Marketing terms to know,make your own havaianas online uk news,youtube video player for nokia 7210 supernova - For Begninners

With the internet becoming so important for ALL businesses, it’s no longer just the industry professionals (like us) who need to understand these terms. We’ve put together a list of the most commonly misunderstood internet marketing terms which we feel every business owner should understand. With the explosion in the popularity of the mobile web, ‘local’ has become really important for businesses.
One of the major advantages of the internet is the ability it gives businesses to measure and monitor the success of their efforts. Once you’ve decided which KPI you want to measure, you then need to find a tool that can do it.
If you’ve spoken to an internet marketing specialist who is up to date with the latest online developments you are likely to have heard at least a few of these internet marketing terms. We offer a comprehensive online marketing management service as well as in-depth online marketing consultancy.
Get In Touch If you like our article then get in touch and find out what we can do to help your online presence. As an inbound marketing specialist, I sometimes forget that not everyone spends all day buried in marketing jargon. There are many more inbound marketing terms, some of which are more or less important than others. The idea behind keeping things above the fold" is that Internet readers want their information fast: they skim, they skip, they move on. On the other hand, if you have a lot of information, all of which is important, keeping it above the fold is impossible.
Here on the HubSpot blog, wea€™ve written glossary-themed posts that cover some of the core components of inbound marketing. Well, we thought it was time to create a blog post that could serve as a holistic marketing glossary -- one that not only defines each term, but also offers some helpful resources in case you want to learn about them in more depth. Now, I'm no math whiz, but when you try to make a glossary based on a topic with sub-categories that could be their own glossaries, well -- thata€™s a lot of gloss. This is the process of comparing two variations of a single variable to determine which performs best in order to help improve marketing efforts. What I sometimes refer to as the a€?eyesa€? of inbound marketing, analytics is essentially the discovery and communication of meaningful patterns in data. HubSpot has APIs that developers use to get information from our software into theirs.
Blogging is a core component of inbound marketing, as it can accomplish several initiatives simultaneously -- like website traffic growth, thought leadership, and lead generation. Business blogging retains all the attributes of "regular" blogging, but adds a tasty layer of marketing strategy on top.
When blogging for a business, marketers should create posts that are optimized with keywords that their target audience is searching for and provide helpful, educational material to these readers.
Typically, next steps for leads at this stage are a call from a sales rep, a demo, or a free consultation -- depending on what type of business is attempting to close the lead.
A call-to-action is a text link, button, image, or some type of web link that encourages a website visitor to visit a landing page and become of lead. The percentage of your audience that advances (or clicks through) from one part of your website to the next step of your marketing campaign.
The practice of closed-loop marketing is being able to execute, track and show how marketing efforts have impacted bottom-line business growth. When done correctly, youa€™d be able to see just how much of your marketing investment yielded new business growth. In relation to inbound marketing, content is a piece of information that exists for the purpose of being digested (not literally), engaged with, and shared. A web application designed to make it easy for non-technical users to create, edit, and manage a website.
A COS is basically a CMS (Content Management System), but optimized to deliver customers the most personalized web experience possible. The percentage of people who completed a desired action on a single web page, such as filling out a form. The process of improving your site conversion using design techniques, key optimization principles, and testing. For example, if you spend $500,000 on Sales and Marketing in a given month and added 50 customers that same month, then your CAC was $10,000 that month.
A set of software programs that let companies keep track of everything they do with their existing and potential customers. CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets, and it's what gives your entire website its style, like colors, fonts, and background images.
In its most basic sense, email stands for a€?Electronic Mail.a€? Ita€™s a core component of marketing because ita€™s a direct connection to a contacta€™s inbox. Evergreen content is content that continues to provide value to readers no matter when they stumble upon it. Typically, a piece of evergreen content is timeless, valuable, high quality, and canonical or definitive.
Facebook is a social network you're likely quite familiar with already -- but it has become so much more than just a platform to publish content and gain followers. Any element of your website that is confusing, distracting, or causes stress for visitors, causing them to leave your page. Google+ (referred to as "Google Plus") is a social network that allows you to join and create circles in which you can mix and match family members, friends, colleagues, and fellow industry members.
Hashtags are a way for you and your readers to interact with each other on social media and have conversations about a particular piece of content. Inbound marketing refers to marketing activities that draw visitors in, rather than marketers having to go out to get prospects' attention. Websites that receive many inbound links can be more likely to rank higher in search engines. A highly visual piece of content that is very popular among digital marketers as a way of relaying complex concepts in a simple and visual way.
Uses for JavaScript include pop-ups, slide-in calls-to-action, security password creation, check forms, interactive games, and special effects. A type of performance measurement companies use to evaluate an employee's or an activity's success. Sometimes referred to as "keyword phrases," keywords are the topics that webpages get indexed for in search results by engines like Google, Yahoo, and Bing. After deciding the appropriate keywords you want to rank for, youa€™ll then need to optimize the appropriate pages on your website using both on-page and off-page tactics. A smart inbound marketer will create landing pages that appeal to different personae (plural for persona) at various stages of the buying process. A person or company who's shown interest in a product or service in some way, shape, or form. Generating leads is a critical part of a prospect's journey to becoming a customer, and it falls in between the second and third stages of the larger inbound marketing methodology, which you can see below.
Landing pages, forms, offers, and calls-to-action are just a few tools to help companies generate leads. Sometimes referred to as a€?drip marketing,a€? lead nurturing is the practice of developing a series of communications (emails, social media messages, etc.) that seek to qualify a lead, keep it engaged, and gradually push it down the sales funnel. What's important to understand about each of these stages is that not every piece of content you create is appropriate, depending on what stage your audience might fall in at that moment.
A prediction of the net profit attributed to the entire future relationship with a customer.
For example, if a customer pays you $100,000 per year where your gross margin on the revenue is 70%, and that customer type is predicted to cancel at 16% per year, then the customer's LTV is $437,500. Long-tail keywords are more specific, which means visitors that land on your website from a long-tail search term are more qualified, and consequently, more likely to convert.
While therea€™s some overlap with the term a€?lead nurturing,a€? marketing automation is a bit different. With mobile search queries officially surpassing desktop queries, now is probably the time to explore mobile marketing. Mobile optimization means designing and formatting your website so that ita€™s easy to read and navigate from a mobile device. A customer satisfaction metric that measures, on a scale of 0-10, the degree to which people would recommend your company to others.
Regularly determining your companya€™s NPS allows you to identify ways to improve your products and services so you can increase the loyalty of your customers.
A no-follow link is used when a website does not want to pass search engine authority to another webpage.
This type of SEO is based solely on a webpage and the various elements within the HTML (see a€?Ha€? if you skipped here directly). PPC ads are used to direct traffic to the advertiser's website, and PPC is used to assess the cost effectiveness and profitability of your paid advertising campaigns.
Pinterest is a visual social network typically used by ecommerce marketers, but not without its fair share of top-notch B2B and B2C content marketers. PPC, (or Pay-Per-Click) is an advertising technique in which an advertiser puts an ad in an advertising venue (like Google AdWords or Facebook), and pays that venue each time a visitor clicks on the ad. A QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response code) is a specific matrix barcode (or two-dimensional code) that is readable by dedicated QR barcode readers and camera telephones. A performance measure used to evaluate the efficiency and profitability of an investment, or to compare the efficiency and profitability of multiple investments. 3) You can post a new tweet that includes your own commentary in addition to the information you're retweeting. An email marketing term that refers to a reputation rating from 0-100 for every outgoing mail server IP address. For marketers, an SLA is an agreement between a company's sales and marketing teams that defines the expectations Sales has for Marketing and vice versa.
Social media is media designed to be disseminated through social interaction, created using highly accessible and scalable publishing techniques. Any software that is hosted by another company, which stores your information in the cloud. Sometimes called a€?TOFUa€?, top of the funnel refers to the very first stage of the buying process.
For the sake of creativity, Ia€™ll define Twitter in 140 characters or less: "Twitter is a platform that allows users to share 140-character long messages publicly. A type of interface that allows users to control a software application or hardware device. This term is used to describe a piece of content that has become wildly popular across the web through sharing. A website is a set of interconnected webpages, usually including a homepage, generally located on the same server, and prepared and maintained as a collection of information by a person, group, or organization.
As marketing becomes more measurable and, as a result, is increasingly held accountable in terms of investment made and return accomplished, we thought the following Glossary of Financial Terms might be a useful reference. A stern measure of a company's ability to pay its short term debts, in that stock is excluded from asset value. Anything owned by the company having a monetary value; eg, 'fixed' assets like buildings, plant and machinery, vehicles (these are not assets if rented and not owned) and potentially including intangibles like trade marks and brand names, and 'current' assets, such as stock, debtors and cash. Measure of operational efficiency - shows how much revenue is produced per ? of assets available to the business. The Balance Sheet is one of the three essential measurement reports for the performance and health of a company along with the Profit and Loss Account and the Cashflow Statement. The Balance Sheet is where to look for information about short-term and long-term debts, gearing (the ratio of debt to equity), reserves, stock values (materials and finsished goods), capital assets, cash on hand, along with the value of shareholders' funds.
The term 'balance sheet' is derived from the simple purpose of detailing where the money came from, and where it is now.
