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Before getting into computer programming, let us first understand computer programs and what they do. A computer program is a sequence of instructions written using a Computer Programming Language to perform a specified task by the computer.
To understand these terms, consider a situation when someone asks you about how to go to a nearby KFC.
First go straight, after half kilometer, take left from the red light and then drive around one kilometer and you will find KFC at the right. Now, let's go back and try to understand a computer program, which is a sequence of instructions written in a Computer Language to perform a specified task by the computer.
The above computer program instructs the computer to print "Hello, World!" on the computer screen. A computer program is also called a computer software, which can range from two lines to millions of lines of instructions. Computer program instructions are also called program source code and computer programming is also called program coding.
A computer without a computer program is just a dump box; it is programs that make computers active. If you understood what a computer program is, then we will say: the act of writing computer programs is called computer programming. Today computer programs are being used in almost every field, household, agriculture, medical, entertainment, defense, communication, etc. MS Word, MS Excel, Adobe Photoshop, Internet Explorer, Chrome, etc., are examples of computer programs. Computer programs are being used to perform Ultrasounds, X-Rays, and other medical examinations.
Computer programs are being used in our mobile phones for SMS, Chat, and voice communication. Someone who can write computer programs or in other words, someone who can do computer programming is called a Computer Programmer. From programming point of view, an algorithm is a step-by-step procedure to resolve any problem. Thus, a computer programmer lists down all the steps required to resolve a problem before writing the actual code. The above algorithm has been written in a crude way to help beginners understand the concept. We assume you are well aware of English Language, which is a well-known Human Interface Language. Similar to Human Interface Languages, Computer Programming Languages are also made of several elements.
We will explain all these elements in subsequent chapters with examples using different programming languages.
A major part of the tutorial has been explained by taking C as programming language and then we have shown how similar concepts work in Java and Python. Though Environment Setup is not an element of any Programming Language, it is the first step to be followed before setting on to write a program. When we say Environment Setup, it simply implies a base on top of which we can do our programming.
Similarly, you will need the following setup to start with programming using any programming language. In case you don’t have sufficient exposure to computers, you will not be able to set up either of these software.
You can use this software to type your computer program and save it in a file at any location. If you are a Mac user, then you will have TextEdit or you can install some other commercial editor like BBEdit to start with. You write your computer program using your favorite programming language and save it in a text file called the program file. Now let us try to get a little more detail on how the computer understands a program written by you using a programming language.
The conversion from text program to binary file is done by another software called Compiler and this process of conversion from text formatted program to binary format file is called program compilation.
So, if you are going to write your program in any such language, which needs compilation like C, C++, Java and Pascal, etc., then you will need to install their compilers before you start programming. There are other programming languages such as Python, PHP, and Perl, which do not need any compilation into binary format, rather an interpreter can be used to read such programs line by line and execute them directly without any further conversion. So, if you are going to write your programs in PHP, Python, Perl, Ruby, etc., then you will need to install their interpreters before you start programming. So do not worry and let’s proceed further to have a thrilling experience to become a computer programmer in simple and easy steps.
For most of the examples given in this tutorial, you will find a Try it option in our website code sections at the top right corner that will take you to the online compiler.
This little Hello World program will help us understand various basic concepts related to C Programming. Every C program starts with main(), which is called the main function, and then it is followed by a left curly brace. You can write your own functions which we will see in a separate chapter, but C programming itself provides various built-in functions like main(), printf(), etc., which we can use in our programs based on our requirement. Some of the programming languages use the word sub-routine instead of function, but their functionality is more or less the same. When we write a program using any programming language, we use various printable characters to prepare programming statements.
Apart from these characters, there are some characters which we use very frequently but they are invisible in your program and these characters are spaces, tabs (\t), new lines(\n). A line containing only whitespace, possibly with a comment, is known as a blank line, and a C compiler totally ignores it. Here, we are using a new line character \n in the first printf() function to create a new line.
