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Definition: Promotional PlanPromotion is the function of informing, persuading, and influencing a purchase decision. There are two main types of Promotion strategies which companies use, to create demand for its products. On the contrary, a pull strategy relies on heavy advertising to create demand for a product.
Classic example of pull strategy can be found in marketers of toys based on a popular movie (Eg. Modern businesses implement a hybrid strategy which has elements of both push and pull strategies. Vicky has over fifteen years working in client and operations management, domaining and online marketing. One of the most common complaint (or excuse) I hear from potential new bloggers is they don’t know how to install WordPress. Social media marketing is dominated by Facebook with research revealing that over 90% of all social marketing endeavours include a Facebook marketing campaign. Twitter is still used by brands and organisations to engage with an audience and run marketing promotions but its lack of a self service advertising platform has restricted its ease of use as a marketing tool. Many companies marketing teams are still learning to optimise and utilise the reach and the power of  Facebook’s 800 million users as a marketing platform, from when to post an update to what are the best tactics to implement.
Here are some infographics that will provide some tips, tactics and insights into the world of Facebook marketing. Facebook was founded in 2004 and its main revenue driver is its self service advertising platform that allows companies to create design and place their own banner advertisements on Facebook. The number of Facebook marketing strategies and tactics that you can create comes down to the creativity of the marketing team. The battle for the marketing dollar is dependent on many factors and this infographic looks at the factors that help drive those decisions such as. By the way thanks for posted and really useful and interesting article, and  absolutely agree with the methods you have mentioned above. Facebook with research revealing that over 90% of all social marketing endeavours include a Facebook marketing campaign.  thanks for this great info. The term Promotion encompasses all of the various ways a business can communicate with customers and includes advertising, public relations and publicity (PR), sales promotion, direct mail, the internet and direct communications as well as sponsorship. Is a paid-for, mostly non-personal form of communications and includes, TV, radio, newspaper & magazines, public transport, outdoor displays and exhibitions, billboards, brochures and catalogues and the internet. ABL uses mass media such as TV, radio, newspapers to promote brands and is used predominantly to create awareness.
As the term suggests direct marketing communicates directly with a targeted customer group. To contact a customer through most but not all of the methods above a business needs to gather information on their customers.
A data base can contain some of the information shown below and is a useful source of information to assist business in customer segmentation.
The key to data marketing is to ensure that the information collected is as accurate as possible and that actual and potential customers are not bombarded with telephone calls and leaflets promoting products they clearly do not want! As we have discussed in this module before, how interested are you to buy from telesales or door to door sales people? Although, there might not be a direct cost in placing the story in say a local or national newspaper there are hidden costs such as the time needed to write the story and research contacts in the media.
Public Relations can be concerned with the management and control of the process of publicity. Public Relations is also concerned with the communication between an organisation and its key stakeholders or publics shown in the diagram. Supporting a special event or cause whether financially or materially (such as computers for schools given by Tesco) is called Sponsorship. Why do you think that so many top brands get involved in sponsorship of top sporting events?
Although the link below follows through to a blog the amount of money used in sports sponsorship is staggering. At the time of producing this module information there was debate whether BP could be allowed to remain a sponsor of the games after their oil leak tragedy in the USA.
This is face-to-face communications with the buying customer by a representative of the company interested in selling products.
The choice of promotional methods employed is influenced by a number of factors including; communication objectives, target audience needs, and promotional spend. So for example advertising has a high ability to reach a large number of potential customers, is expensive but moderately easy to control but the medium is not an effective way to deliver a personal message and offers little customer interaction. Most business will use a combination of some maybe all of the promotional methods we have discussed, some will spend a little others will spend a lot! Integrated Marketing Communications is concerned with co-ordinating all of the marketing communication tools available rather than use one in splendid isolation.
There is an array of communications tools which can be used so it is vital to ensure that all are co-ordinated to achieve maximum effect. Jobber (2010 p 464) says something very similar, ‘Integrated Marketing Communications is the concept that companies co-ordinate their marketing communication tools to deliver a clear, consistent, credible and competitive message about the organization and its products.
With a huge selection of marketing communications tools to chose from, many companies are moving away from using mass media advertising only and are employing a combination of promotional methods. As with any academic subject, there is plenty of theory relating to marketing and this section on communications is no exception. Shannon and Weaver in the late 1940s developed a linear process of communication looking at the source of a message and its transmission to another.
For a message to be effective, the sender's encoding process must match up with the receiver's decoding process. The key is to ensure that effective communications cut out noise or barriers to communication from the process so that understanding of the message is spot on. In order to communicate effectively, a company needs to understand its target audience at the same time determining communication objectives.
