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Very often the success or failure of a company is a direct result of an effective or not so effective marketing strategy. The first step toward developing an appropriate marketing strategy is to know your audience. Secondly, you should create a hypothetical psychological process a buyer of your product will take as a result of your marketing efforts. Based on your understanding of the target audience and the process you wish to take them through, choose a type of marketing strategy that you believe will have the greatest positive impact.
With whatever data is available through your marketing methods, assess whether your assumptions were correct and react accordingly. Marketing is a strategy used by companies to communicate with the consumer and make him knowledgeable about the various features of their products and services.
Affinity Marketing -  Also known as Partnership Marketing, this technique links complementary brands, thereby creating strategic partnerships that benefit both companies. Alliance Marketing - Here two or more entities come together to pool in their resources to promote and sell a product or service, which will not only benefit their stakeholders, but also have a greater impact on the market. Ambush Marketing - This strategy is used by advertisers to capitalize on and associated themselves with a specific event without the payment of any sponsorship fee, thereby bringing down the value of sponsorship.
Call to Action (CTA) Marketing - CTA is a part of inbound marketing used on websites in the form of a banner, text or graphic, where it is meant to prompt a person to click it and move into the conversion funnel, that is, from searching to navigating an online store to converting to a sale. Close Range Marketing (CRM) - Also known as Proximity Marketing, CRM uses bluetooth technology or Wifi to promote their products and services to their customers at close proximity.
Cloud Marketing - This refers to the type of marketing that takes place on the internet, where all the marketing resources and assets are transferred online so that the respective parties can develop, modify, utilise and share them. Community Marketing - This technique caters to the needs and requirements of the existing customers, as opposed to using resources to gather new consumers. Content Marketing - In this case, content is created and published on various platforms to give information about a certain product or service to potential customers and to influence them, without making a direct sales pitch.
Cross-media Marketing - As the name suggests, multiple channels like emails, letters, web pages etc are used to give information about products and services to customers in the form of cross promotion. Database Marketing - This utilizes and information from database of customers or potential consumers to create customised communication strategies through any media in order to promote products and services. Digital Marketing - This strategy uses various digital devices like smartphones, computers, tablets or digital billboards to inform customers and business partners about its products. Direct Marketing - This is a wide term which refers to the technique where organizations communicate directly with the consumer through mail, email, texts, fliers and various promotional materials.
Diversity Marketing - The aim of this strategy is to take into account the different diversities in a culture in terms of beliefs, expectations, tastes and needs and then create a customized marketing plan to target those consumers effectively. Evangelism Marketing - It is similar to word-of-mouth marketing, where a company develops customers who become voluntary advocates of a product and who promote its features and benefits on behalf of the company.
Freebie Marketing - Here a particular item is sold at low rates, or is given away free, to boost the sales of another complimentary item or service.
Free Sample Marketing - Unlike Freebie Marketing, this is not dependent on complimentary marketing, but rather consists of giving away a free sample of the product to influence the consumer to make the purchase.
Guerrilla Marketing - Unconventional and inexpensive techniques with imagination, big crowds and a surprise element are used for marketing something, a popular example being flash mobs.
By keeping in mind the distinctive features of the product, the demographics of the target consumer and their spending power, and the current strategies of existing companies, an effective marketing strategy may be successfully created. The types of marketing keep evolving with new developments in technology and changes in the socio-economic structure of a market. Describe the different types of organizations that work together as channel partners and what each does.
The firms a company partners with to actively promote and sell a product as it travels through its marketing channel to users are referred to by the firm as its channel membersThe firms a company partners with to actively promote and sell a product as it travels through its marketing channel to users. Companies partner with intermediaries not because they necessarily want to (ideally they could sell their products straight to users) but because the intermediaries can help them sell the products better than they could working alone. Intermediaries also create efficiencies by streamlining the number of transactions an organization must make, each of which takes time and costs money to conduct. The marketing environment is always changing, so what was a great channel or channel partner yesterday might not be a great channel partner today. Consider Microsoft’s digital encyclopedia, Encarta, which was first sold on CD and via online subscription in the early 1990s. In the past few decades, organizations have begun taking a more holistic look at their marketing channels. For instance, the supply chain includes producers of the raw materials that go into a product. Firms are constantly monitoring their supply chains and tinkering with them so they’re as efficient as possible. Rack jobbers sell specialty products, such as books, hosiery, and magazines that they display on their own racks in stores. BrokersRepresentatives of one or more manufacturers who sell products on their behalf to consumers, wholesalers, and distributors but do not take title to them., or agents, don’t purchase or take title to the products they sell.