If there is any grammatical error (Syntax errors in computer terminologies), then we fix it before converting it into binary format. Here, when we execute the binary a.out file, the computer enters inside the program starting from main() and encounters a printf() statement. If you do not follow the rules defined by the programing language, then at the time of compilation, you will get syntax errors and the program will not be compiled. So the bottom-line is that if you are not following proper syntax defined by the programming language in your program, then you will get syntax errors. Hope you noted that for C and Java examples, first we are compiling the programs and then executing the produced binaries, but in Python program, we are directly executing it. Python does not require a semicolon (;) to terminate a statement, rather a new line always means termination of the statement.
Let's discuss about a very simple but very important concept available in almost all the programming languages which is called data types.
The first example dealt with whole numbers, the second example added two decimal numbers, whereas the third example is dealing with a mix of different data. Student class "6th" has been represented by a mix of whole number and a string of two characters. This way, we realized that in our day-to-day life, we deal with different types of data such as strings, characters, whole numbers (integers), and decimal numbers (floating point numbers). Similarly, when we write a computer program to process different types of data, we need to specify its type clearly; otherwise the computer does not understand how different operations can be performed on that given data.
C and Java support almost the same set of data types, though Java supports additional data types. These data types are called primitive data types and you can use these data types to build more complex data types, which are called user-defined data type, for example a string will be a sequence of characters. Python has five standard data types but this programming language does not make use of any keyword to specify a particular data type, rather Python is intelligent enough to understand a given data type automatically.
Here, Number specifies all types of numbers including decimal numbers and string represents a sequence of characters with a length of 1 or more characters. Variables are the names you give to computer memory locations which are used to store values in a computer program. For example, assume you want to store two values 10 and 20 in your program and at a later stage, you want to use these two values. The above program creates two variables to reserve two memory locations with names a and b. There are programming languages like Python, PHP, Perl, etc., which do not want you to specify data type at the time of creating variables. You can give any name to a variable like age, sex, salary, year1990 or anything else you like to give, but most of the programming languages allow to use only limited characters in their variables names. Almost none of the programming languages allow to start their variable names with a digit, so 1990year will not be a valid variable name whereas year1990 or ye1990ar are valid variable names. Every programming language provides more rules related to variables and you will learn them when you will go in further detail of that programming language. The above program has two additional statements where we are storing 10 in variable a and 20 is being stored in variable b.
Now, we have completed two steps, first we created two variables and then we stored required values in those variables. If we do not use the stored values in the variables, then there is no point in creating variables and storing values in them. You must have seen printf() function in the previous chapter where we had used it to print "Hello, World!". If you want to use float variable in C programming, then you will have to use %f instead of %d, and if you want to print a character value, then you will have to use %c. Python does not want you to specify the data type at the time of variable creation and there is no need to create variables in advance. Though this chapter is not required separately because reserved keywords are a part of basic programming syntax, we kept it separate to explain it right after data types and variables to make it easy to understand. Like int, long, and float, there are many other keywords supported by C programming language which we will use for different purpose.
For example, if you will try to use any reserved keyword for the purpose of variable name, then you will get a syntax error.
We know you cannot memorize all these keywords, but we have listed them down for your reference purpose and to explain the concept of reserved keywords. An operator in a programming language is a symbol that tells the compiler or interpreter to perform specific mathematical, relational or logical operation and produce final result.
These two statements are called arithmetic expressions in a programming language and plus, minus used in these expressions are called arithmetic operators and the values used in these expressions like 2, 3 and x, etc., are called operands. Here, we used a symbol > and it is called a relational operator and in their simplest form, they produce Boolean results which means the result will be either true or false.
Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. Here, we will show you one example of C Programming which makes use of if conditional statement.
Logical operators are very important in any programming language and they help us take decisions based on certain conditions. You can try to execute the following program to see the output, which must be identical to the result generated by the above example.