There are competing views on the effectiveness of adverting and how it works; the strong theory of advertising and the weak theory of advertising. The model importantly stresses that advertising is strong enough to increase consumer knowledge of a product and can change attitudes and buying behaviour. Whether advertising and other communication methods too have the power to change attitudes and buying behaviour is very much open to debate, yet the AIDA model has been effectively used to design communication messages. Chose another well known brand that advertises on TV, or in magazines or newspapers and see if the AIDA model has been applied?


Push strategy: trade promotions and personal selling efforts push the product through the distribution channels. Read the following scenario and then put together an Integrated Marketing Communications Plan for Sony’s new product as detailed in the Task instructions below. Sony is to launch a new multi functional handset incorporating a mobile telephone, a small TV, camera, video, and MP3 player. With wireless technology this should represent one of the most up to date models in its class. Despite its high threshold price, it is anticipated that the product will also appeal to the age group 16-22, as the price is within the ballpark figure for many games consoles, although relatively more expensive than a mobile phone with added features. Design is key, and Sony has shaped the new handset on the lines of an ipod, with colour and simplicity representing key features. Devise an outline marketing communications plan for the new Sony handset for each segment identified.
Use all of the stages listed in the framework below or use the headings from the Jobber advertising framework in section 2. Affects decisions related to what, how, when, and where message will be said, as well as who will say it. Push strategy: trade promotions and personal selling efforts push the product through the distribution channels. Pull strategy: producers use advertising and consumer sales promotions to generate strong consumer demand for products. Putting the plan into action can take some time and often businesses will employ an advertising or specialist agency to undertake this work for them.
At the same time technology in tele-communications had developed to encompass the mobile phone plus digital and online television.
Jobber also points out the difference between Internet marketing and Digital marketing by stating that Internet Marketing is concerned with meeting customer needs through the utilisation of the internet only whereas as Digital Marketing includes the internet, mobile phones and digital TV. Electronic commerce is often thought to simply refer to buying and selling using the internet, but as Jobber explores further it is also a provider of information.
E-business is a term generally used to refer to both buy-side and sell side e-commerce and the use of Internet technologies throughout an organisation. There are a variety of forms of e-commerce from business to business to consumer to consumer.
Permission based simply means that by supplying your contact details to a business you have given them permission to communicate with you. It is unlikely that the 5Is will knock the traditional marketing mix off its top spot, but it does offer food for thought. The use of internet and other digital technologies has made marketers review the application of the marketing mix in a different way as illustrated above.
The big change has been place…… top UK supermarkets use the internet as a virtual shopping experience, indeed some sites have virtual shopping baskets and check-outs! To conclude marketing is a big subject and we have touched on quite bit of it, yet there is much more to add!
Importantly, it is not just about having a Facebook page for your event, you need to really get to grips with how to use the phenomenal power of Facebook to create targeted adverts. Most people will be familiar with the extent of advertising on the world wide web but few really understand how it really works. Events can be advertised easily promoted through paid online advertising but the event manager needs to contact an affiliate marketing company. Events can also be advertised in newsletters, banners and letterbox drops but these strategies usually have a very limited geographic reach.
It is also a time consuming occupation to create a database of media organisations with the names of editors, email addresses and fax numbers.
This strategy involves setting up small community events, at which sporting stars attend, to give away some free tickets or other promotional goods such as caps and t-shirts, for a chance to address the public with a loudspeaker. Promotional are relatively short and easy to undertake but do require event managers to make early contact with community organisations. Ia€™ll briefly review each step in turn: Understand Your Customer Develop a clear picture of your target customer using market research and analysis. Click here to get the 7-Step Marketing Toolkit, which will help you easily develop an effective marketing plan for 2016! Download our Marketing Strategy eBook - an easy 7-step marketing strategy program to drive business results. It is type of interpersonal promotional campaign involving a seller’s face-to-face demonstration of a product to a prospective buyer. The company pushes the product to the customers, either by directly interacting with them, or to the wholesaler, who in turn will push it further down the supply chain to the retailer, and ultimately the consumer. A characteristic feature of push strategy is that, the advertising spend is relatively low.
A post graduate in Retail Management, he has worked with retail companies like Shoppers Stop and Spar, before venturing out on his own, and now is a successful entrepreneur running a manufacturing business. She has worked with many different online businesses, both large and small, plus put their online marketing strategies into practice.
Terms like FTP and CPanel are like a foreign language and setting up a database might as well be setting up the space shuttle for a launch. It was only in July of 2009 that the self serving feature for brands to advertise was introduced.
It is a flexible form of communication which has the potential to reach a vast audience (depending on the medium used) yet is not always suitable if the business needs to communicate to a small, select group of customers. The suggestion here is that agencies can be offered commission from printers for using them to print direct mail, brochures and the like. Until recently direct marketing included direct mail through the door and mail order catalogues, but due to its popularity direct marketing also encompasses telemarketing, direct response TV advertising (the red button during advertisements and the shopping channels!), door to door and personal selling and the internet.
Someone somewhere must be buying in this way as this type of promotion has seen a surge in popularity in recent years.