The Balance Sheet does not show how much profit the company is making (the P&L does this), although pervious years' retained profits will add to the company's reserves, which are shown in the balance sheet.
In a financial planning context the word 'budget' (as a noun) strictly speaking means an amount of money that is planned to spend on a particularly activity or resource, usually over a trading year, although budgets apply to shorter and longer periods. The verb 'to budget' means to calculate and set a budget, although in a looser context it also means to be careful with money and find reductions (effectively by setting a lower budgeted level of expenditure).
The value of all resources available to the company, typically comprising share capital, retained profits and reserves, long-term loans and deferred taxation. Viewed from the other side of the balance sheet, capital employed comprises fixed assets, investments and the net investment in working capital (current assets less current liabilities). The movement of cash in and out of a business from day-to-day direct trading and other non-trading or indirect effects, such as capital expenditure, tax and dividend payments. The Cashflow statement shows the movement and availability of cash through and to the business over a given period, certainly for a trading year, and often also monthly and cumulatively. Despite the different variations used for this term (cost of debt, cost of debt ratio, average cost of debt ratio, etc) the term normally and simply refers to the interest expense over a given period as a percentage of the average outstanding debt over the same period, ie., cost of interest divided by average outstanding debt. The directly attributable costs of products or services sold, (usually materials, labour, and direct production costs).
Cost of sales is the value, at cost, of the goods or services sold during the period in question, usually the financial year, as shown in a Profit and Loss Account (P&L).
To use simply the total value of stock purchases during the period in question would not produce the correct and relevant figure, as some product sold was already held in stock before the period began, and some product bought during the period remains unsold at the end of it. The value of the stock attributable to the sales in the period (cost of sales) is the total of what we started with in stock (opening stock), and what we purchased (stock purchases), minus what stock we have left over at the end of the period (closing stock). Cash and anything that is expected to be converted into cash within twelve months of the balance sheet date. The relationship between current assets and current liabilities, indicating the liquidity of a business, ie its ability to meet its short-term obligations.
Money owed by the business that is generally due for payment within 12 months of balance sheet date. The apportionment of cost of a (usually large) capital item over an agreed period, (based on life expectancy or obsolescence), for example, a piece of equipment costing ?10k having a life of five years might be depreciated over five years at a cost of ?2k per year. A dividend is a payment made per share, to a company's shareholders by a company, based on the profits of the year, but not necessarily all of the profits, arrived at by the directors and voted at the company's annual general meeting.
A company can choose to pay a dividend from reserves following a loss-making year, and conversely a company can choose to pay no dividend after a profit-making year, depending on what is believed to be in the best interests of the company. Along with the increase in value of a stock or share, the annual dividend provides the shareholder with a return on the shareholding investment. Depreciation is the non-cash charge to the balance sheet which is made in writing off an asset over a period. Assets held for use by the business rather than for sale or conversion into cash, eg, fixtures and fittings, equipment, buildings.
FOB meant originally (and depending on the context stills generally means) that the seller is liable for the goods and is responsible for all costs of transport, insurance, etc., until and including the goods being loaded at the (nominated FOB) port. Logically FOB also meant and still means that the seller is liable for any loss or damage up to the point that the goods are loaded onto the vessel at the FOB port, and that thereafter the buyer assumes responsibility for the goods and the costs of transport and the liability. The FOB expression originates particularly from the meaning that the buyer is free of liability and costs of transport up to the point that the goods are loaded on board the ship. If in doubt ask exactly what the other person means by FOB because the applications have broadened. The ratio of debt to equity, usually the relationship between long-term borrowings and shareholders' funds. An Initial Public Offering (IPO being the Stock Exchange and corporate acronym) is the first sale of privately owned equity (stock or shares) in a company via the issue of shares to the public and other investing institutions. These mechanisms are used by exporters and importers, and usually provided by the importing company's bank to the exporter to safeguard the contractual expectations and particularly financial exposure of the exporter of the goods or services. When an exporter agrees to supply a customer in another country, the exporter needs to know that the goods will be paid for. The common system, which has been in use for many years, is for the customer's bank to issue a 'letter of credit' at the request of the buyer, to the seller. Letters of credit are often complex documents that require careful drafting to protect the interests of buyer and seller. The seller should also approve the wording of the buyer's letter of credit, and often should seek professional advice and guarantees to this effect from their own financial services provider. In short, a letter of credit is a guarantee from the issuing bank's to the seller that if compliant documents are presented by the seller to the buyer's bank, then the buyer's bank will pay the seller the amount due. The 'compliance' of the seller's documentation covers not only the goods or services supplied, but also the timescales involved, method for, format of and place at which the documents are presented. It is important therefore for sellers to understand all aspects of letters of credit and to ensure letters of credit are properly drafted, checked, approved and their conditions met. While a letter of credit essentially guarantees payment to the exporter, a letter of guarantee provides safeguard that other aspects of the supplier's or customer's obligations will be met.
Tender Guarantees (Bid Bonds) - whereby the bank assures the buyer that the supplier will not refuse a contract if awarded. Performance Guarantee - This guarantees that the goods or services are delivered in accordance with contract terms and timescales. Advance Payment Guarantee - This guarantees that any advance payment received by the supplier will be used by the supplier in accordance with the terms of contract between seller and buyer. There are other types of letters of guarantee, including obligations concerning customs and tax, etc, and as with letters of credit, these are complex documents with extremely serious implications. Indicates the company's ability to pay its short term debts, by measuring the relationship between current assets (ie those which can be turned into cash) against the short-term debt value. Total assets (fixed and current) less current liabilities and long-term liabilities that have not been capitalised (eg, short-term loans). Logically if a proposition has a positive NPV then it is profitable and is worthy of consideration. Corporations generally develop their own rules for NPV calculations, including discount rate.
Net profit normally refers to profit after deduction of all operating expenses, notably after deduction of fixed costs or fixed overheads.
One of the three principal business reporting and measuring tools (along with the balance sheet and cashflow statement).
The accumulated and retained difference between profits and losses year on year since the company's formation. The source of restricted funds can be from government, foundations and trusts, grant-awarding bodies, philanthropic organisations, private donations, bequests from wills, etc. Many business managers and owners use the term in a general sense as a means of assessing the merit of an investment or business decision.
Profits derived as a proportion of and directly attributable to cost or 'book value' of an asset, liability or activity, net of depreciation.
The main point is that the term seeks to define the profit made from a business investment or business decision. The balance sheet nominal value paid into the company by shareholders at the time(s) shares were issued. A measure of the shareholders' total interest in the company represented by the total share capital plus reserves. The terminology dates from times when such communications were literally 'wired' - before wireless communications technology.
A cost which varies with sales or operational volumes, eg materials, fuel, commission payments. Current assets less current liabilities, representing the required investment, continually circulating, to finance stock, debtors, and work in progress. Another characteristic of concept maps is that the concepts are represented in a hierarchical fashion with the most inclusive, most general concepts at the top of the map and the more specific, less general concepts arranged hierarchically below. A final feature that may be added to concept maps is specific examples of events or objects that help to clarify the meaning of a given concept. Concept maps were developed in 1972 in the course of Novaka€™s research program at Cornell where he sought to follow and understand changes in childrena€™s knowledge of science (Novak & Musonda, 1991).
In addition to the distinction between the discovery learning process, where the attributes of concepts are identified autonomously by the learner, and the reception learning process, where attributes of concepts are described using language and transmitted to the learner, Ausubel made the very important distinction between rote learning and meaningful learning. The material to be learned must be conceptually clear and presented with language and examples relatable to the learnera€™s prior knowledge. As noted above, it is important to recognize that because individuals vary in the quantity and quality of the relevant knowledge they possess, and in the strength of their motivation to seek ways to incorporate new knowledge into relevant knowledge they already possess, the rote-meaningful distinction is not a simple dichotomy but rather a continuum. Another important advance in our understanding of learning is that the human memory is not a single a€?vessela€? to be filled, but rather a complex set of interrelated memory systems. While all memory systems are interdependent (and have information going in both directions), the most critical memory systems for incorporating knowledge into long-term memory are the short-term and a€?working memory.a€? All incoming information is organized and processed in the working memory by interaction with knowledge in long-term memory.
This means that relationships among two or three concepts are about the limit of working memorya€™s processing capacity. It should be noted that retention of information learned by rote still takes place in long term memory, as does information learned meaningfully; the difference is that in rote learning, there is little or no integration of new knowledge with existing knowledge resulting in two negative consequences. Therefore, to structure large bodies of knowledge requires an orderly sequence of iterations between working memory and long-term memory as new knowledge is being received and processed (Anderson, 1992).
There are obvious differences between individuala€™s abilities, and some of these have been explored by Gardner (1983). While it is true that some students have difficulty building concept maps and using these, at least early in their experience, this appears to result primarily from years of rote-mode learning practice in school settings rather than as a result of brain structure differences per se.
To illustrate how difficult it can be for individuals to modify their ideas, especially if they learn primarily by rote, we cite the example of interviews done by the Private Universe Project (PUP) at Harvard University (Schneps, 1989). As indicated earlier, we defined concept as a perceived regularity (or pattern) in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by label. As defined above, concepts and propositions are the building blocks for knowledge in any domain.