Manufacturers’ sales offices or branchesSelling units that work directly for manufacturers. RetailersBusinesses that purchase products from manufacturers, wholesalers, agents, or distributors and then sell them to consumers.
SupermarketsSelf-service retailers that provide a full range of food products to consumers as well as some household products., or grocery stores, are self-service retailers that provide a full range of food products to consumers, as well as some household products. Department storesStores that carry a wide variety of household and personal types of merchandise such as clothing and jewelry., by contrast, carry a wide variety of household and personal types of merchandise such as clothing and jewelry.
SuperstoresLarge department stores that carry a broad array of general merchandise as well as groceries. Warehouse clubsSupercenters that sell products at a discount to people who pay an annual membership fee to join them.
Outlet storesStores that sell a variety of merchandise that may consist of seconds, overruns, and the previous season’s stock, as well as first-run merchandise all from one manufacturer. A new type of retail store that turned up in the last few years is the pop-up storeSmall temporary stores designed to generate “buzz” for a retailer and drive customers to its regular stores..
How a product moves from raw material to finished good to the consumer is a marketing channel, also called a supply chain.
What are the benefits of looking at all of the organizations that contribute to the production of a product versus just the organizations that sell them? With Saladin, students make connections through learning outcomes and assessments, integrated media, and a writing style that clearly depicts anatomy and physiology processes. Saladin's text requires no prior knowledge of college chemistry or cell biology, and is designed for a two-semester A&P course. LearnSmart is an adaptive study tool proven to strengthen memory recall, increase class retention, and boost grades. With Connect’s easy-to-use interface nothing stands in the way of your instruction or your students learning.
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Therefore, choosing a marketing strategy that fits the company product is of vital importance. It is an essential part of attracting the target buyers to a particular product, and companies use various innovative or tried-and-tested techniques to stay ahead of their competitors and make their place in the market. While one adds value to existing customers by generating more income, the other builds new customer relationships. It has sub-categories like direct or predatory ambushing or indirect ambushing by association, to name a few.
This promotes loyalty and product satisfaction and also gives rise to word of mouth marketing among the community.
In other words, they have some sort of capabilities the producer needs: contact with many customers or the right customers, marketing expertise, shipping and handling capabilities, and the ability to lend the producer credit are among the types of help a firm can get by utilizing a channel partner.
As Figure 8.1 "Using Intermediaries to Streamline the Number of Transactions" shows, by selling the tractors it makes through local farm machinery dealers, the farm machinery manufacturer John Deere can streamline the number of transactions it makes from eight to just two. Changes in technology, production techniques, and your customer’s needs mean you have to continually reevaluate your marketing channels and the channel partners you ally yourself with.
Encarta nearly destroyed Encyclopedia Britannica, a firm that had dominated the print encyclopedia business for literally centuries. Instead of looking at only the firms that sell and promote their products, they have begun looking at all the organizations that figure into any part of the process of producing, promoting, and delivering an offering to its user. If it’s a food product, the supply chain extends back through the distributors all the way to the farmers who grew the ingredients and the companies from which the farmers purchased the seeds, fertilizer, or animals. This process is called supply chain managementThe process of managing and refining supply chains so as to make them as efficient as possible.. To help you understand the various types of channel partners, we will go over the most common types of intermediaries. Wholesalers such as these assume a great deal of risk on the part of companies further down the marketing channel as a result. The three basic types of wholesalers are merchant wholesalers, brokers, and manufacturers’ agents, each of which we discuss next. They might not offer delivery services, extend their customers’ credit, or have sales forces that actively call sellers. Although drop shippers take title to the goods, they don’t actually take possession of them or handle them, oftentimes because they deal with goods that are large or bulky.
