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The first EV from BMW and the first production car to use CFRP to a high extent, the i3, is a success.
It seems like BMW and its partner in making the lightweight material, SGL Group, have to step up their game and start making a lot more CF to make sure everyone receives their i3 in time. Since the production has to be doubled, will their windmills and hydroelectric power be enough? JavaScript appears to be disabled - most features on Can Stock Photo will not function correctly.Not a member yet? Search Can Stock Photo for royalty free illustration, royalty free clipart, digital artwork, EPS vector clip art, stock illustrations, stock images, logo icon graphics, and cheap EPS format line art drawings.
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Discussions with the RTO-TIG directed the project team to document the workflow information gathered through SME meetings in tree diagrams, high-level flowcharts, and swim-lane diagrams. Please note that all documentation presented in this section was derived from meetings with SMEs and other publically available research sources.
Within Production Reporting there are both Operator and Partner tasks and responsibilities.
Flowcharts visually capture the steps in a process including tasks, decisions, and the flow of information. This diagram begins with drilling: The drilling phase varies in duration depending upon the location and depth of the well and can last longer than 6 months in some cases or much shorter in other cases. The data obtained by SCADA is sent to a custom storage mechanism, which can vary depending on the companies involved in the venture.
This data is then sent to the Engineering group for analysis and to the Production Accounting group for review and volume allocation. The Engineering group performs surveillance using reservoir and production surveillance tools. The Production Accounting team is responsible for cost accounting, which involves the calculation of revenue, profit, and loss. Following reconciliation, various types of reports are exchanged between the Partners and the Operator in a process known as production reporting. Once the basic tasks in the JVPR process were documented, a swim-lane diagram was utilized to show more detail regarding the steps completed and the parties responsible for each task (i.e. Information flow from the production accounting group, the WINS system, field Operators (PDC), operations group, current production system (PRA), field automation systems (AGS, ADB, CASE), and gas accounting group, goes into the PDB.
ARIES software uses the daily and monthly production volumes from the PDB to perform reserves analysis and forecasting.
Property Tax software uses the daily and monthly production volumes from the PDB to perform tax planning and analysis. WINS software uses pumper route and well relationships, from PDB, to obtain well contact information. Marketing software uses daily or monthly production volumes from PDB to make crude marketing arrangements.
Human survival mandates us to sustain our vital functions of our lives by nourishing ourselves with food and water and engaging in sexual activity to avoid human extinction by reproducing. The mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) pathway is largely associated as a reward pathway, consisting of the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, amygdala and hippocampus.[5] The pathway implicates various rewards, motivated and addictive behaviors.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) form ligand-gated ion channels that are located throughout the brain. In the VTA, the dopaminergic neurons are regulated by the tonic innervations of the GABAergic neurons. To further acknowledge the function of the GABA receptors and its effect on the dopaminergic neurons, electrophysiological recordings were performed using picrotoxin (GABAA antagonist) and muscimol (GABAA agonist).[12] With picrotoxin, it showed a significant increase in the firing rate of the dopaminergic neurons, displaying a disinhibitory effect.
Since alcohol addiction is associated with the endogenous opioid system, it has an effect on its receptor identified as µ-opioid receptors (MORs) in the VTA.
Since learning involves synaptic plasticity, AMPA receptors and NMDA receptors are affected within the VTA. Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neuromodulator that modulates the function of the mesocorticolimbic circuit at 5-HT2A receptors that are localized to the VTA. Although this may be more strongly evident towards genetics factors (individual with having a higher 5-HT2A receptor expression is more vulnerable to behavioral effects of psychostimulants), the role of the 5-HT2A is still prominent for inducing hyperactivity of craving-behavior resulted from the intake of psychostimulants.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is part of the mesocorticolimbic pathway, having critical role in reward and motivated behaviors as seen in individuals with substance abuse.
The mechanism of CP-AMPA receptor up-regulation plays a role in synaptic plasticity, sensitizing the excitatory pathway to the MSNs in the NAc.
Your section on dopamine was a nice summary, I linked it to my page on Parkinson's disease treatment. The Moses Lake plant that makes the carbon fibre for all the components of the i3 has to work double time now, as Bimmetoday reports.
Up until now BMW claimed that for the production of the EV they used a lot of renewable energy sources and, at some plants, that was the only energy used. We certainly hope so, otherwise the ISO certificate the i3 received a while back might not be valid for too long. Can Stock Photo has the royalty free illustration, line art drawing, EPS vector graphic, or stock clipart icon that you need. Therefore, the process of developing these charts and diagrams is described in this section. This work was regularly presented to members of the RTO-TIG for feedback throughout the project. A data historian receives the data automatically from SCADA and this information is entered into a production database. The results are used by the Production Engineers, who are also responsible for forecasting using forecasting and economics tools.