While there is value in studying more extensively the process of human learning and human knowledge creation, this is beyond the scope of this document. In learning to construct a concept map, it is important to begin with a domain of knowledge that is very familiar to the person constructing the map. A good way to define the context for a concept map is to construct a Focus Question, that is, a question that clearly specifies the problem or issue the concept map should help to resolve.
Given a selected domain and a defined question or problem in this domain, the next step is to identify the key concepts that apply to this domain. It is important to help students recognize that all concepts are in some way related to one another.
Students often comment that it is hard to add linking words onto the a€?linesa€? of their concept map.
Finally, the map should be revised, concepts re-positioned in ways that lend to clarity and better over-all structure, and a a€?finala€? map prepared.
Thus, we see that concept maps are not only a powerful tool for capturing, representing, and archiving knowledge of individuals, but also a powerful tool to create new knowledge. The software allows the user to link resources (photos, images, graphs, videos, charts, tables, texts, WWW pages or other concept maps) located anywhere on the Internet or in personal files to concepts or linking words in a concept map through a simple drag-and-drop operation.
CmapTools provides extensive support for collaborative work during concept map construction. Through the storing of concept maps in CmapServers, CmapTools encourages collaboration among users constructing the maps. The extensive support that CmapTools provides for the collaborative construction of concept maps by groups, whether they are at the same location or in distant locations, has encouraged the increasing use of collaboration during map building. A Concept Map-Centered Learning Environment CmapTools provides a variety of features that make it possible for teachers to use concept maps for a variety of the tasks that students perform (CaA±as & Novak, 2005). A concept map-centered learning environment implies that concept maps are used throughout the development of a learning unit or module.
Just as there are many possible uses of concept maps within the classroom activities, there are a variety of a€?starting pointsa€? for the construction of the initial concept maps by students.
Each student can construct the initial concept map individually, giving the teacher feedback on the level of understanding of every student.
The concept map can also be a class effort, using a projector, where all students give their opinion and participate in the construction of the map.
Likewise, the starting point from which the map is constructed can vary depending on the expected previous understanding by the students, the difficulty and novelty of the topic, and the teachera€™s confidence in mastering the topic.
We refer to a list of concept waiting to be added to a concept map as the parking lot of concepts. Figure 11 is an a€?expert skeletona€? concept map that corresponds to the same topic as the a€?parking lota€? in Figure 10. The use of a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps is a research topic we are pursuing, and for which we dona€™t have as much experience as with the focus question and parking lot starting points.
It is important to note that the a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps should be built by an expert on the topic.
We foresee a program of using a€?expert skeletona€? maps to scaffold learning beginning with the development of a series of concept maps in a discipline, starting with the most general, most inclusive ideas and then gradually moving to more specific concept maps that will guide the learners. Learners can also engage in laboratory or field studies that will add important concrete experiences needed for developing fuller meanings to concepts, and sometimes the excitement that comes with discovering new ideas or relationships. The extent of materials and ideas that can be built into knowledge structures using a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps, CmapTools, and WWW resources far surpass what any textbook or any teacher could provide.
In 1966, Bobbs-Merrill published an elementary science textbook series, The World of Science, written largely by Novak with the objective of introducing basic science concepts to elementary school students and teachers. Obviously, it would be a very deficient science program that did nothing more than have students copy and do some building on the a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps provided for grade two, or for any other grade.
A pilot program effort is already in progress in Italy, where Giuseppe Valittuti (2004) and his colleagues are now working to translate The World of Science books into Italian. The greatest challenge we may expect is to change the school situational factors in the direction of teacher as coach and learner from the prevailing model of teachers as disseminator of information. We might expect some oppositioin to implementation of the New Model of Education from individuals who believe that "inquiry" learningis the only way to improve education. There is an enormous job of teacher education that needs to be done before the New Model can be implemented in schools.
We are now beginning to see in many science textbooks the inclusion of concept mapping as one way to summarize understandings acquired by students after they study a unit or chapter. Using concept maps in planning a curriculum or instruction on a specific topic helps to make the instruction a€?conceptually transparenta€? to students.
One of the uses of concept maps that is growing at a fast rate is the use of concept maps to capture the a€?tacita€? knowledge of experts.
While we expect that interviews, case study analyses, a€?critical incidenta€? analyses and similar techniques will have value in extracting and representing expert knowledge, it is likely that the end product of these studies might still be best represented in the form of concept maps, perhaps with some of the interview data and other information presented through icons on maps.
At IHMC we continue to be very active in the area of capturing and representing expert knowledge (Coffey et al., 2002).
In this paper we have tried to present the theoretical foundations and the origins of what we call concept maps.
We also wish to use this document as a foundation for further experimentation, critique, and dialogue regarding the use of this tool. Inbound marketing describes one of the most important shifts in internet marketing of the last 5 years. Though the sharing of ‘media’ through these channels is one of their primary functions, it is only part of the story.
The primary principle of this type of marketing is to create something of value for your customers. The reason it makes into our list is that its meaning has changed enormously over the last 2 years.
By using and understanding these modern terms and techniques you will have an advantage over the majority of other business owners.
We will ensure that you are always using the right techniques for your business and that you are always up to date.
The concepts seem simple to me now, but I remember how overwhelmed I was when I was getting started. Landing page - A landing page is any page on your website that allows you to collect relevant information from people interested in your content. Above the fold - The portion of a webpage or email message than can be seen without the user’s having to scroll down. Call to Action (CTA) - A call to action is the part of your copy that tells the reader to respond by downloading a whitepaper, requesting a quote, calling your business, etc. Conversion - A conversion happens when a visitor to your website takes an action that you deem valuable.
Return on Investment (ROI) - Your ROI is a calculation of the money you spent on a particular effort compared to the amount of money you earned from that effort.
But the nine discussed here are the major ones, and should give you the leg up you need when you first get started with inbound marketing. Whether you know the term or not, page fold is not important and hasn't been for quite some time. If people are reading it, and finding it helpful, worrying about being above or below the fold is a waste of time. However, I think that at this point, most people understand the concept of scrolling — and if they don't, they're not terribly likely to be surfing the Internet. I'm tellin' ya, the world is full of those who will never be proficient with a mouse or keyboard, but still feel the allure of the web.


This is often done in email marketing (with variations in the subject line or copy), calls-to-action (variations in colors or verbiage), and landing pages (variations in content). When referred to in the context of marketing, ita€™s looking at the data of onea€™s initiatives (website visitor reports, social, PPC, etc.), analyzing the trends, and developing actionable insights to make better informed marketing decisions.
Ita€™s important for marketers to understand what APIs can do to factor them in to their marketing strategies. It helps marketers drive traffic to their website, convert that traffic into leads, establish authority on certain topics, and drive long-term results.
Typically, these blog posts should be actionable (by providing an opt-in, downloadable offer), as to provide a metric for the effectiveness of the business blogging. A high bounce rate generally means your lists are out-of-date or purchased, or they include many invalid email addresses. Some examples of CTAs are a€?Subscribe Nowa€? or a€?Download the Whitepaper Today.a€? These are important for marketers because theya€™re the a€?baita€? that entices a website visitor to eventually become a lead. CASL covers email, texts, instant messages, and automated cell phone messages sent to computers and phones in Canada.
To calculate churn rate, take the number of customers you lost during a certain time frame, and divide that by the total number of customers you had at the very beginning of that time frame. Regardless of your monthly revenue, if your average customer does not stick around long enough for you to at least break even on your customer acquisition costs, youa€™re in trouble. As a mathematic equation, ita€™s the total number of clicks that your page or CTA receives divided by the number of opportunities that people had to click (ex: number of pageviews, emails sent, and so on). An example would be tracking a website visitor as they become a lead to the very last touch point when they close as a customer. One of the biggest business benefits of implementing an inbound marketing strategy and utilizing inbound marketing software is the ability to execute closed-loop marketing.
In its most basic form, a conversion path will consist of a call-to-action (typically a button that describes an offer) that leads to a landing page with a lead capture form, which redirects to a thank you page where a content offer resides. Content typically comes in the form of a blog, video, social media post, photo, slideshow, or podcast, although there are plenty of over types out there. Helps users with content editing and more "behind-the-scenes" work like making content searchable and indexable, automatically generating navigation elements, keeping track of users and permissions, and more. Serving up valuable content is important, but ensuring that ita€™s customized for the right audience is equally (if not more) important. Pages with high conversion rates are performing well, while pages with low conversion rates are performing poorly. It involves creating an experience for your website visitors that will convert them into customers. This factors heavily into CAC (customer acquisition cost), and is a metric marketers should keep a keen eye on. Compile the content you get back into a really awesome offer and give credit to all the contributors -- a win-win for everyone involved. They are generally a more long-form content type than, say, blog posts, and go into in-depth detail on a subject. It also helps ensure you're doing the right things for your personas and not going way off-track with the topics you're covering.
However, with great power comes great responsibility, meaning ita€™s important for marketers to not abuse the email relationship with a contact. In other words, it can be referenced long after it was originally published, and even then, it's still valuable to the reader. These posts are typically a content marketer's best friend because of the tremendous SEO value they provide. Focusing entirely on Facebook (or any other large social channel, for that matter) will only give you a small piece of the inbound marketing pie. Examples of friction-causing elements include dissonant colors, too much text, distracting website navigation menus, or landing page forms with too many fields. While you can use it much like other social networks -- to publish and share content, and generate new leads -- it also provides content marketers with tremendous SEO value due to the rising importance of social sharing in search engine algorithms. Marketers look at KPIs to track progress toward marketing goals, and successful marketers constantly evaluate their performance against industry standard metrics.