This tutorial will give you a basic idea on various forms of if statements and an introduction to switch statements available in C programming language. An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the Boolean expression is false. A switch statement is an alternative of if statements which allows a variable to be tested for equality against a list of values. The expression used in a switch statement must give an integer value, which will be compared for equality with different cases given. Now, let's consider another example where we want to write the equivalent English word for a given number.
You can try to execute the following program to see the output, which must be identical to the result generated by the above C example. It was simple, but again, let's consider another situation when you want to write Hello, World! To conclude, a loop statement allows us to execute a statement or group of statements multiple times. This tutorial has been designed to present programming's basic concepts to non-programmers, so let's discuss the two most important loops available in C programming language.
A while loop checks a given condition before it executes any statements given in the body part.


When the break statement is encountered inside a loop, the loop is immediately terminated and the program control resumes at the next statement following the loop. Following is a variant of the above program, but it will come out after printing Hello World! The break and continue statements in Java programming work quite the same way as they work in C programming. The break and continue statements in Python work quite the same way as they do in C programming. Every programming language provides support for manipulating different types of numbers such as simple whole integers and floating point numbers. These data types are called primitive data types and you can use these data types to build more data types, which are called user-defined data types. We have seen various mathematical and logical operations on numbers during a discussion on operators. Rest of the coding is very obvious, but we used %.3f to print float and double, which indicates the number of digits after the decimal to be printed.
The following table lists down various useful built-in mathematical functions available in C programming language which can be used for various important mathematical calculations. For example, if you want to calculate the square root of a number, for example, 2304, then you have a built-in function available to calculate the square root.
The first is a number you wish to raise and the second is the power you wish to raise it to.
If you pass this function the length of two sides of a right triangle, it will return the length of the hypotenuse. Besides the above usage, you will use numbers in loop counting, flag representation, true or false values in C programming. You can try to execute the following program to see the output, which is identical to the result generated by the above C example.
Java also provides a full range of built-in functions for mathematical calculation and you can use them in the same way as you did in C programming.
Python is a little different from C and Java; it categorizes numbers in int, long, float and complex. Python also provides a full range of built-in functions for mathematical calculations and you can use them in the same way you have used them in C programming. If it was easy to work with numbers in computer programming, it would be even easier to work with characters. Here, ch is a variable of character type which can hold a character of the implementation's character set and 'a' is called a character literal or a character constant.
A character data type consumes 8 bits of memory which means you can store anything in a character whose ASCII value lies in between -127 to 127, so it can hold any of the 256 different values. Note that you can keep only a single alphabet or a single digit number inside single quotes and more than one alphabets or digits are not allowed inside single quotes.
Here, character n has been preceded by a backslash (\), it has special meaning which is a new line but keep in mind that backslash (\) has special meaning with a few characters only. Python does not support any character data type but all the characters are treated as string, which is a sequence of characters. To handle such situations, almost all the programming languages provide a concept called array. To create an array variable in C, a programmer specifies the type of the elements and the number of elements to be stored in that array. The number of values between braces { } cannot be larger than the number of elements that we declare for the array between square brackets [ ].
If you omit the size of the array, an array just big enough to hold the initialization is created. The above statement will take the 10th element from the array and assign the value to var variable. Python does not have a concept of Array, instead Python provides another data structure called list, which provides similar functionality as arrays in any other language. BBS 514 - Yap?sal Programlama (Structured Programming)1 Computer Languages Software is written using a computer language (or programming language).
Presentation on theme: "BBS 514 - Yap?sal Programlama (Structured Programming)1 Computer Languages Software is written using a computer language (or programming language).
BBS 514 - Yap?sal Programlama (Structured Programming)7 History of C C –Developed by Denis M.