Rack jobbers retain the title to the goods while the merchandise is in the stores for sale. Supermarkets can be high, medium, or low range in terms of the prices they charge and the service and variety of products they offer.
Nonstore retailingRetailing not conducted in stores.—retailing not conducted in stores—is a growing trend.
Marketing channel decisions are as important as the decisions companies make about the features and prices of products. Connect’s seamless partnership with the text’s content allows instructors and students to go beyond the print world, and into the digital realm with complete confidence. A consistent set of chapter learning tools helps students identify and retain key concepts while the stunning visual program provides a realistic view of body structures and processes.
Students are able to study more efficiently because they are made aware of what they know and don’t know. We took what we learned from our partnerships with instructors and students and combined it with feedback from thousands of conversations and ethnographic research on college campuses nationwide. In addition to multiple choice questions, you can assign a variety of learning activities such as videos, interactive presentations, and more. Connect includes an Integrated eBook that builds student comprehension through animation, audio and video. Companies strive to choose not only the best marketing channels but also the best channel partners. Ironically, Microsoft had actually tried to partner with Encyclopedia Britannica to use its encyclopedia information to make Encarta but was turned down. All these organizations are considered part of the offering’s supply chainAll the organizations that participate in the production, promotion, and delivery of a product or service from the producer to the end consumer..
A product’s supply chain also includes transportation companies such as railroads that help physically move the product and companies that build Web sites for other companies. If you are trying to stock a small electronics store, you probably don’t want to purchase a truckload of iPods.
For example, if the iPods you plan to purchase are stolen during shipment, damaged, or become outdated because a new model has been released, the wholesaler suffers the loss—not you. They are also sometimes referred to as distributorsBusinesses that purchase large quantities of products, can store products, can sell products, can deliver desired quantities of products, and can offer services. Instead, they earn a commission by finding sellers and passing their orders along to producers, who then ship them directly to the sellers. Periodically, they take count of what’s been sold off their racks and then bill the stores for those items.
Clothing, furniture, food, and commodities such as lumber and steel are often sold by brokers. The listing agent is contacted by the homeowner who wants to sell, and puts the house on the market. Retailers vary by the types of products they sell, their sizes, the prices they charge, the level of service they provide consumers, and the convenience or speed they offer. Whole Foods and Central Market are grocers that offer a wide variety of products, generally at higher prices.
Zales, which sells jewelry, and Williams-Sonoma, which sells an array of kitchen and cooking-related products, are examples of specialty stores.
The prices department stores charge range widely, as does the level of service shoppers receive. These were discount retailers that operated under the brand name of a single manufacturer, selling products that couldn’t be sold through normal retail channels due to mistakes made in manufacturing. Channel partners are firms that actively promote and sell a product as it travels through its channel to its user.
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If you can’t get your product to them when, where, and how they want it, they will simply buy a competing product. A strong channel partner like Walmart can promote and sell the heck out of a product that might not otherwise turn a profit for its producer. If a software maker hires a company in India to help it write a computer program, the Indian company is part of the partner’s supply chain.

Keep in mind, however, that the categories we discuss in this section are just that—categories. Instead, you probably want to buy a smaller assortment of iPods as well as other merchandise. Martin Cooper, who championed the development of the device, was a lead engineer at Motorola. Distributors generally take title to products and employ a sales force to actively market their products., dealers, and jobbers.
Small retailers often buy from cash-and-carry wholesalers to keep their prices as low as big retailers that get large discounts because of the huge volumes of goods they buy. Mail-order wholesalers sell their products using catalogs instead of sales forces and then ship the products to buyers.
They are generally paid a commission for what they sell and are assigned to different geographical territories by the producers with whom they work.
You are familiar with many of these types of retailers because you have purchased products from them.
The personnel who work in specialty stores are usually knowledgeable and often provide customers with a high level of service. Neiman Marcus, Saks Fifth Avenue, and Nordstrom sell expensive products and offer extensive personal service to customers. Banks, hair and nail salons, and restaurants such as Starbucks are often located within these stores for the convenience of shoppers.