First, youa€™ll want to ensure the keyword has significant search volume and is not too difficult to rank for.
This page revolves around a marketing offer, such as an ebook or a webinar, and serves to capture visitor information in exchange for the valuable offer. Inbound marketing is all about delivering valuable content to the right audience -- and lead nurturing helps foster this by providing contextually relevant information to a lead during different stages of the buying lifecycle.
It often contains a head term, which is a more generic search term, plus one or two additional words that refine the search term.
Think of marketing automation as the platform with associated tools and analytics to develop a lead nurturing strategy.
This can be done by either creating a separate mobile website or incorporating responsive design in initial site layout.
Includes MRR gained by new accounts (net new), MRR gained from upsells (net positive), MRR lost from downsells (net negative), and MRR lost from cancellations (net loss).
Its purpose is to make ads feel less like ads, and more like part of the conversation. The NPS is derived from a simple survey designed to help you determine how loyal your customers are to your business. On Facebook, the News Feed is the homepage of users' accounts where they can see all the latest updates from their friends. It tells search engine crawlers not to follow or pass credit to linked websites as a way to avoid association with spammy content or inadvertently violating webmaster guidelines. Ensuring that key pieces of the specific page (content, title tag, URL, and image tags) include the desired keyword will help a page rank for that particular phrase. Off-page SEO refers to incoming links and other outside factors that impact how a webpage is indexed in search results. Typically this happens when publishers have a fixed rate for PPC in different areas on their website.
In this case, each advertiser sets a maximum spend to pay for a given ad spot, so the ad will stop appearing on a given website once that amount of money is spent.
Businesses and consumers alike use the website to post images and photos they like so fellow users can repin (share) that content.
The formula for ROI is: (Gain from Investment minus Cost of Investment), all divided by (Cost of Investment).
Many facets of marketing have pretty straightforward ROI calculations (like PPC), but others are more difficult (like content marketing). The formula is this: Your own commentary + RT + the original tweeter's Twitter handle + colon + the exact text from their original tweet.
By adjusting a webpage's on-page SEO elements and influencing off-page SEO factors, an inbound marketer can improve where a webpage appears in search engine results. Search engines look for elements including title tags, keywords, image tags, internal link structure, and inbound links -- and that's just to name a few.
The Marketing SLA defines expectations Sales has for Marketing with regards to lead quantity and lead quality, while the Sales SLA defines the expectations Marketing has for Sales on how deeply and frequently Sales will pursue each qualified lead. But since this isn't always how the cookie crumbles, ita€™s important for Marketing and Sales to align efforts to impact the bottom line the best they can through coordinated communication. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn and Google+ are examples of social media networks that one can join for personal or business use. The idea is that if others are sharing something or following someone, it must be good. Leads at this stage are just identifying a problem that they have and are looking for more information. Marketers use this term in contrast with overall site visits to track the amount of traffic on their website. A good user interface provides a user-friendly experience by allowing the user to interact with the software or hardware in an intuitive way.
Oftentimes, folks dona€™t know a piece theya€™re creating will be viral until it actually does, which is usually unfortunate if ita€™s particularly embarrassing.
An inbound marketer should structure a website like a dynamic, multi-dimensional entity that can be used to attract relevant website visitors, convert those visitors into leads, and close those leads into customers. Technically, the term refers to oral communication, but today it refers to online communication, as well.
The Balance Sheet is a 'snapshot' in time of who owns what in the company, and what assets and debts represent the value of the company.
The balance sheet equation is fundamentally: (where the money came from) Capital + Liabilities = Assets (where the money is now). An overall organizational plan therefore contains the budgets within it for all the different departments and costs held by them.
In other words: the total long-term funds invested in or lent to the business and used by it in carrying out its operations. The cashflow statement provides a third perspective alongside the Profit and Loss account and Balance Sheet. The availability of cash in a company that is necessary to meet payments to suppliers, staff and other creditors is essential for any business to survive, and so the reliable forecasting and reporting of cash movement and availability is crucial.
In all accounts, particularly the P&L (trading account) it's important that costs are attributed reliably to the relevant revenues, or the report is distorted and potentially meaningless.
Keeping shareholders happy and committed to their investment is always an issue in deciding dividend payments. It's in this listing because it's commonly misunderstood and also has potentially significant financial implications. An importing buyer would typically ask for the FOB price, (which is now now often linked to a port name, eg., FOB Hamburg or FOB Vancouver), knowing that this price is 'free' or inclusive of all costs and liabilities of getting the goods from the seller to the port and on board the craft or vessel. While liability and responsibility for goods passes from seller to buyer at the point that goods are agreed to be FOB, the FOB principle does not correlate to payment terms, which is a matter for separate negotiation. So, if you are an exporter, beware of buyers stipulating 'FOB destination' - it means the exporter is liable for the goods and pays transport costs up until delivery to the customer.
Also referred to as gross profit margin, or gross profit, and often abbreviated to simply 'margin'.
The letter of credit essentially guarantees that the bank will pay the seller's invoice (using the customer's money of course) provided the goods or services are supplied in accordance with the terms stipulated in the letter, which should obviously reflect the agreement between the seller and buyer.
The customer's bank charges a fee to issue a letter of credit, and the customer pays this cost.
It is common for exporters to experience delays in obtaining payment against letters of credit because they have either failed to understand the terms within the letter of credit, failed to meet the terms, or both.
It is also important for sellers to use appropriate professional services to validate the authenticity of any unknown bank issuing a letter of credit.
These types of letters of guarantee are concerned with providing safeguards to buyers that suppliers will meet their obligations or vice-versa, and are issued by the supplier's or customer's bank depending on which party seeks the guarantee. The supplier's or customer's bank is effectively giving a direct guarantee on behalf of the supplier or customer that the supplier's or customer's obligations will be met, and in the event of the supplier's or customer's failure to meet obligations to the other party then the bank undertakes the responsibility for those obligations. For this reasons suppliers and customers alike must check and obtain necessary validation of any issued letters of guarantee. Liabilities are long-term loans of the type used to finance the business and short-term debts or money owing as a result of trading activities to date . NPV is essentially a measurement of all future cashflow (revenues minus costs, also referred to as net benefits) that will be derived from a particular investment (whether in the form of a project, a new product line, a proposition, or an entire business), minus the cost of the investment. There are different and complex ways to construct NPV formulae, largely due to the interpretation of the 'discount rate' used in the calculations to enable future values to be shown as a present value. NPV is not easy to understand for non-financial people - Wikipedia seems to provide a good detailed explanation if you need one. Net strictly means 'after all deductions' (as opposed to just certain deductions used to arrive at a gross profit or margin).
This contrasts with the term 'gross profit' which normally refers to the difference between sales and direct cost of product or service sold (also referred to as gross margin or gross profit margin) and certainly before the deduction of operating costs or overheads. The P&L is essentially a trading account for a period, usually a year, but also can be monthly and cumulative. A fully detailed P&L can be highly complex, but only because of all the weird and wonderful policies and conventions that the company employs. The relationship between current assets readily convertible into cash (usually current assets less stock) and current liabilities.
The practical implication is that restricted funds are ring-fenced and must not be used for any other than their designated purpose, which may also entail specific reporting and timescales, with which the organisation using the funds must comply.
A percentage figure representing profit before interest against the money that is invested in the business.
This term means different things to different people (often depending on perspective and what is actually being judged) so it's important to clarify understanding if interpretation has serious implications.
The 'investment' could be the value of a whole business (in which case the value is generally regarded as the company's total assets minus intangible assets, such as goodwill, trademarks, etc and liabilities, such as debt. A company's book value might be higher or lower than its market value); or the investment could relate to a part of a business, a new product, a new factory, a new piece of plant, or any activity or asset with a cost attached to it. Bear in mind that costs and profits can be ongoing and accumulating for several years, which needs to be taken into account when arriving at the correct figures. They include concepts, usually enclosed in circles or boxes of some type, and relationships between concepts indicated by a connecting line linking two concepts. The hierarchical structure for a particular domain of knowledge also depends on the context in which that knowledge is being applied or considered. These are relationships or links between concepts in different segments or domains of the concept map. Normally these are not included in ovals or boxes, since they are specific events or objects and do not represent concepts. During the course of this study the researchers interviewed many children, and they found it difficult to identify specific changes in the childrena€™s understanding of science concepts by examination of interview transcripts.
These are acquired by children during the ages of birth to three years, when they recognize regularities in the world around them and begin to identify language labels or symbols for these regularities (Macnamara, 1982). Concept maps can be helpful to meet this condition, both by identifying large general concepts held by the learner prior to instruction on more specific concepts, and by assisting in the sequencing of learning tasks though progressively more explicit knowledge that can be anchored into developing conceptual frameworks.