Unlike the direct marketing techniques discussed above sales promotion can be employed as an incentive to all channel members.
Many companies will employ the services of a PR agency who will deal with press stories and maintain good links with the media. This is the professional body for the UK public relations industry, providing PR training and events, PR news and research. Think of Max Clifford when some celebrity gets into trouble and how quick he takes control of the publicity. Funds are made available to a recipient organisation in return for recognition of the benefactor’s generosity.


The reputation of this top global company had certainly taken a hammering and the Olympic organisers were unsure whether the games should be associated with the company. Like all of the promotions techniques we have reviewed personal selling has its advantages and disadvantages.
PR on the other hand offers high credibility with low costs at the expense of low control once the media gets the story.
Rather than advertise a new product or change in price on the TV only, the company will use a range of methods to ensure that the product is noticed even more by many more customers.
As consumers ourselves we do not only seek product information from the TV, but look at the internet, read magazines, leaflets and brochures and speak to sales staff. The consumers are pulling the product through the distribution channels as opposed to a push strategy which is employed to communicate to members of the distribution channel.
We shall briefly review some theories, concepts and models relating to communication starting with the communication process. In latter years Schramm (1962) added a feedback back loop to review whether the message had been received correctly. However, there can be noise in the process which hinders or halts the message being understood.
Then its needs to select the appropriate media and encode a message appropriate to the audience, decide on communication strategies, what promotional tools to use and how much money to spend. Buy-side e-commerce refers to transactions to procure resources needed by an organisation from its suppliers. Changes can be made on-line almost immediately through the flick of HTML, think of changing pricing through established distribution channels.
In the Western world we assume all have access to a computer yet in the developing world this is hardly the case.
However, there is a lot to learn to make good use of the promotional power of social media. For example, advertising can be targeted towards people who have a particular interest and who live in a particular geographic area.
It would be a really difficult proposition, and far too time consuming, for advertisers to deal with the millions of website managers around the world. There is also a necessity for the event manager to provide the graphical components for the advertising that the website manager needs. Most events have a very local appeal whereas website often have a much larger geographic focus.
Certainly, it's important to be able to generate press releases with interesting stories to catch the interest of the media. Media organisations will say if you want to advertise your event, you should pay for the privilege. Rather, the manufacturer relies on trade promotion like offering subsidies to enable retailers buy and sell more of their products. The many ways of creating demand in a pull strategy have increased with the advent of viral marketing. Pokemon) all these rely on advertising, or the buzz created through TV or by the movie, which again creates demand. There is no better strategy among the two, and it is for the business to decide which one to go for among these, or use a hybrid strategy. She has helped online businesses better their conversion rates quite significantly and raised their online revenue. Facebook is a winner over top of Twitter, but Twitter has it’s own unique look and feel. A business might contract an advertising agency to design and place advertisements on their behalf in the mass media. His recent national story lines have included the girlfriend of married Chelsea footballer, John Terry and the death of Jade Goody. Recognition can include the display of the sponsors’ name and logo and plenty of public recognition of the charitable act. The good bit is that it is very intensive and aimed at a small number of customers through meetings and regular updates; good relationships can be maintained and developed. The link below shows a developmental timeline of the internet from onset to what we know today! A co-ordinated, customer-focused and harmonised use of methods from billboards to product packaging, website to internet advertising, sponsorship and publicity, in-store publicity through sales staff and sales promotions, plus direct marketing, all reiterating the same message with the same logo and branding. If the message is not consistent, say McDonalds are promoting a 50p burger on the TV but in the store the sales-staff haven’t a clue what is happening, this is a little frustrating for the consumer and hardly professional for the company. So a manufacturer such as Wella (still on hair care!) will use promotional tools to inform their wholesaler of product pricing or change. Noise can include language and cultural differences - using the wrong language can certainly stop the message being understood!
Consumers can seek information and buy products from all over the world at any time of the day.
Sell-side e-commerce refers to the transactions involved with selling products to customers. Probably there are few sport administrators over the age of 40 that have any inkling of how it works, and they rely on the skills and knowledge of Generation Y who are intimate with social media. So, a very lucrative business niche (affiliate marketing) exists that intermediates between people who want to advertise, and people wanting to earn money by putting adverts on their websites. General characteristic of pull strategy is advertising (in its many forms), word of mouth, which all boils down to creating a buzz about the product, in the market. Segment profile to include, wealthy younger professionals age 23-30, looking for a multifunctional device, with good design and all features in one handset. Research cited in Jobber 2010 suggests that on average people spend 29% of their time on the web. The second problem is that it is necessary to set an upper limit to the cost for the advertiser. Since this can be a costly affair, manufacturers look for new ways to advertise for free or at a very low cost.
Another advantage is that communications can be judged so much better on a face-to-face basis. Non-verbal communications such as body language and tone of voice, can offer clues as to how a meeting is proceeding.



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