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During this session we shall look at segmentation techniques to understand why companies identify attractive market segments, what targeting strategies they will use and how they will position their products for maximum advantage.
Business can not always effectively sell to all of their customers using the same mix so instead their will target their marketing efforts. Firstly a company will have an understanding of the variety of customers they deal with as they will hold data and information on them.
The final step will be to design a marketing mix tailor-made’ to meet the needs of the target market. Jobber (2010 p261) points out that ‘marketing segmentation is useful when spotting opportunities and threats. A very good example of the statement above has been the development of the hugely successful Innocent drinks. The article below (in the Reading box) charts the rise of this company launched by three university friends who had a very good idea which turned into a multi-million pound reality. So Innocent noticed a gap and went for it……and who can blame them when after only a decade they now operate a multi-million pound business, albeit with a little help from Coca Cola!
As identified by the success of Innocent (detailed articles above) it can help a business to identify opportunities and gaps in the market. Accessible Here, the base(s) used should ideally lead to the company being able to reach selected market targets with their individual marketing efforts.
Meaningful The base(s) used must lead to segments which have different preferences or needs and show clear variations in market behaviour and response to individually designed marketing mixes. Develop an appropriate marketing mix for each chosen target segment in order to support the product positioning strategy. The first segmentation method looks at buying behaviour and this links into much of the theory and debate added in Week 2 as well as an understanding of customer value reviewed in Week 1.
Benefits sought - with Innocent the benefits sought by customers were mostly concerned with pure ingredients in a tasty recipe. Purchase Occasion - customers can be segmented according to how times they purchase the product. Usage - customers are segmented on the basis of whether they are heavy users, light users or non-users.
Companies can chose their segments based on the whether the consumer will take the risk and buy at the beginning of the product lifecycle. What are the differences in pricing from the early adoption stage through to selling to laggards? Values and Lifestyles segmentation have been researched and used in the USA to combine demographic variables with people’s needs and wants. There are links between the personality of the buyer and the perceived personality of the brand. Demographics = the physical characteristics of a population such as age, sex, and marital status, size of family, education, geographic location, and occupation. Age is a good segmentation variable for such items as clothes where the fashion-conscious young are more susceptible to regular changes in style and older segments are perhaps more concerned with such factors as quality and comfort. Sex is a strong segment in terms of goods that are specifically targeted towards males or females and again an obvious example is clothing.
Income as a segmentation base is more popular in certain countries like the USA than others who regard such matters very privately. The household is classified according to the CIE’s occupation, but social grade data are also available for the respondent themselves (if they are not the CIE). Education is often related to social class, because, as a generalisation, the better educated tend to get the better jobs.
Nationality or ethnic background now constitutes a growing and distinctive segment for potential target marketing. Family size will have an effect on the amount or size of purchases, so this is certainly a meaningful segmentation variable.
Family life cycle (FLC) is a logical follow on to the above and this will tend to determine the purchase of many consumer durable products.
There are some really good acronyms relating to family lifestyle but maybe COCOON is a little unkind!! This is a relatively new method based on the classification of homes rather than individuals. This can help you to target, acquire, manage and develop profitable relationships and improve business results. Segmentation for industrial products uses some of the bases for consumer segmentation and adds other variables. Types of application or uses - so types of adhesives for the home, office and industrial use. Benefits - as with consumer segmentation - the benefits of using a product so for instance industrial glass for cutting or glass for our household windows. A combination of some the segments stated above provide business will a multi-variable approach to segmentation.
Occasionally, a market analysis will show no differences in customer characteristics that have implications for marketing.
In comparison when a business has identified a range of customer or B2B segments they might use a differentiated marketing mix strategy. For example, BMW promote their cars to range of identified segments moving from the 1 series as an entry-level model to the X6 which according to BMW has been designed for the well-off empty nesters! Levis jeans have identified a range of differing consumer segments and have designed for each a differentiated marketing mix.
This session started by stating some definitions of segmentation and each finished on the importance of positioning.
Consistency - we received no end of messages in a day whether on the TV, reading the newspapers, posters and billboards etc, so the consistency of the message is important. Competitiveness - to remain in the minds of customers the business offering must be competitive.