This condition can be met after age 3 for virtually any domain of subject matter, but it is necessary to be careful and explicit in building concept frameworks if one hopes to present detailed specific knowledge in any field in subsequent lessons. The one condition over which the teacher or mentor has only indirect control is the motivation of students to choose to learn by attempting to incorporate new meanings into their prior knowledge, rather than simply memorizing concept definitions or propositional statements or computational procedures. Creativity can be seen as a very high level of meaningful learning, and we will discuss this further. Both direct presentation and discovery teaching methods can lead to highly rote or highly meaningful learning by the learner, depending on the disposition of the learner and the organization of the instructional materials. The Rote-Meaningful learning continuum is not the same as the Reception-Discovery instructional continuum. Concept maps are also effective in identifying both valid and invalid ideas held by students, and this will be discussed further in another section. Figure 4 illustrates the memory systems of the human mind, and interactions with inputs from our affective and psychomotor inputs.
The limiting feature here is that working memory can process only a relatively small number of psychological units (five to nine) at any one moment (Miller, 1956).
For example, if a person is presented with a list of 10-12 letters or numbers to memorize in a few seconds, most will recall only 5 to 9 of these.
We believe one of the reasons concept mapping is so powerful for the facilitation of meaningful learning is that it serves as a kind of template or scaffold to help to organize knowledge and to structure it, even though the structure must be built up piece by piece with small units of interacting concept and propositional frameworks. While the latter are the principal elements that make up our knowledge structures and form our cognitive structure in the brain, we pause briefly to discuss other forms of learning. So-called a€?learning stylea€? differences are, to a large extent, derivative from differences in the patterns of learning that students have employed varying from high commitment to continuous rote-mode learning to almost exclusive commitment to meaningful mode learning.
The staff of PUP interviewed 23 Harvard graduates, alumni and faculty, asking each a€?Why do we have seasons?a€? Only eleven concepts, properly organized are needed to understand why we have seasons, and one arrangement of these concepts is shown in Figure 5. One representation of the knowledge structure required required for understanding why we have seasons.
It is coming to be generally recognized now that the meaningful learning processes described above are the same processes used by scientists and mathematicians, or experts in any discipline, to construct new knowledge. We can use the analogy that concepts are like the atoms of matter and propositions are like the molecules of matter. Since concept map structures are dependent on the context in which they will be used, it is best to identify a segment of a text, a laboratory or field activity, or a particular problem or question that one is trying to understand. Every concept map responds to a focus question, and a good focus question can lead to a much richer concept map.
These are links between concepts in different segments or domains of knowledge on the map that help to illustrate how these domains are related to one another.
A a€?stringa€? map created by a fourth grade student following a class field trip to a paper mill. Therefore, it is necessary to be selective in identifying cross-links, and to be as precise as possible in identifying linking words that connect concepts. This is because they poorly understand the relationship between the concepts, or the meanings of the concepts, and it is the linking words that specify this relationship.
When computer software is used, one can go back, change the size and font style, and add colors to a€?dress upa€? the concept map. The software not only makes it easy for users of all ages to construct and modify concept maps in a similar way that a word processor makes it easy to write text, it allows users to collaborate at a distance in the construction in their maps, publish their concept maps so anybody on the Internet can access them, link resources to their maps to further explain their contents, and search the WWW for information related to the map. Links to these resources are displayed as icons underneath the concepts, as shown in Figure 7. Vygotsky (1978) introduced the idea that language and social dialogue can support learning, especially when members of the social group are at about the same Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). When maps are stored in a server on the Internet, users with appropriate permissions (CaA±as et al., 2003c) can edit shared concept maps at the same time (synchronously) or at their convenience (asynchronously).
Concept maps within this environment are likely to be used as the mechanism to determine the level of understanding students have about the topic being studied before the topic is introduced.
The whole spectrum of learning activities can be integrated using CmapTools, incorporating various learning activities recorded via the software creating a digital portfolio as a product of the learning. For example, a€?How do we measure time?a€? can be given to the students as the question to answer through the construction of the concept map.
The staring point for the construction of the concept map can be a list of concepts that the teacher wants to make sure all students include in their map. The beginning of a concept map with a focus question and a parking lot with concepts to be included in the map. An a€?expert skeletona€? concept map has been previously prepared by an expert on the topic, and permits both students and teachers to build their knowledge on a solid foundation. Observe that in this example, some of the concepts were left in the a€?parking lota€? for the student to add to the concept map. Oa€™Donnell, Dansereau, & Hall (2002) have shown that a€?knowledge mapsa€? can act as scaffolds to facilitate learning.
The intention is that the expert will be better at selecting the small number of concepts that are key to understanding the topic, and express accurately the relationships between these concepts. But the expected final number of concepts in the map is a function of the number of concepts in the a€?skeletona€?. For example, Figure 11 shows a a€?expert skeletona€? concept map for the sciences that encompasses key major concepts needed to understand science.
An Energy transformation Cmap that could be accessed by linking it to the a€?Energya€? concept in the concept map in Figure 11, and a Photosynthesis Cmap that may be linked to it. Thus if one clicks on a concept such as a€?electrical energya€? in Figure 12 and selects one of the a€?searcha€? menu options, CmapTools will retrieve WWW resources that not only deal with electricity, but also relate to other concepts in the map. In fact, teachers supervising this kind of study are likely to learn as many new things as their students.
Unlike most elementary science textbooks, this series presents in-depth instruction in basic concepts at all grade levels, including instruction in concepts dealing with the nature of science, nature of matter, energy and energy transformations.
Schema showing the New Model for Education with an a€?expert skeletona€? concept map that can serve as the a€?backbonea€? for an emerging portfolio in science.
It would be important for the teacher to help students perform these activities, and similar related activities, some of which might by suggested in WWW resources. Schema showing the New Model for Education with concepts and resources added to the a€?expert skeletona€? concept map, plus a page from a World of Science book providing relevant reading and activities. Students need concrete, hands on experiences with real things and to observe real phenomena to put meaning into the concept labels provided in the concept maps and other resources. Valittuti and his colleagues have obtained funding from the Italian Ministry of Education for teacher training and a number of elementary school teams began working with the World of Science concept maps and other resources during the 2005-2006 year. We know that we need to engage teachers and administrators in training programs that can model the new educational approaches, and we need to seek their counsel on ways to improve on the New Model for Education. Teachers need to become familiar with the use of CmapTools software and the various tools it contains. Change in school practices is always slow, but it is likely that the use of concept maps in school instruction will increase substantially in the next decade or two. Many students have difficulty identifying the important concepts in a text, lecture or other form of presentation.
A concept map prepared cooperatively by the faculty of the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University to show the over-all structure for a revised curriculum. In fact, these methods continue to be highly popular with many cognitive scientists, most of whom are unfamiliar with Ausubela€™s work and the kind of epistemological ideas on which concept mapping is based. As the CmapTools software has evolved, it has become an increasingly useful tool for this work, as illustrated by the remarkable resources on Mars prepared at NASA Amesa€™ Center for Mars Exploration (Briggs et al., 2004).
An example of a concept map that can be accessed via clicking on one of the resources attached to a concept on Figure 16. While at first glance concept maps may appear to be just another graphic representation of information, understanding the foundations for this tool and its proper use will lead the user to see that this is truly a profound and powerful tool.
The CmapTools web site provides opportunities for lively exchanges among users and researchers.
Inbound marketing refers to the creation and publication of high quality content which attracts your ideal prospect. These social platforms can, and should, also be used for networking, collaboration and monitoring. Relevant, engaging content that’s optimised for search visibility and social sharing will attract a highly targeted group of potential customers who are much more likely to buy from you.
Search Engine Marketing (SEM) is a process which aims to improve the search engine rankings of a particular website or webpage. Getting more from your internet marketing is all about deciding which indicators are the most important for your business. What group of people would most enjoy, or best be served by, your company’s product or service? The goal of every landing page is to entice visitors to complete an accompanying conversion form, thereby providing you with valuable information (their name and email) in exchange for exclusive content that you have created (like a whitepaper or ebook).
In most cases this refers to filling out a form or downloading a whitepaper, but a conversion can be any action, such as someone visiting a specific page or using a widget on your website. They are eligible for nurturing campaigns, and are considered more qualified than the prospects who visit your website without requesting more information or downloading an offer. Because they have provided you with their email address in exchange for one of your offers, you now have the ability to nurture these leads down the sales funnel by providing them with extra free content over a set period of time. Not picking on old folks, but rather pointing out that the web still has a ton of users that don't "get around" like the savvy set.
Outside of marketing, you can use it to determine what tastes better on a peanut butter sandwich: jelly or fluff.
A personal blog or business blog will traditionally include regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material, such as photos and video. The bottom of the funnel refers to a stage of the buying process leads reach when theya€™re just about to close as new customers. In email, not all bounces are bad, so it's important to distinguish between hard and soft bounces before taking an email address off your list. So, you can imagine that ita€™s important to convey a very enticing, valuable offer on a call-to-action to better foster visitor-to-lead conversion. For example, CAN-SPAM is the reason businesses are required to have an "unsubscribe" option at the bottom of every email. In exchange for his or her contact information, a website visitor obtains a content offer to better help them through the buying process. From website traffic to lead conversion to customer marketing, content plays an indispensable role in a successful inbound marketing strategy. As buyers become more in control of what information they digest (again, not literally), ita€™s important to deliver content thata€™s contextually relevant. CRO is most often applied to web page or landing page optimization, but it can also be applied to social media, CTAs, and other parts of your marketing.
