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2 Fungi as Infectious Agents Molds and yeasts are widely distributed in air, dust, fomites and normal flora.
6 Emerging Fungal Pathogens Opportunistic fungal pathogen has little or no virulence; host defenses must be impaired. 8 Epidemiology of the Mycoses Most fungal pathogens do not require a host to complete their life cycles and infections are not communicable. 12 Diagnosis of Mycotic Infections Diagnosis and identification require microscopic examination of stained specimens, culturing in selective and enriched media and specific biochemical and serological tests. 22 Paracoccidioidomycosis Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Distributed in Central and South America Lung infection occurs through inhalation or inoculation of spores. 25 Sporothrix schenckii Sporotrichosis (rose-gardener’s disease) Very common saprobic fungus that decomposes plant matter in soil Infects appendages and lungs Lymphocutaneous variety occurs when contaminated plant matter penetrates the skin and the pathogen forms a nodule, then spreads to nearby lymph nodes. 32 Ringworm of scalp (tinea capitis) affects scalp and hair-bearing regions of head; hair may be lost.
33 Ringworm of foot and hand (tinea pedis and tinea manuum) is spread by exposure to public surfaces; occurs between digits and on soles. 36 Infections by Candida: Candidiasis Candida albicans Widespread yeast Infections can be short-lived, superficial skin irritations to overwhelming, fatal systemic diseases.
39 Cryptococcosis and Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptococcus neoformans causes cryptococcosis. Chapter 9 Gas Power Cycles Study Guide in PowerPoint to accompany Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th edition by Yunus A. 2 Our study of gas power cycles will involve the study of those heat engines in which the working fluid remains in the gaseous state throughout the cycle. 3 Carnot Cycle The Carnot cycle was introduced in Chapter 5 as the most efficient heat engine that can operate between two fixed temperatures T H and T L. 5 Air-Standard Assumptions In our study of gas power cycles, we assume that the working fluid is air, and the air undergoes a thermodynamic cycle even though the working fluid in the actual power system does not undergo a cycle. 6 Terminology for Reciprocating Devices The following is some terminology we need to understand for reciprocating engines typically piston-cylinder devices.
7 The compression ratio r of an engine is the ratio of the maximum volume to the minimum volume formed in the cylinder.
8 Otto Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Spark-Ignition Engines Consider the automotive spark-ignition power cycle. 9 The air-standard Otto cycle is the ideal cycle that approximates the spark-ignition combustion engine.
16 Example 9-1 An Otto cycle having a compression ratio of 9:1 uses air as the working fluid. 34 Recall processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic, so Since P 3 = P 2 and P 4 = P 1, we see that The Brayton cycle efficiency becomes Is this the same as the Carnot cycle efficiency?


36 Example 9-2 The ideal air-standard Brayton cycle operates with air entering the compressor at 95 kPa, 22 o C. PowerPoint ® Lectures for College Physics: A Strategic Approach, Second Edition Chapter 12 Thermal Properties of Matter. Most striking adaptation to survival and growth in the human host is the ability to switch from hyphal cells to yeast cells. Vary from superficial and colonization to potentially fatal systemic disease An emerging medical concern; account for 10% of all nosocomial infections Dermatophytes may be undergoing transformation into true pathogens.
Inhaled 10-100 conidia convert to yeasts and multiply in lungs Symptoms include cough and fever. Ringworm of beard (tinea barbae) affects the chin and beard of adult males; contracted mainly from animals.
Ringworm of nails (tinea unguium) is a persistent colonization of the nails of the hands and feet that distorts the nail bed. A widespread encapsulated yeast that inhabits soil around pigeon roosts Common infection of AIDS, cancer or diabetes patients Infection of lungs leads to cough, fever, and lung nodules Dissemination to meninges and brain can cause severe neurological disturbance and death. We often study the ideal cycle in which internal irreversibilities and complexities (the actual intake of air and fuel, the actual combustion process, and the exhaust of products of combustion among others) are removed. The areas under the process curves on the P-v diagram represent the work done for closed systems.
To simplify the analysis, we approximate the cycles with the following assumptions: The air continuously circulates in a closed loop and always behaves as an ideal gas. Lets look at the following figures for the definitions of top dead center (TDC), bottom dead center (BDC), stroke, bore, intake valve, exhaust valve, clearance volume, displacement volume, compression ratio, and mean effective pressure. The mean effective pressure (MEP) is a fictitious pressure that, if it operated on the piston during the entire power stroke, would produce the same amount of net work as that produced during the actual cycle. Processes Intake stroke Compression stroke Power (expansion) stroke Exhaust stroke Often the ignition and combustion process begins before the completion of the compression stroke. Apply the conservation of energy to process 2-3 for P = constant (no work), steady- flow, and neglect changes in kinetic and potential energies. True fungal pathogens are distributed in a predictable geographical pattern - climate, soil. Ringworm of body (tinea corporis) occurs as inflamed, red ring lesions anywhere on smooth skin. Treatment of dermatophytes includes topical antifungal agents – tolnaftate, miconazole applied for several weeks. We will be concerned with how the major parameters of the cycle affect the performance of heat engines. The number of crank angle degrees before the piston reaches TDC on the number one piston at which the spark occurs is called the engine timing.


Fuels under high temperature resulting from high compression ratios will prematurely ignite, causing knock. Since the fuel is injected directly into the cylinder, the cutoff ratio can be related to the number of degrees that the crank rotated during the fuel injection into the cylinder. Brayton Cycle The Brayton cycle is the air-standard ideal cycle approximation for the gas-turbine engine.
Brayton Cycle The Brayton cycle is the air-standard ideal cycle approximation for the gas-turbine engine." title="29 When r c > 1 for a fixed r,. Determine the compressor work and the turbine work per unit mass flow, the cycle efficiency, the back work ratio, and compare the compressor exit temperature to the turbine exit temperature. The areas under the process curves on the T-s diagram represent the heat transfer for the processes.
What are the compression ratio and timing of your engine in your car, truck, or motorcycle? This cycle differs from the Otto and Diesel cycles in that the processes making the cycle occur in open systems or control volumes. The net heat added to the cycle is the area that is enclosed by the cycle on the T-s diagram. A heat rejection process that restores the working fluid to its initial state replaces the exhaust process. Therefore, an open system, steady-flow analysis is used to determine the heat transfer and work for the cycle. Apply the conservation of energy for steady-flow and neglect changes in kinetic and potential energies to process 1-2 for the compressor. For a cycle we know W net = Q net ; therefore, the areas enclosed on the P-v and T-s diagrams are equal.
The cold-air-standard assumptions apply when the working fluid is air and has constant specific heat evaluated at room temperature (25 o C or 77 o F).
We assume the working fluid is air and the specific heats are constant and will consider the cold-air-standard cycle. We often use the Carnot efficiency as a means to think about ways to improve the cycle efficiency of other cycles. One of the observations about the efficiency of both ideal and actual cycles comes from the Carnot efficiency: Thermal efficiency increases with an increase in the average temperature at which heat is supplied to the system or with a decrease in the average temperature at which heat is rejected from the system.



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