A useful tool for mapping the position of a brand in the market place is the perceptual map.
The perceptual map below shows and plots some of the UK supermarkets based on research in to consumer preferences centred on the two dimensions of price and range of products. Some of the publishers of recommended text books have their own learning sites on-line designed for students. There are case studies, internet exercises and concept tests for each chapter covered in the book. Consumer behaviour is a complex concept, which is influenced by many different variables and situations. Think of a product you would like to own, it may be something that you really need or something you have always thought you would like to own. Keep a note of how many web sites you visit, how long you spend on searching for the product you would like to buy, and the criteria you use to make your selection. Please note: The aim of this exercise is to analyse your own purchase behaviour up to the point of purchase. When you consider the functional areas of businessa€”accounting, finance, management, marketing, and operationsa€”marketing is the one you probably know the most about. If everyone is responsible for marketing, can the average organization do without an official marketing department?
At the same time, you need to achieve organizational goals, such as profitability and growth. The marketing concept puts the customer first: as your most important goal, satisfying the customer must be the goal of everyone in the organization. Declaring that you intend to develop products that satisfy customers and that everyone in your organization will focus on customers is easy. Wea€™ll use FigureA 9.3, a€?Marketing Strategya€? as a blueprint for our discussion of target-market selection, and wea€™ll analyze the concept of the marketing mix in more detail in the next major section of the chapter.
The next step in identifying a target market is to divide the entire market into smaller portions, or market segmentsmarket segmentGroup of potential customers with common characteristics that influence their buying decisions.a€”groups of potential customers with common characteristics that influence their buying decisions. Maybelline and Cover Girl use segmentation strategies to target their predominant consumers: women.
Demographic segmentationdemographic segmentationProcess of dividing the market into groups based on such variables as age and income.
Geographic segmentationgeographic segmentationProcess of dividing a market according to such variables as climate, region, and population density.a€”dividing a market according to such variables as climate, region, and population density (urban, suburban, small-town, or rural)a€”is also quite common. Dividing consumers by such variables as attitude toward the product, user status, or usage rate is called behavioral segmentationbehavioral segmentationProcess of dividing consumers by behavioral variables, such as attitude toward the product, user status, or usage rate..
Some companies segment consumers according to user status, distinguishing among nonusers, potential users, first-time users, and regular users of a product. Psychographic segmentationpsychographic segmentationProcess of classifying consumers on the basis of individual lifestyles as reflected in peoplea€™s interests, activities, attitudes, and values. Typically, marketers determine target markets by combining, or a€?clustering,a€? segmenting criteria.


Marketing is a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for improving customer relationships.
The philosophy of satisfying customersa€™ needs while meeting organizational profit goals is called the marketing concept and guides all of an organizationa€™s marketing activities.
To apply this approach, marketers need a marketing strategya€”a plan for doing two things: selecting a target market and then implementing strategies for creating, pricing, promoting, and distributing products that satisfy customersa€™ needs. A target market is a specific group of consumers who are particularly interested in a product, would have access to it, and are able to buy it. To identify this group, marketers first identify the overall market for the product (from the consumer market, the industrial market, or both).
Then, they divide the market into market segmentsa€”groups of customers with common characteristics that influence their buying decisions. If you were developing a marketing campaign for the Volkswagen Beetle, what group of consumers would you target? Target marketing strategy will discover what the typical online behavior your customers have and how to to reach them.
Target marketing is the most current method of marketing to consumers based on research into their interests, hobbies, and needs, in your buying cycle. Act right now for your business development in China. Just tell us your requirement today, and you will have details within the next 24 business hours. Useful tips for vidders (fan video makers) for converting your video for YouTube, or for preparing clips for editing. Please note: All these tutorials show you how to convert your clips to a file format that is good for editing. If you wish to, trim down your clip to just the scene you want by picking in and out points. Under a€?Sound,a€? you can pick MPEG-4 AAC and select 128 kbps or above, or can select a€?No Sounda€? (like I have in this screenshot) and eliminate sound from your clip. Like with the tutorial above, open your file (this time an H.264 MOV file) in MPEG Streamclip. In most cases you will have no sound, so Select a€?No Sound.a€? Otherwise, go with a€?Uncompresseda€? for sound. Quality can be a 100% but Apple Intermediate Codec only has one quality setting, so it doesna€™t seem to change anything when you fiddle with the quality setting. Then click on a€?Make Moviea€? and wait for MPEG Streamclip to convert your whole video over! You will follow the same process as outlined above, only instead of Apple Intermediate Codec, youa€™ll select some flavor of a€?ProResa€? from the Compression drop-down menu. If you have Final Cut Pro 6, youa€™ll probably only get to choose from ProRes 422 and ProRes 422 (HQ).