Often located in rural areas but along interstate highways, these stores had lower overhead than similar stores in big cities due to lower rent and lower employee salaries. The goal is to create excitement and “buzz” for a retailer that then drives customers to their regular stores. Companies try to choose the best channels and channel partners to help them sell products because doing so can give them a competitive advantage. In turn, Walmart wants to work with strong channel partners it can depend on to continuously provide it with great products that fly off the shelves. However, many other products and services pass through multiple organizations before they get to you. These types of firms aren’t considered channel partners because it’s not their job to actively sell the products being produced.
In recent years, the lines between wholesalers, retailers, and producers have begun to blur considerably.
Via wholesalers, you can get the assortment of products you want in the quantities you want.
Because they have excellent industry contacts, brokers and agents are “go-to” resources for both consumers and companies trying to buy and sell products. If there is a house that the buyer wants to purchase, the agent calls the listing agent and the price is negotiated. For example, Konica-Minolta Business Systems (KMBS) has a system of sales branches that sell KMBS printers and copiers directly to companies that need them.
We mentioned Nike and Apple as examples of companies that make and sell products directly to consumers, but in reality, Nike and Apple contract manufacturing to other companies. Aldi and Sack ’n Save are examples of supermarkets with a limited selection of products and service but low prices.
Often they are located on corners, making it easy and fast for consumers to get in and out. The prices department stores such as JCPenney, Sears, and Macy’s charge are midrange, as is the level of service shoppers receive.
Off-price retailersStores that sell a variety of discount merchandise that consists of seconds, overruns, and the previous season’s stock other stores have liquidated. But due to the high popularity of the stores, demand far outstripped the supply of mistakes. Companies that engage in direct marketingDelivering personalized promotional materials directly to individual consumers. 4.0 now offers 42 laboratory simulations that may be used to supplement or substitute for wet labs. These organizations are called intermediariesThird parties that facilitate the supply and sale of products from manufacturers to users. Microsoft is a producer of goods, but recently it began opening up its own retail stores to sell products to consumers, much as Apple has done.Daniel Lyons, “The Lost Decade,” Newsweek, November 9, 2009, 27. Full-service wholesalers perform a broad range of services for their customers, such as stocking inventories, operating warehouses, supplying credit to buyers, employing salespeople to assist customers, and delivering goods to customers.
The trucks make the rounds to customers, who inspect and select the products they want straight off the trucks.
In some states, the buyer’s agent is a legal representative of the seller, unless a buyer’s agent agreement is signed, which is something to keep in mind when you are the buyer. As a consumer, it would be rare for you to interact directly with a manufacturer through a sales office because in those instances, such as with Apple stores and Nike stores, these are considered retail outlets.
DrugstoresStores that specialize in selling over-the-counter medication, prescriptions, and health and beauty products and offer services such as photo developing. Some of these stores contain fast-food franchises like Church’s Chicken and Jack in the Box. Walmart, Kmart, and Target are discount department stores with cheaper goods and a limited amount of service.
Kate Coultas, a spokesperson for JCPenney, said the store got the attention of Manhattan’s residents. Materials may be delivered via mail, catalogs, Internet, e-mail, or telephone, or in person. As you will learn later in the chapter, Walmart and other large retailers now produce their own store brands and sell them to other retailers. Maurice Sporting Goods is a large North American full-service wholesaler of hunting and fishing equipment. Agents work for brokers, who act as sort of a head agent and market the company’s services while making sure that all of the legal requirements are met. As mentioned earlier, these discount department stores are a real threat to category killers, especially in the form of a superstore. Similarly, many producers have outsourced their manufacturing, and although they still call themselves manufacturers, they act more like wholesalers.
In Europe, as well as in rural parts of the United States, you’ll find convenience stores that offer fresh meat and produce. Wherever organizations see an opportunity, they are beginning to take it, regardless of their positions in marketing channels.
Most commonly, though, pop-up stores are used for seasonal sales, such as a costume store before Halloween or the Hillshire Farms sausage and cheese shops you see at the mall just before Christmas. Many category killers are, themselves, struggling, as shoppers for their products are moving to the Web or to discount department stores.

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