BBS 514 - Yap?sal Programlama (Structured Programming)12 Let’s Learn C C programming language –Structured and disciplined approach to program design You cannot learn the C language by reading it. BBS 514 - Yap?sal Programlama (Structured Programming)20 Some common escape sequences \n Newline. BBS 514 - Yap?sal Programlama (Structured Programming)22 The use of #define and #include #include e.g. BBS 514 - Yap?sal Programlama (Structured Programming)25 Dissection of the Addition Program num1, num2, and sum are variables. BBS 514 - Yap?sal Programlama (Structured Programming)28 Write a single C statement to accomplish each of the following. BBS 514 - Yap?sal Programlama (Structured Programming)29 Write a single C statement to accomplish each of the following.
BBS 514 - Yap?sal Programlama (Structured Programming)30 Identify and correct the errors in each of the following statements.
BBS 514 - Yap?sal Programlama (Structured Programming)32 Initialization When variables are declared they may also be initialized. BBS 514 - Yap?sal Programlama (Structured Programming)35 Problem Solving Write a C program to read three integers and print their average. Download "BBS 514 - Yap?sal Programlama (Structured Programming)1 Computer Languages Software is written using a computer language (or programming language). This course will provide an overview of the phases of game development, with a focus on the pre-production and production phase. Overview of a Computer Presentation slides for Computer Science 110 Introduction to Computer Programming. 2 Hardware and Software Hardware the physical, tangible parts of a computer keyboard, monitor, disks, wires, chips, etc. 11 Representing Text Digitally For example, every character is stored as a number, including spaces, digits, and punctuation Corresponding upper and lower case letters are separate characters H i, H e a t h e r.
14 Bit Permutations Each permutation can represent a particular item There are 2 N permutations of N bits Therefore, N bits are needed to represent 2 N unique items 2 1 = 2 items 2 2 = 4 items 2 3 = 8 items 2 4 = 16 items 2 5 = 32 items 1 bit ? 22 Monitor The size of a monitor (17") is measured diagonally, like a television screen Most monitors these days have multimedia capabilities: text, graphics, video, etc. 32 C++ A programming language specifies the words and symbols that we can use to write a program A programming language employs a set of rules that dictate how the words and symbols can be put together to form valid program statements C++ was written by Bjarne Sroustrup at Bell Labs during 1983-1985. Galactic Mail Learning Computer Programming by Creating Computer Games “Crackdown” Xbox360 Game 1.
Learning Programming With Game Maker You will use: events and actions to change sprites and objects.
Learning Programming With Game Maker Galactic Mail Game Design You play an intergalactic mail carrier who must deliver mail to a number of inhabited moons.
Learning Programming With Game Maker When objects move outside the playing area, they reappear on the other side to give the impression of a continuous world.
Learning Programming With Game Maker The various elements needed to create the game are o moons, asteroids, explosions and rockets. Learning Programming With Game Maker Sprites and Sounds Sprites provide images for each element of the game. Learning Programming With Game Maker First we’ll create the sprites needed This time we’ll add a couple of additional steps.
Learning Programming With Game Maker By scrolling down the images contained in this sprite, you’ll see that it is an animation of the rocket turning a full circle. Learning Programming With Game Maker Moons and Asteroid Objects Both moons and asteroids will fly around the screen in straight lines, jumping to the opposite side of the room when they go off the edge of the screen. Learning Programming With Game Maker When a moon is created, we want it to start moving in a completely random direction. Learning Programming With Game Maker To make sure that the moon reappears at the other side goes off the edge of the room, include a wrap action for the moon object: 1. Learning Programming With Game Maker The asteroid object can be created in exactly the same way as the moon.
Learning Programming With Game Maker Now would be a good time to check that everything has gone according to plan.