Ita€™s far too easy for a contact to click a€?unsubscribea€? after gaining their hard earned trust in your communication. JavaScript is a programming language that lets web developers design interactive sites. Examples of KPIs include CAC (Customer Acquisition Cost), blog traffic sources, and homepage views. Landing pages are the gatekeepers of the conversion path and are what separates a website visitor from becoming a lead. If youa€™ll let me run with an a€?arta€? analogy, marketing automation is the paintbrush, watercolors, and blank canvas. Behavior-based marketing automation refers to a system that triggers emails and other communication based on user activity on and off your site. Microsites are used when marketers want to create a different online experience for their audience separate from their main website. Typical middle of the funnel offers include case studies or product brochures -- essentially anything that brings your business into the equation as a solution to the problem the lead is looking to solve. Well, mobile marketing refers to the practice of optimizing marketing for mobile devices to provide visitors with time- and location- sensitive, personalized information for promoting goods, services, and ideas. Google's algorithm now rewards mobile-friendly websites, so if your site isn't fully optimized for mobile devices, you will likely see a hit to your ranking on mobile searches. That means it's usually a piece of sponsored content that's relative to the consumer experience, isn't interruptive, and looks and feels similar to its editorial environment.
To varying degrees, the no-follow attribute is recognized by all major search engines, like Google, Yahoo, and Bing.
It also means that the more people that click on your ad, the lower PPC you'll pay and vice versa. It means you've pressed the rotating arrow icon to retweet a post, and then added a comment in the text box provided. This method of retweeting allows you to add your own thoughts, but with a very limited character count. Search engines also look at site structure and design, visitor behavior, and other external, off-site factors to determine how highly ranked your site should be in the search engine results pages. Users can add text and drawings to their snaps and control the list of recipients in which they send them to. Social Media is a core component of Inbound, as it provides marketers with additional channels to spread reach, increase growth, and reach business goals. As such, an inbound marketer will want to create helpful content that aids leads in identifying this problem and providing next steps toward a solution. If only one person visits a webpage 30 times, then that web page has one UV and 30 total site visits. Basically, this is the address of a piece of information that can be found on the web such as a page, image, or document (ex. Otherwise, ita€™s just a brochure -- and leta€™s be honest -- could you really use another brochure? WOM marketing is inexpensive, but it takes work and involves leveraging many components of inbound marketing like product marketing, content marketing, and social media marketing. A workflow can also serve other purposes, such as adjust contact properties on a lead record based on certain conditions, or adding a contact record to a certain list. Hence the term 'double entry' - for every change on one side of the balance sheet, so there must be a corresponding change on the other side - it must always balance.
The formula is the most logical way of calculating the value at cost of all goods sold, irrespective of when the stock was purchased. In recent years the term has come to be used in slightly different ways, even to the extent that other interpretations are placed on the acronym, most commonly 'Freight On Board', which is technically incorrect.
FOB is a mechanism for agreeing price and transport responsibility, not for agreeing payment terms. For investors IPO's can risky as it is difficult to predict the value of the stock (shares) when they open for trading. This gives the supplier an assurance that their invoice will be paid, beyond any other assurances or contracts made with the customer. Long term liabilities, along with Share Capital and Reserves make up one side of the balance sheet equation showing where the money came from.
Net profit normally refers to the profit figure before deduction of corporation tax, in which case the term is often extended to 'net profit before tax' or PBT.


It shows profit performance, which often has little to do with cash, stocks and assets (which must be viewed from a separate perspective using balance sheet and cashflow statement). A glaring example of misuse of restricted funds would be when Maxwell spent Mirror Group pension funds on Mirror Group development. In this sense most CEO's and business owners regard ROI as the ultimate measure of any business or any business proposition, after all it's what most business is aimed at producing - maximum return on investment, otherise you might as well put your money in a bank savings account. Words on the line, referred to as linking words or linking phrases, specify the relationship between the two concepts. Therefore, it is best to construct concept maps with reference to some particular question we seek to answer, which we have called a focus question.
Cross-links help us see how a concept in one domain of knowledge represented on the map is related to a concept in another domain shown on the map. This early learning of concepts is primarily a discovery learning process, where the individual discerns patterns or regularities in events or objects and recognizes these as the same regularities labeled by older persons with words or symbols.
The indirect control over this choice is primarily in instructional strategies used and the evaluation strategies used.
They can be as effective as more time-consuming clinical interviews for identifying the relevant knowledge a learner possesses before or after instruction (Edwards & Fraser, 1983). However, if the letters can be grouped to form a know word, or word-like unit, or the numbers can be related to a phone number or something known, then 10 or more letters or numbers can be recalled.
Second, the knowledge structure or cognitive structure of the learner is not enhanced or modified to clear up faulty ideas.
Iconic learning involves the storage of images of scenes we encounter, people we meet, photos, and a host of other images. His work has received much attention in education and has served to draw attention to the broad range of differences in human abilities for various kinds of learning and performance.
It is not easy to help students in the former condition move to patterns of learning of the latter type. The PUP interviewers found that 21 of the 23 interviewed could not explain why we have seasons, a topic that is taught repeatedly in school. In fact, Novak has argued that new knowledge creation is nothing more than a relatively high level of meaningful learning accomplished by individuals who have a well organized knowledge structure in the particular area of knowledge, and also a strong emotional commitment to persist in finding new meanings (Novak, 1977, 1993, 1998). There are only around 100 different kinds of atoms, and these make up an infinite number of different kinds of molecules. Some important considerations for construction of better concept maps and facilitation of learning will be discussed further below. This creates a context that will help to determine the hierarchical structure of the concept map.
When learning to construct concept maps, learners tend to deviate from the focus question and build a concept map that may be related to the domain, but which does not answer the question. These concepts could be listed, and then from this list a rank ordered list should be established from the most general, most inclusive concept, for this particular problem or situation at the top of the list, to the most specific, least general concept at the bottom of the list.
Post-its allow a group to work on a whiteboard or butcher paper and to move concepts around easily. Cross-links are important in order to show that the learner understands the relationships between the sub-domains in the map. The class identified concepts in the parking lot on the left, but this student was not successful in using many of these and her map makes little sense.
Cross-links are key to show that the learner understands the relationships between the sub-domains in the map. In addition, one should avoid a€?sentences in the boxesa€?, that is, full sentences used as concepts, since this usually indicates that a whole subsection of the map could be constructed from the statement in the box. Once students begin to focus-in on good linking words, and on the identification of good cross-links, they can see that every concept could be related to every other concept. Clicking on one of these icons will display a list of links from which the user can select to open the linked resource.
Many of the CmapServers are a€?publica€?, allowing anybody (no authorization needed) to publish their collections of concept maps and resources (CaA±as et al., 2004a). Concept maps are now beginning to be used in corporations to help teams clarify and articulate the knowledge needed to solve problems ranging from the design of new products to marketing to administrative problem resolution. The concept map can thus become an artifact around which the various activities of the learning process can be centered, as shown in Figure 8. The maps are then developed, extended and refined as the students develop other activities on the topic and increase their understanding, possibly concluding with complex knowledge models that link resources, results, experiments, etc., and that can be used if desired as a final presentation by the students. The concept map can be constructed by students working in couples or small groups, where the teacher must pay attention to the level of participation of every student.
The list of propositions on the top right window are automatically derived from the Cmap, and those with a a€?pina€? have been a€?publisheda€?. The type of focus question makes a difference in the type of concept maps that the student builds. For example, a a€?skeleton mapa€? that consists of five concepts should be expanded by the student to a map with 15 to 20 concepts. Learners can begin with such a map, add concepts from the parking lot, link digital resources and also construct more specific submaps. The program tries to figure out what the Cmap is about and prepare a query for Web search engines that will generate results that are relevant to the ideas being developed in the concept map.
Moreover, beginning with the a€?expert skeletona€? maps as starting points reduces the chance that misconceptions or faulty ideas held by learners or teachers will be reinforced and maximize the chance that they will build knowledge structures that in time remove or diminish misconceptions (Novak, 2002). Learners would also add their own concepts to the a€?expert skeletona€? concept map, as well as resources identified in readings and from the Internet. The plan is to have four sets of schools focus on different aspects of The World of Science series and produce photos and videos of students doing projects that illustrate and utilize the various science concepts.
There is also the challenge of changing assessment practices that now rely primarily on multiple-choice tests that measure mainly rote recall of information, to performance-based tests that require students to demonstrate that they understand basic concepts and can use these concepts in novel problems solving, and that they can use Internet resources to grow and modify their concepts and learn new concepts. They also need to learn about the theory underlying concept mapping, including the ideas in this paper.
Other innovative practices for assessing student understanding of subject matter are also available (Mintzes et al., 2000). The hierarchical organization of concept maps suggests more optimal sequencing of instructional material. Part of the problem stems from a pattern of learning that simply requires memorization of information, and no evaluation of the information is required. This tacit knowledge is acquired over years of experience and derives in part from activities of the expert that involve thinking, feeling and acting. We also used a€?clinical interviewsa€? in our early work, as noted above, but we found it necessary to invent a better way to represent what our learners knew and how their knowledge was changing over time. Figure 16 shows a a€?Homea€? concept map for the knowledge portfolio that Briggs created and Figure 17 shows one of the many submaps he created.