Choose the same settings for Frame Size and Sound as are used in the Apple Intermediate Codec tutorial. Please note again that when you convert your clips over to DV or MJPEG, that the files will be larger in size, and this is GOOD for editing.
If you are downsizing a large HD clip to Standard Definition DV, then CHECK the a€?Better Downscalinga€? box. In most cases, pick a€?Progressivea€? as a€?Scan Modea€? (at least this is what I always do) and pick your Aspect Ratio. If you are converting some other kinds of clips, odds are (that if you are converting clips from a film or recent TV show) that the aspect ratio is still 16:9, but you need to confirm this. Then return to MPEG Streamclipa€™s main window, and click on the a€?Make AVIa€? or a€?Make Moviea€? button (bottom right corner) to have MPEG Streamclip convert the clip over to DV MOV or AVI. If you are converting some other type of clips, consult the aspect ratio tutorial for more help determining what aspect ratio to choose. Click on a€?Better Downscaling,a€? since you are converting HD clips down to a smaller size.
If you are converting some kind of non-HD clip and you know that they are fullscreen (4:3) then pick the numbers 640x480. Click on the a€?Make Moviea€? or a€?Make AVIa€? button and wait for MPEG Streamclip to convert your clips over!
So, leta€™s say that you have a lot of little clips and you want to convert them all over to some other format.
Click on the a€?Add Filesa€? button, then navigate through your computera€™s files for the clips that you want to convert over.
Find the folder where the clips are, and then select one from the top of the list, HOLD DOWN THE SHIFT KEY and then select the clip at the bottom of the list. Check on the a€?Join all the filesa€? if you want all your clips to be joined into one long clip. Then youa€™ll be asked to a€?Select a Destination Folder.a€? This is where you want all your converted clips to be placed after MPEG Streamclip has finished making them. Then youa€™ll be asked all the familiar questions that you should know by now if youa€™ve followed the other MPEG Streamclip tutorials: Compression, frame size, and so forth. If this is all you want to convert over, click on the a€?Goa€? button and wait for MPEG Streamclip to do its thing. When you click on the a€?Converta€? button, wait while MPEG Streamclip converts, converts, converts!
Tutorial keywords: MPEG Streamclip, MJPEG AVI, HD, converting video tutorial, fanvideos, fanvids, vidding tutorial, vids, vidders. Once you pick your compression, MPEG Streamclip will automatically select a frame size which corresponds (either DV-NTSC or DV-PAL). As customers become more affluent, seek new experiences and develop new values, new segments emerge. It should also be capable of measurement in terms of the potential customers in each segment. Jobber (2010) illustrated this point as well by giving an example of Classic FM who identified a segment based on benefits sought. Those who are heavy users of the product often link to customer loyalty and the Pareto Rule of 80:20.
He started with innovators who are adventurous and eager to try new ideas to the final category of laggards, the last to adopt new products. When Sony first produced a range of plasma TVs, pricing was high and innovators wanted the products at any price. Here, fashion is a powerful element when purchasing, and a whole industry surrounds this criterion. Questions include not only what the CIE’s job is, but also details such as their qualifications and the number of people they are responsible for.
Accordingly, (a generalization too!) newspapers are designed to aim their news and newspaper content towards either the upper (Sunday Times) or lower ends (The Daily Mirror) of the social spectrum, and encourage advertisers to target their advertising appropriately. Food products, clothing and hair care products are obvious examples of products that fit into this segmentation variable. An individual’s political leanings might well influence the way he or she behaves in terms of purchases made. This is based on the notion that consumers pass through a series of quite distinct phases in their lives, each phase giving rise to different purchasing patterns and needs. It helps you learn the who, what, where, when, how, and why of their relationship with you. They will listen to their key account customers and devise pricing, promotional campaigns to the needs of their customers. This exercise should enable you to analyse parts of the buying process in an online context. After all, as a consumer and target of all sorts of advertising messages, youa€™ve been on the receiving end of marketing initiatives for most of your life.
