, medicines are mostly these kind of stores only.2. Department Stores: These are large retail firms, have wide product assortment (mix), and organised into separate departments.
The services are so varied that many a times the owner leases out space to others for these services.3.
Discount Stores: These are self-service, general merchandise stores, regularly offering national, regional, and store brands at low prices.
Convenience Stores: These are small self-service stores, open for long hours, and normally carry convenience goods like soft drinks, snacks, cigarettes, chocolates, newspapers. Supermarkets: These are big, self-service stores, carry a complete line of food and non-food products (like cosmetics and over the counter drugs), organised into efficient different departments, offer lower prices than small neighbourhood stores),and central checkout. They carry other routinely purchased items apart from food and non-food products of supermarkets- food to clothing, appliances to furniture, gardening equipment to artificial jewellery.Superstores are spread over 2, 00,000 square feet area. Hypermarket: These stores are spread over 2, 25,000 to 3, 25,000 square feet area and offer roughly 45,000 to 60,000 different types of low-priced products.
Roughly half of the space is allocated to groceries and rest is meant for electrical and electronic appliances, shoes, toys, house wares, hardware’s, furniture, etc.Space is leased to banks and fast food restaurants.
Cash-and-Carry Stores: In India recently, some cash-and-carry stores, also known as Warehouse Clubs, have opened. Important among them are Bharati-Walmart (Punjab), Carrefour (in trans-Yamuna area of Delhi).These are for members only and engaged in wholesaling only. To keep prices lower than supermarkets and discount stores, they provide little range of sizes and styles and services. Warehouse Showrooms: IKEA, a Swedish firm sells furniture, household goods and kitchen accessories through catalogues across the world. Five important features of a warehouse showroom are large, low-cost buildings, warehouse materials-handling technology, vertical merchandise displays, large on-premises inventories, and minimal services.10. In case of jewellery we have many such stores, like Suranas of Jaipur, PC Jewellers of Delhi, Ramchandra KrishnaChandra of Chandni Chowk, and Saboos of Delhi in sarees. They inevitably also share some degree of central management, supply chains, training programs, personnel, etc.They tend to either be parts of a single company or franchises, in which individual store owners license the use of the shared brand, training, and know-how.
Three notable companies in this kind of business are Amway India, Oriflame India (beauty products), and Tupperware India (food grade plastic containers).
Recently Sky shopping, popularly known as the Direct Response Television (DRTV) industry has also become very important form of marketing through mail.14. Non-Store based Retailers: The mail order houses, online businesses, vendors, and hawkers are examples of non-store based retailers. Logistics Management:For smooth inflow of goods from manufacturer to ultimate consumers, there are many backend operations which are performed by Logistics. It will provide information to assist them in making a decision to buy a product or service.
The cost associated with promotion often represents a sizeable proportion of the overall cost of producing an item. With increased sales due to promotion, costs are spread over a larger output.Though increased promotional activity is often a sign of a response to a problem such as competitive activity, it enables an organization to develop and build up a succession of messages and can be extremely cost- effective.
The ad message would be given differently on different media, due to media characteristics. To increase effectiveness of salespeople, the marketing manager decides on sales territories and sales quota. Information can be sought through the call reports, customer feedback and invoices.Some of the firms instead of personal selling go in for vending machines, which are cheaper to install and operate and flexible in location.
Sales promotion as a technique of promotion has been developed to supplement and coordinate advertising and personal selling efforts of a firm. It is any short-term incentive used by a firm to increase the sales of its product.It consists of all those promotional activities that help in enhancing sales through non-repetitive and one-time communication. 1,200), (ix) Fairs and Exhibitions (Trade shows, fashion shows or parades, fairs and exhibitions , Lever Lame sponsored Fashion Week for many years), (xi) Exchange scheme (exchange the old product with new by paying less , like exchange of old Black & White Television for Colour Television by paying rupees 8000 only), (x) Sale (Annual clearance sale of jainsons). Almost any organization that has a stake in how it is portrayed in the public arena employs some level of public relations. There are a number of public relations disciplines falling under the banner of corporate communications, such as analyst relations, media relations, investor relations, internal communications and labor relations. The people should have appropriate interpersonal skills, aptitude and service knowledge to deliver expected service.
To deliver products or services, systems or processes have to be in place, to avoid any discretion. If you walk in a grocer’s shop and find rats, insects and flies, what will be your perception?
The young generation prefers to go to malls instead of street shop is the physical ambience.- the cleanliness, air conditioning, parking facility, facility to touch, etc. People do not mind to pay more but need clean environment at the place of delivery for having better experience.



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