It may at first look like a simple arrangement of words into a hierarchy, but when care is used in organizing the concepts represented by the words, and the propositions or ideas are formed with well-chosen linking words, one begins to see that a good concept map is at once simple, but also elegantly complex with profound meanings. This document itself should be a a€?livinga€? document, with revisions occurring periodically as we gain new knowledge and experiences with the use of this tool. The effects of cooperative, competitive and individualistic goal structure on achievement: A meta-analysis.
The information available in brief visual presentations, Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 74(11), 1-30. A few years ago, for many companies, this meant engineering keyword densities and using artificial link building to climb the rankings.
Technology now gives us the ability to target our messages and visibility to users in a 1 mile target area. Many marketing companies suggest keeping all the copy on a landing page above the fold, increasing the likelihood that more people will read it. Doing so will keep you in the front of their minds, increasing the likelihood that they will seek you out when they are ready to make a purchase. Theya€™ve identified a problem, have shopped around for possible solutions, and are very close to buying.
If youa€™re still having difficulty grasping the topic based on this description, feel free to absorb it as a rabbit hunting analogy in comic form. If you own a restaurant, you wouldna€™t want to send a coupon for a steak dinner to a vegetarian, right? Most of the dynamic behavior you'll see on a web page is thanks to JavaScript, which augments a browser's default controls and behaviors. Getting on the platform, developing a completed profile, and networking has helped many a jobseeker find work.
It enables marketers to nurture leads and send them information only when it is most relevant to their stage in the buying cycle.
Not all links (and linking domains) are created equal, and a no-follow attribute helps avoid any foul play. The good news is that ita€™s powerful; the not so good news is that ita€™s mostly out of an inbound marketera€™s control. Regardless of how you use it, workflows can be a very powerful asset in an inbound marketing strategy.
While technically incorrect also, terms such as 'FOB Destination' have entered into common use, meaning that the insurance liability and costs of transportation and responsibility for the goods are the seller's until the goods are delivered to the buyer's stipulated delivery destination.
The other side of the balance sheet will show Current Liabilities along with various Assets, showing where the money is now. We define concept as a perceived regularity in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label. The concept map may pertain to some situation or event that we are trying to understand through the organization of knowledge in the form of a concept map, thus providing the context for the concept map. In the creation of new knowledge, cross-links often represent creative leaps on the part of the knowledge producer. The fundamental idea in Ausubela€™s cognitive psychology is that learning takes place by the assimilation of new concepts and propositions into existing concept and propositional frameworks held by the learner.
This is a phenomenal ability that is part of the evolutionary heritage of all normal human beings.
Instructional strategies that emphasize relating new knowledge to the learnera€™s existing knowledge foster meaningful learning. In a related test, if we give learners 10-12 familiar but unrelated words to memorize in a few seconds, most will recall only 5-9 words. It is good that schools are recognizing that there are important human capabilities other than the recall of specific cognitive information so often the only form of learning represented in multiple-choice tests used commonly in schools and corporations. While concept maps can help, students also need to be taught something about brain mechanisms and knowledge organization, and this instruction should accompany the use of concept maps. Included in this group was a graduate who had recently taken a course in the Physics of Planetary Motion, who also believed erroneously that seasons were caused by the earth moving closer to the sun in summer and further away in the winter. Epistemology is that branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of knowledge and new knowledge creation. There are now about 460,000 words in the English language (most of which are concept labels), and these can be combined to form an infinite number of propositions. It is often stated that the first step to learning about something is to ask the right questions. Although this rank order may be only approximate, it helps to begin the process of map construction. This is necessary as one begins to struggle with the process of building a good hierarchical organization. This student was a good oral reader, but she had very poor reading comprehension and was a committed rote learner (see Novak & Gowin, 1984, page 108). This also produces some frustration, and they must choose to identify the most prominent and most useful cross-links.
Using CmapTools, it is possible to use concept maps to access any material that can be presented digitally, including materials prepared by the mapmaker. When students work cooperatively in groups and use concept maps to guide their learning, significantly greater learning occurs (Preszler, 2004).
Through CmapServers, users of all ages and working in many disciplines have published thousands of maps on all topics and domains. The high degree of explicitness of concept maps makes them an ideal vehicle for exchange of ideas or for the collaborative construction of new knowledge.
CmapTools has a recorder feature tht allows recording and playback of steps in map construction, including identification of each contributor.
The lower right window shows propositions from other participants in Soup, some of which have discussion threads attached questioning or commenting on the proposition. A question like a€?What are plants?a€? will lead to a declarative, more classificatory concept map than the question a€?Why do we need plants?a€? Experiments show that not only the focus question, but also the root concept of a concept map have a strong influence on the quality of the resulting concept map (Derbentseva et al., 2004, 2006). Figure 10 presents the focus question and parking lot for the focus question a€?What is the structure of the Universe?a€? The student, group of students, or class is expected to build a concept map that answers the question and includes at least the concepts in the list. If the a€?skeletona€? map contains 20 concepts, which makes it more of a complete map, the final map could be expected to contain about 50 to 60 concepts. Of course, the learner still needs to select new concepts from the material and construct new propositions on the concept map that add meanings and clarity to the map. Our plan is to use The World of Science books as a starting point for a demonstration project for A New Model for Education. There will be much feedback from classrooms helping the teams to refine their work, sharing a€?electronic portfoliosa€? using CmapTools. There remains in the New Model plenty of room for acquisition of specific facts and procedures, but now these should be learned within the context of powerful conceptual frameworks.
Since the fundamental characteristic of meaningful learning is integration of new knowledge with the learnersa€™ previous concept and propositional frameworks, proceeding from the more general, more inclusive concepts to the more specific information usually serves to encourage and enhance meaningful learning.
Such students fail to construct powerful concept and propositional frameworks, leading them to see learning as a blur of myriad facts, dates, names, equations, or procedural rules to be memorized. Concept mapping has been shown to help learners learn, researchers create new knowledge, administrators to better structure and manage organizations, writers to write, and evaluators assess learning. Some interrelationships between constructivist models of learning and current neurobiological theory, with implications for science education. Alternative instructional systems and the development of problem solving skills in physics.
Experiments on the effect of map structure and concept quantification during concept map construction. The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information.
Concept maps and vee diagrams: Two metacognitive tools for science and mathematics education. Human constructivism: A unification of psychological and epistemological phenomena in meaning making.
Learning, creating, and using knowledge: Concept maps as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Meaningful learning: The essential factor for conceptual change in limited or appropriate propositional hierarchies (liphs) leading to empowerment of learners.
Inbound marketing replaces the old ‘outbound’ techniques like cold calling, mail-outs, and traditional email marketing which are now almost completely redundant. URLs are important for on-page SEO, as search engines scour the included text when mining for keywords. The label for most concepts is a word, although sometimes we use symbols such as + or %, and sometimes more than one word is used.
There are two features of concept maps that are important in the facilitation of creative thinking: the hierarchical structure that is represented in a good map and the ability to search for and characterize new cross-links. This knowledge structure as held by a learner is also referred to as the individuala€™s cognitive structure.
After age 3, new concept and propositional learning is mediated heavily by language, and takes place primarily by a reception learning process where new meanings are obtained by asking questions and getting clarification of relationships between old concepts and propositions and new concepts and propositions. Evaluation strategies that encourage learners to relate ideas they possess with new ideas also encourage meaningful learning. The reality is that unless students possess at least a rudimentary conceptual understanding of the phenomenon they are investigating, the activity may lead to little or no gain in their relevant knowledge and may be little more than busy work. If the words are unfamiliar, such as technical terms introduced for the first time, the learner may do well to recall correctly two or three of these.
While the alphanumeric images Sperling used in his studies were quickly forgotten, other kinds of images are retained much longer. Studies by Penfield and Perot (1963), among others, indicate that regions of our brain that are activated when we hear sounds are the same regions that are active when we recall sounds. One reason we encourage the integration of the broad range of activities represented in our New Model for Education is to provide opportunities for these other abilities to be represented and expressed.
The information in the above paragraphs should become part on the instructional program for skillful use of concept maps. In fact, the earth is slightly closer to the sun when it is winter in Massachusetts, rather than in summer. There is an important relationship between the psychology of learning, as we understand it today, and the growing consensus among philosophers and epistemologists that new knowledge creation is a constructive process involving both our knowledge and our emotions or the drive to create new meanings and new ways to represent these meanings. Although most combinations of words might be nonsense, there is still the possibility of creating an infinite number of valid and meaningful propositions. We refer to the list of concepts as a parking lot, since we will move these concepts into the concept map as we determine where they fit in. Computer software programs are even better in that they allow moving of concepts together with linking statements and the moving of groups of concepts and links to restructure the map. This process involves what Bloom (1956) identified as high levels of cognitive performance, namely evaluation and synthesis of knowledge. In this way, concept maps can serve as the indexing and navigational tools for complex domains of knowledge, as will be illustrated later with NASA materials on Mars (Briggs et al., 2004). In our work with both teachers and students, small groups working cooperatively to construct concept maps have proven to be useful in many contexts.
While concept maps on these public servers are only a sample of concept maps submitted by persons using CmapTools, and some do not meet our criteria of good concept maps, they nevertheless serve to illustrate diverse applications. We have also found that the obstacles deriving from personal insecurities and fear of embarrassment are largely circumvented, since critical comments are directed at the concept map, not at the person(s) building the map. Experienced concept mappers agree with researchers that the most challenging and difficult aspect of constructing a concept map is constructing the propositions; that is, determining what linking phrases will clearly depict the relationship between concepts. In this case, we are probably referring to using a relatively complete (not skeleton) map as a scaffold, expecting students to go deeper into the topic by creating several submaps that are linked to the starting point map. Here we also see a submap that might be created by a group of learners, and a sample of two resources that could be accessed via icons on the submap.