Not necessarily: most organizations have marketing departments in which individuals are actively involved in some marketing-related activitya€”product design and development, pricing, promotion, sales, and distribution. This basic philosophya€”satisfying customer needs while meeting organizational goalsa€”is called the marketing conceptmarketing conceptBasic philosophy of satisfying customer needs while meeting organizational goals., and when ita€™s effectively applied, it guides all of an organizationa€™s marketing activities.
But this doesna€™t mean that you ignore the bottom line; if you want to survive and grow, you need to make some profit.
It would be nice if everybody in the marketplace was interested in your product, but if you tried to sell it to everybody, youa€™d spread your resources too thin.
First, they usually identify the overall market for their producta€”the individuals or organizations that need a product and are able to buy it.
A farmer, for example, might sell blueberries to individuals on the consumer market and, on the industrial market, to bakeries that will use them to make muffins and pies. Climate is crucial for many products: try selling snow shovels in Hawaii or above-ground pools in Alaska. As exhilarating as urban life can be, for example, ita€™s a hassle to parallel park on crowded city streets. Companies selling technology-based products might segment the market according to different levels of receptiveness to technology.


To follow this tutorial, download the free video encoding app MPEG Streamclip (for both Mac and PC). This tutorial may be useful for some Windows users, particularly those using Sony Vegas and Corel VideoStudio. Expect to use up approximately 1 GB of disk space for every 5 minutes of footage (more or less). If you need audio (and your clip has audioa€”some might not), then choose a€?Uncompresseda€? for Sound.
Well, if you are using software that doesna€™t support HD (like Sony Vegas Movie Studio, non-Platinum version) or you have a slower computer that might not deal with HD that well, then this might become necessary. Smaller clips (like DivX, XviD, H.264, WMV, MPEG) are compressed and do not play well in your video editor, and can eventually cause crashing or other quality issues. It works best if all the clips you want to batch convert are in the same folder (but they can be in various places if that works better for you).
Or, if you just want to convert select clips, hold down the Apple (Command) key (Mac) or the Control key (PC) to cherry-pick just the clips you want. If youa€™ve been following the above tutorials, you will know if you want to convert to MOV, AVI, or whatever.
In this case, Ia€™m going to convert to Quicktime (MOV files) but you can convert to AVI, MP4, iPod, just whatever you need. Select whatever options work best (consult the above instructions on this page if necessary). Otherwise, click on a€?Add Filesa€? and locate more clips you want to convert over, repeating the process until youa€™ve added as many files as you need to the list.
You can leave your computer to convert overnight, or just be busy with other things as it finishes converting all your files.
It shows the quality differences between a€?regulara€? resolution, a clip made from HD (but converted a€?downa€? to DV MOV or DV AVIa€”as instructed on this page) and a real HD clip. Through research they discovered that consumers were concerned about what went into their drinks and also where the materials needed for manufacture were sourced from. A group of music lovers wanted to listen to accessible ‘classical music with pleasant down-to earth presenters. The laggards will wait until pricing has reduced (social class might be important here) but on the whole laggards are suspicious of anything new and will wait until any problems are ironed out. Whereas now the same model of TV is available in supermarkets at a fraction of the original price.
Such purchases are of course reflected in the types of newspaper and other media that is read, and this, in turn, contains advertising which is aimed at people who read such media, so political leanings might be more significant than it initially seems.
For example, an unmarried person living at home will probably have very different purchasing patterns from someone of the same age who has left home and is recently married.