Learning Programming With Game Maker Flying Around So far, so good, so we’ll introduce some gameplay by bringing the rocket into the game. Learning Programming With Game Maker We also need 2 moon objects, since we want the landed rocket object to follow the path of one particular moon around (the one it’s on). Learning Programming With Game Maker Now open the first room and add a single instance of this new special moon to the level. The above sequence of instructions is actually a Human Program written in English Language, which instructs on how to reach KFC from a given starting point. An algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite set of well-defined instructions. You will come across more standardized ways of writing computer algorithms as you move on to advanced levels of computer programming. English has a predefined grammar, which needs to be followed to write English statements in a correct way. We will take you through the basics of those elements and make you comfortable to use them in various programming languages. First, we will try to understand the meaning of all these terms in general and then, we will see how these terms can be used in different programming languages. So after completion of this tutorial, you will be quite familiar with these popular programming languages. So, we suggest you take the help from any technical person around you to set up the programming environment on your machine from where you can start. Actually, the computer cannot understand your program directly given in the text format, so we need to convert this program in a binary format, which can be understood by the computer. Compilers are required in case you are going to write your program in a programming language that needs to be compiled into binary format before its execution. The rest of the program instruction is written in between and finally a right curly brace ends the program. The left curly brace can be in the same line as main(){ or in the next line like it has been mentioned in the above program.
Such statements are called comments and these comments are used to make the programs user friendly and easy to understand. Whitespace is the term used in C to describe blanks, tabs, newline characters, and comments. From syntax point of view, even a single dot or comma or a single semicolon matters and you should take care of such small syntax as well. As we explained in the previous chapter, Python is an interpreted language and it does not need an intermediate step called compilation. As its name indicates, a data type represents a type of the data which you can process using your computer program. For now, let's check the important data types available in C, Java, and Python and the keywords we will use to specify those data types. For now, let's proceed with these two data types and skip List, Tuple, and Dictionary, which are advanced data types in Python. Different programming languages have different ways of creating variables inside a program. We created these variables using int keyword to specify variable data type which means we want to store integer values in these two variables. You cannot use a variable name in your program without creating it, though programming language like Python allows you to use a variable name without creating it. For example, if a variable a has been defined to store an integer value, then you cannot define a again to store any other type of value. Almost all the programming languages have similar way of storing values in variable where we keep variable name in the left hand side of an equal sign = and whatever value we want to store in the variable, we keep that value in the right hand side. We know that the above program has two variables a and b and they store the values 10 and 20, respectively. This program will create two variables a and b and at the same time, assign 10 and 20 in those variables. Different programming languages provide different set of reserved keywords, but there is one important & common rule in all the programming languages that we cannot use a reserved keyword to name our variables, which means we cannot name our variable like int or float rather these keywords can only be used to specify a variable data type. So just be careful while giving a name to your variable, you should not use any reserved keyword for that programming language.
This chapter will explain the concept of operators and it will take you through the important arithmetic and relational operators available in C, Java, and Python.
We can write a computer program which can do simple calculation like adding two numbers (2 + 3) and we can also write a program, which can solve a complex equation like P(x) = x4 + 7x3 - 5x + 9.
The following table lists down a few of the important arithmetic operators available in C programming language. So, we need the help of some symbols to write such expressions which are called relational expressions.


Though this statement will be discussed later in a separate chapter, but in short, we use if statement to check a condition and if the condition is true, then the body of if statement is executed, otherwise the body of if statement is skipped. Suppose we want to combine the result of two conditions, then logical AND and OR logical operators help us in producing the final result. C programming and Java provide almost identical set of operators and conditional statements.
There will be many situations when you will be given two or more options and you will have to select an option based on the given conditions. If the final result is true, then the conditional statement will be executed, otherwise no statement will be executed.
Different programming languages provide different types of decision-making statements, but the basic concept remains the same as explained in this tutorial.
Each value is called a case, and the variable being switched on is checked for each switch case. Wherever an expression value matches with a case value, the body of that case will be executed and finally, the switch will be terminated using a break statement.
This process repeats till the given condition remains true which means variable "a" has a value less than 5. Once you are clear about these two loops, then you can pick-up C programming tutorial or a reference book and check other loops available in C and the way they work. As soon as the condition becomes false, the while loop comes out and continues executing from the immediate next statement after the while loop body. Instead of forcing termination, continue forces the next iteration of the loop to take place, skipping any code in between. To show the difference, we have used one more print statement, which will be executed when the loop will be over. When a character is preceded by a backslash (\), it is called an escape sequence and it has a special meaning to the compiler.