Thus, the learner or team of learners is very actively engaged in the meaning building process, an essential requirement for meaningful learning to occur. To begin, a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps have been prepared for some sections of the grade two book and the whole of the grade four book of the World of Science entitled The Expanding World of Science. This feedback should help us to rapidly refine concept maps, techniques and approaches for improving practice of the New Model for Education. Research (Bransford et al., 1999) has shown that factual information acquired in a context of meaningful learning is not only retained longer, but this information can be used much more successfully to solve new problems.
Teachers should work collaboratively to build on some of the simpler concept maps dealing with education ideas and perhaps add resources to some of the more complex concept maps. There is nothing written in stone that says multiple choice tests must be used from grade school through university, and perhaps in time even national achievement exams will utilize concept mapping as a powerful evaluation tool. Thus, in curriculum planning, we need to construct a global a€?macro mapa€? showing the major ideas we plan to present in the whole course, or in a whole curriculum, and also more specific a€?micro mapsa€? to show the knowledge structure for a very specific segment of the instructional program. For these students, the subject matter of most disciplines, and especially science, mathematics, and history, is a cacophony of information to memorize, and they usually find this boring.
In fact, the biography of one Nobel Lauriat in biology (Barbara McClintock) was entitled, A Feeling for the Organism (Keller, 1983). However, when we began to concept map the expert knowledge of a cardiologist who literally a€?wrote the booka€? on this technology, it was evident that there were concepts missing in the map and that the a€?tacit knowledgea€? of our expert was not fully expressed in his book or in our interviews. In addition to submaps, a wide variety of digital resources can be accessed via the concept maps. Knowledge modeling and the creation of el-tech: A performance support system for electronic technicians.
If a keyword youa€™re looking to get indexed for is in the URL, youa€™ll get brownie points from search engines (but no real brownies, unfortunately). Propositions are statements about some object or event in the universe, either naturally occurring or constructed.
Out of the necessity to find a better way to represent childrena€™s conceptual understanding emerged the idea of representing childrena€™s knowledge in the form of a concept map. This acquisition is mediated in a very important way when concrete experiences or props are available; hence the importance of a€?hands-ona€? activity for science learning with young children, but this is also true with learners of any age and in any subject matter domain. Typical objective tests seldom require more than rote learning (Bloom, 1956; Holden, 1992). Our brains have a remarkable capacity for acquiring and retaining visual images of people or photos. While we can locate regions of the brain that are active in learning or recall of information using positron emission tomography (PET) scans, the specific mechanisms by which neurons store this information is not known.
Nevertheless, we seen the organizing opportunities afforded by associating the various activities with an explicit knowledge structure as very beneficial. The primary reason we have seasons in latitudes away from the equator is due to the tilt of the earth on its axis toward the sun in summer resulting in longer days and more direct radiation, thus greater heating. Learners struggling to create good concept maps are themselves engaged in a creative process, and this can be challenging, especially to learners who have spent most of their life learning by rote. Some concepts may remain in the parking lot as the map is completed if the mapmaker sees no good connection for these with other concepts in the map. When CmapTools is used in conjunction with a computer projector, two or more individuals can easily collaborate in building a concept map and see changes as they progress in their work. Concept mapping is an easy way to encourage very high levels of cognitive performance, when the process is done well. In the early 1990s, Latin America, students using the IBM Net (before the Internet) were very successful in creating concept maps both with students in their classroom and with students in other countries (CaA±as et al., 2001). When a concept map is saved to a CmapServer, a a€?web pagea€? version of the map is also stored, so a WWW browser is sufficient to browse through all the published concept maps. Having learners comment on each othera€™s concept maps, whether they are in the same classroom or in different schools, is an effective form of peer-review and collaboration.
So giving the student some of the concepts does not take away from the difficulty in the map construction, although it may somewhat limit the creativity of the student in selecting the concepts to include. The CmapTools Network may serve as a clearinghouse for some of these efforts through its Public servers in Italy and other countries. Even with the current state of technology and pedagogical understandings, it is possible for schools, states or countries to mount a New Model for Education. This is a chicken-and-egg problem because concept maps cannot be required on national achievement tests if most students have not been given opportunities to learn to use this knowledge representation tool. Faculty working independently or collaboratively can redesign course syllabi or an entire curriculum. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) stress the importance of capturing and using the knowledge of corporate experta€™s tacit knowledge if a company wants to become a€?the knowledge creating companya€?. Thus, the concept map not only allowed us to represent the experta€™s knowledge, but also to find gaps in the knowledge structure we were procuring through interviews. Paper presented at the Seventh World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Washington DC. Online concept maps: Enhancing collaborative learning by using technology with concept maps. Paper presented at the Symposium at the 11th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research in Learning and Instruction (EARLI), Cyprus. A case study in the research paradigm of human-centered computing: Local expertise in weather forecasting.
Why minimal guidance during iInstruction does not work: an analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and iInquiry-based teaching. If you want to rank, you need a blog, a visible social presence and a modern, well thought out website which gives users what they want! Propositions contain two or more concepts connected using linking words or phrases to form a meaningful statement. In fact, the worst forms of objective tests, or short-answers tests, require verbatim recall of statements and this may be impeded by meaningful learning where new knowledge is assimilated into existing frameworks, making it difficult to recall specific, verbatim definitions or descriptions. For example, in one study (Shepard, 1967) presented 612 pictures of common scenes to subjects, and later asked which of two similar pictures shown was one of the 612 seen earlier? Other ideas for improving instruction to achieve understanding of the subject is available elsewhere (Mintzes et al., 1998). In winter, the axis of the earth points away from the sun, thus resulting in shorter days and less intense radiation. Rote learning contributes very little at best to our knowledge structures, and therefore cannot underlie creative thinking or novel problem solving. CmapTools also allows for collaboration between individuals in the same room or anywhere in the world, and the maps can be built synchronously or asynchronously, depending on the mapmakersa€™ schedules.
This is one reason concept mapping can also be a very powerful evaluation tool (Edmondson, 2000). In our own classes and workshops, and in classes taught by our students and colleagues, small groups of students working collectively to construct concept maps can produce some remarkably good maps. Whenever a concept map is made with CmapTools and then saved, the maker is asked to provide a focus question, as well as key concepts for this concept map.
It does provide the teacher with insight into which concepts the student(s) had trouble integrating into the concept map, indicating little or no understanding of these concepts.
The a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps would serve as a starting point for students and teachers for each section illustrated in the book, and then students would use these Cmaps together with CmapTools to search the WWW for pertinent resources and ideas. We anticipate that an abundance of both anecdotal and empirical data will flow from these efforts in a few years.
On the other hand, if state, regional, and national exams would begin to include concept maps as a segment of the exam, there would be a great incentive for teachers to teach students how to use this tool. For example, faculty working together to plan instruction in veterinary medicine at Cornell University constructed the concept map shown in Figure 15. This kind of problem was recognized years ago in Hoffmana€™s (1962) The Tyranny of Testing. What is interfering with these 21 Harvard people is confusion with the common experience that when we are closer to a fire or lamp, the heat is more intense than when we are further away.
As people create and observe new or existing objects or events, the creative people will continue to create new concents and new knowledge. Figure 13 illustrates one of the a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps that could be used as the starting point for building a knowledge model, preferably students working in teams and sharing ideas. Based on the solid theoretical and related research findings now available, there is every reason to be optimistic that these innovative efforts will be successful. Figure 1 shows an example of a concept map that describes the structure of concept maps and illustrates the above characteristics.
Three days later, they were still 92% correct, and three months later they were correct 58% of the time. Thus, these people have failed to recognize that this same phenomenon is not operating to give seasons on Earth.
Creating new methods of observing or recording events usually opens up new opportunities for new knowledge creation.
Currently there are a number of projects in the USA and elsewhere that are doing research to see if better evaluation tools can be developed, including the use of concept maps. Boumedine (Ed.), Proceedings of IKS 2002 - the IASTED international conference on information and knowledge sharing (pp.
This and many other studies have shown that humans have a remarkable ability to recall images, although they soon forget many of the details in the images. For example, the creation of the concept mapping method for recording subjecta€™s understandings has led new opportunities to study the process of learning and new knowledge creation. Considering how often we look at pennies, it is interesting that the subjects asked to draw a penny in a study by Nickerson and Adams (1979) omitted more than half of the features or located them in the wrong place. This is commonly observed in many, many examples of a€?misconceptionsa€? in every field of study.
Some features of the latest versions of CmapTools also facilitate the use of concept maps for assessment. We believe that integrating various kind of images into a conceptual framework using concept mapping software like CmapTools (described below) could enhance iconic memory, and we hope research on this will be done. The only solution to the problem of overcoming misconceptions is to help learners learn meaningfully, and using concept maps can be very helpful. For example, the a€?Compare concept mapsa€? tool allows the comparison of an a€?experta€? concept map for a topic with maps constructed by students, and all similar or different concepts and propositions are shown in color.




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