In the example below an industrial electronics supplier sells to a range of B2B customers who all have varying needs and who operate in very different market sectors. Have a look at the link below - Fortnum and Mason have done rather well in this very ‘well to do’ niche sector! What you probably dona€™t appreciate, however, is the extent to which marketing focuses on providing value to the customer. Ita€™s easy to see how the person who decides what movies to show is involved in marketing: he or she selects the product to be sold. As specialists in identifying and satisfying customer needs, members of the marketing department managea€”plan, organize, direct, and controla€”the organizationa€™s overall marketing efforts. What youa€™re looking for is the proper balance between the commitments to customer satisfaction and company survival. You need to identify a specific group of consumers who should be particularly interested in your product, who would have access to it, and who have the means to buy it.
Age, for example, will be of interest to marketers who develop products for children, retailers who cater to teenagers, colleges that recruit students, and assisted-living facilities that promote services among the elderly.
Thus, Toyota engineers have developed a product especially for city dwellers (at least in Japan).
Credit-card companies use this approach when they offer promotional gifts to college students in order to induce them to get their first card.
Then move the slider bar to your out point, press the a€?Oa€? key to set where you want the clip to end.
This is normal and expected and for a more seamless, stable editing experience, you WANT to edit in files of this size. The differences between the a€?regulara€? clip (from XviD source) and HD should be obvious.
This is done principally to alert advertising agencies who will place their clients’ advertising according to social class and product positioning.
According to the American Marketing Association, marketingmarketingSet of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for improving customer relationships. Ita€™s even easier to see how the person who puts ads in the newspaper works in marketing: he or she is in charge of advertisinga€”making people aware of the product and getting them to buy it.
Consider the case of Medtronic, a manufacturer of medical devices, such as pacemakers and defibrillators.
This group is your target markettarget marketSpecific group of customers who should be interested in your product, have access to it, and have the means to buy it., and youa€™ll aim your marketing efforts at its members. The wedding industry, which markets goods and services to singles who will probably get married in the near future, is interested in trends in marital status. The Japanese version of the Prius, Toyotaa€™s hybrid gas-electric car, can automatically parallel park itself. For each of these products, identify at least five segmentation characteristics that youa€™d use in developing a profile of your customers. For an explanation for why this is necessary (and why editing in the smaller-sized XviD AVI, DivX AVI, WMV, MPEG, MP4 or other compressed file types is a bad idea), read this tutorial.
Smaller, more compressed video files (like DivX AVI, XviD AVI, WMV) will give your software problems (either now or later on down the road). The differences between the a€?reala€? HD clip and the a€?HD converted down to DV MOVa€? may not be quite as obvious, depending on how sharp your eye is and your monitor resolution. The differences between theA  a€?reala€? HD clip and the a€?HD converted down to DV MOVa€? may not be quite as obvious, depending on how sharp your eye is and your monitor resolution. Ironically though, Innocent has kept where their manufacturing takes place, a well guarded secret.
This was based on buying behaviour, social class, customer loyalty and usage, so a range of multi-variable segmentation options. But what about the ticket seller and the person behind the counter who gets the popcorn and soda?
The company boasts more than 50 percent of the market in cardiac devices and is considered the industry standard setter. Gender and ethnic background are important to TV networks in targeting different audiences.
Because the Hummer can go off-road and performs well on rugged terrain, geography could also be a factor. Explain the segmentation category into which each characteristic fallsa€”demographic, geographic, behavioral, or psychographic. Everyone in the organization understands that defects are intolerable in products that are designed to keep people alive.
Incomea€”a socioeconomic factora€”is clearly important: Hummers are expensive to buy, maintain, and run.
Where ita€™s appropriate, be sure to include at least one characteristic from each category. Thus, committing employees to the goal of zero defects is vital to both Medtronica€™s customer base and its bottom line. If youa€™re selling yachts, youa€™ll want to find people with lots of money; so income is an important variable. If you prefer to sit on your couch and watch TV, you might show up on the radar screen of a TiVo provider. As for psychographics, potential Hummer owners could be people who value prestige and the material rewards of success. Absolutely: the purpose of every job in the theater is satisfying customer needs, and as wea€™ve seen, identifying and satisfying customer needs is what marketing is all about.
If youa€™re the publisher of Nurses magazine, you want to reach people in the nursing profession. If youa€™re compulsive or a risk taker, you might catch the attention of a gambling casino. If youa€™re thrifty and uncomfortable with debt, Citibank might want to issue you a debit card.



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