An array is a data structure, which can store a fixed-size collection of elements of the same data type. The lowest address corresponds to the first element and the highest address to the last element.
The arraySize must be an integer constant greater than zero and type can be any valid C data type. All arrays have 0 as the index of their first element which is also called the base index and the last index of an array will be the total size of the array minus 1.
This is done by placing the index of the element within square brackets after the name of the array.
Java supports arrays, but there is a little difference in the way they are created in Java using the new operator. You will identify and discuss the components within computer science that assist in game development.
It is also recommended, but not required, that you have basic familiarity with vectors and matrices. A player gains points for delivering mail, but points are deducted while waiting on a moon.
We’ll actually use two different moon objects (for a normal moon and an occupied moon) and two different rocket objects (for a “landed rocket” and a “flying rocket”). In this chapter, we’ll use some extra abilities of sprites First set Game Maker into Advanced Mode Setting Game Maker into Advanced Mode: 1.
Each sprite in Game Maker has its own origin, which controls the exact position that it appears on the screen.
Controls to set the origin are in the middle of the form’s second column Click the Center button to move the origin to the sprite’s center Crosshairs will be in the middle of the sprite’s image indicating the origin’s position. There are 72 different images at slightly different orientations, animating a complete turn of 360 degrees. Click the Add Event button, choose the Other events, and select Outside Room from the pop-up menu. However, we want to make the asteroids appear behind other objects when they cross paths with them on the screen. We’ll make two rocket objects, but let’s stop to consider why Our rocket has two different ways of behaving: Sitting on top of a moving moon with full control over the ship’s direction, and Flying through space with only limited control If we used two ways of controlling one object it would require a complicated set of events and actions, but if we separate these behaviors into two different objects, then it becomes easier. Right-click the moon object in the resource list, and select Duplicate from the pop-up menu.
This same sequence could have been given in Spanish, Hindi, Arabic, or any other human language, provided the person seeking direction knows any of these languages.
Likewise, most of the Human Interface Languages (Hindi, English, Spanish, French, etc.) are made of several elements like verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, propositions, and conjunctions, etc.
Here, the function main() provides the entry point for the program execution and the other function printf() is being used to print an information on the computer screen. The good thing about comments is that they are completely ignored by compilers and interpreters.
So printf() function instructs the computer to print the given line at the computer screen. For example, C and Java programming languages use int to specify integer data, whereas char specifies a character data type. In other words we can say, when above program is executed, the memory location named a will hold 10 and memory location b will hold 20. We are making use of %d, which will be replaced with the values of the given variable in printf() statements. If you have been even a poor student, you must be aware that in first expression 2 and 3 are operands and + is an operator. The following table lists down a few of the important relational operators available in C programming language.
Fortunately, C programming and Python programming languages provide almost identical set of operators.
If no break statements are provided, then the computer continues executing other statements available below to the matched case. Here, you must note that Python does not make use of curly braces for conditional body, instead it simply identifies the body of the block using indentation of the statements. An array is used to store a collection of data, but it is often more useful to think of an array as a collection of variables of the same type.
CPU takes each instruction and executes it, possibly storing new data values as the program executes. This chapter also introduced the use of variables, even though we didn’t call them variables. The Sprite Properties form with additional Advanced mode options will appear, like the one shown in Figure 3-3. You can also change the origin by clicking on the sprite image with the mouse or by typing in X and Y values directly. Note that the Sound Properties form now has additional Advanced mode options, but we don’t need them now (some are only in the registered version of Game Maker). Object instances are usually drawn in the order their creation, so you can’t be sure if one type of object will appear in front of another. Save the game where you can easily find it again (the desktop, thumbdrive, or your personal GWC storage area, for example). As long as both objects look the same, the player won’t notice that the ship changed from being a “flying rocket” object to a “landed rocket” object at different points of the game. Since the 2 nd moon object will be almost the same as the normal moon, we can take a shortcut and make a copy of the existing moon object. A copy of the moon object will be added to the resource list and its properties form is displayed. Set the Depth to -10 so that it appears in front of the moons and will look like it’s sitting on the special moon’s surface 2. Here all the created spaces around "Hello, World!" are useless and the compiler will ignore them at the time of compilation. Finally, it encounters a right curly brace which indicates the end of main() function and exits the program. This program will create two variables a and b, very similar to C programming, then we assign 10 and 20 in these variables and finally, we will use different arithmetic and relational operators.
Almost all the programming languages provide a concept called loop, which helps in executing one or more statements up to a desired number of times. Special languages allow people to communicate with computers since they are not capable of understanding human languages.
End your message with a colon followed by a space and leave the cursor positioned after the space. For example, the word direction is a variable indicating the current direction of an instance. This adds pressure to the difficult task of piloting the rickety, old rocket, which doesn’t steer very well in space.
This means that when you move objects around in the game, it’s as if you were holding them by their top-left corner.
We’ll need two sprites for the rocket: one for when it has landed on a moon and one for when it is flying through space. We can use the Sprite Editor to change the sprite in many ways, but for now simply close it by clicking the button with the green checkmark in the top left of the window.
We’ll begin with the landed rocket, which needs to sit on the special moon object until the player decides to blast off. All high-level programming languages provide various forms of loops, which can be used to execute one or more statements repeatedly. Here you must note that Python does not make use of curly braces for the loop body, instead it simply identifies the body of the loop using indentation of the statements. When the rocket is on a moon, the arrow keys rotate it to set the launch direction The spacebar launches the rocket, and the vacated moon is removed from the screen to show that its mail has been delivered. But, because the rockets in Galactic Mail need to sit in the center of the moons, it will be better if the origin of all sprites are centered.
The Advanced mode Object Properties form has additional options and actions too (see Figure 3-5). Instances with a smaller depth value are drawn on top of instances with a greater depth, and appear in front of them. We’ll use a Jump Position action to make it follow the special moon’s position as it moves around the screen. An End Step allows actions to be performed immediately before instances are drawn at their new position on the screen. Throughout his academic and professional career as a game developer Morten has worked with several different technologies and languages, with a current primary interest is 3D game programming and game engine programming. In flight, the rocket will keep moving in the direction it is pointing, with only a limited control over steering using the arrow keys.
This makes sprite edges look less jagged during the game by making them slightly transparent. Center the origins of both sprites Before closing the Sprite Properties form for this last sprite, click the Edit Sprite button.
In the form that appears, indicate that wrapping occurs in both directions (top to bottom and left to right). All objects have a default depth of 0, so to make sure the asteroids appear behind other objects, simply give them a depth greater than 0. Click the menu icon to the right of where it says and select the background from the pop-up menu.
It’s important to use this exact name (including the underscore) since we’ll use it to identify this object later. Therefore, we can use this event to find out where the special moon has been moved to and place the rocket at the same location – just before both of them are drawn. Otherwise, click Advanced Mode to select it, and the main window should now look like Figure 3-2. We’ll leave Game Maker in Advanced mode for the remainder of the book, even though some options are only used in later chapters. Game Maker normally takes 30 steps every second, but you can change this by altering the Speed in the settings tab for each room. The moon object is now ready to go, so you can close the Object Properties form by clicking OK.
This guarantees that instances of this moon are always in front of the other moons since it is less than 0.
Add the Other, Outside Room event and include the Wrap Screen action in the Actions list (indicate wrapping in both directions). Adding all these resources at the start will make it easier to drop them into the game as we are going along—so let’s get started on some action.
Select the background music sound and set Loop to true so that the music plays continuously. If any of these are not working properly, check that you’ve followed the instructions correctly.



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