The Operator sends drilling and production reports to the Partners on a daily or monthly basis as specified in the Joint Operating Agreement. If the data is collected manually, the Pumper observes flow rates (oil, gas, and water), pressures, and temperatures manually by looking at paper charts and recording these readings on paper or laptop.

Using information gathered manually, the Pumper performs well testing and oil measurement using temperature and pressure readings at the well head. Using information from well tests and data gathered manually, the Pumper creates run tickets (i.e. If the data is collected automatically, the Instrumentation Technician captures flow rates (oil, gas, and water), pressures, and temperatures using field data capture (FDC) systems.
After collecting automated data, the Instrumentation Technician measures the volume of oil, gas, and water using temperature and pressure readings at the well head and runs a series of tests for temperature, density, and basic sediments and water content (BSW) on these measured quantities. Based on inspections, the Facilities Engineer decides if machinery maintenance is required. If maintenance is required, the Facilities Engineer will schedule maintenance activities within his Authorization for Expenditure (AFE) limit. Based on maintenance, the Facilities Engineer also checks if machinery needs to be replaced.
After obtaining permission for replacement, the Facilities Engineer calculates the total cost for replacement and sends it to the Joint Venture Accountant. If the well test is valid then the Reservoir Engineer uses the results of the test for building reservoir simulation models. Based on the simulation model, the Reservoir Engineer conducts reserves analysis to determine how much oil or gas is left in the reservoir and how much more oil and gas can be produced. Based on the financial reports created, the Revenue Accountant does the tax calculation and pays severance taxes and royalties to different working interest owners and government agencies. The Joint Venture Accountant receives cost information from the Facilities Engineer and creates cost and capital expenditure reports, which are sent to the Executive and Non-operated Asset Manager. The Executive reviews revenue, as well as cost and capital expenditure reports received from the Revenue Accountant and the Joint Venture Accountant.
The Non-operated Asset Manager reviews field KPI reports and capital planning and budgeting reports. Based on the cost and capital expenditure reports sent by the Joint Venture Accountant, the Non-operated Asset Manager analyses Partner performance, sales, and revenue.
The following figures provide examples of various workflows within currently used in the Oil & Gas Industry. Integrated process flow has been provided by SME meeting minutes, Appendix B-#20 of Anadarko. It transmits information related to new well setup, completion class, and status changes, to the PDB.
All of these factors have an effect on the reward circuit, triggering pleasurable stimulations in our brains. The ones that are found in ventral tegmental area (VTA) play a critical role in rewarding effects of drugs such as nicotine. Even with a relatively low concentration of nicotine administration, they observed that it caused a considerable amount of nAChR desensitization because subsequent addition of a higher concentration had no effect. During self-administration of cocaine, there is a “dynamic regulation” of AMPA receptors contributing towards addiction, facilitating future cocaine use.[14] With presence of cocaine in the VTA, there is an up-regulation of GluR1 and GluR2 AMPA glutamate receptor subunits. It is mostly composed of GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs), receiving glutamate transmission from cortical and limbic areas of the brain that plays a key role in motivated behavioral regulation.[17][18] In drug addition, the excitatory inputs to the MSNs are affected, distorting the process of reward information. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Begleiter H, Porjesz B, Fowler JS, Telang F, Wong C, Ma Y, Logan J, Goldstein R, Alexoff D, Thanos PK.
Choi KH, Edwards S, Graham DL, Larson EB, Whisler KN, Simmons D, Friedman AK, Walsh JJ, Rahman Z, Monteggia LM, Eisch AJ, Neve RL, Nestler EJ, Han MH, Self DW.
Scilstrom B, Yaka R, Argilli E, Suvarna N, Schumann J, Chen BT, Carman M, Singh V, Mailliard WS, Ron D, Bonci A. Our designers and illustrators provide royalty free stock images, clip art, clipart graphics, and pictures for as little as 1 dollar.
This information is compiled for the benefit of Oil & Gas Industry, specifically the SPE community.
As shown in Figure 3, JVR consists of two main functions, Production Accounting (which deals mainly with sales) and Production Reporting (which deals mainly with production volume). This diagram, which is shown in Figure 4, depicts the basic steps in JVPR without regard to who in the process completes the task. Next, reserves analysis is completed, which involves determining how much oil or gas is left within the reservoir and how much more can be produced under current economic conditions.
This a field data capture software system, which is the first entry point for the data after it is collected by SCADA. If there are discrepancies in the production numbers, the Production Accountant checks with the Production Engineer to resolve the issue.
The amount of oil, gas, and water are proportionately allocated back to each well to calculate the production allocation for all parties involved in the joint venture. Revenue reports and operating expense reports are also exchanged between Operator and Partners as specified in this agreement. The responsibilities of each actor have been identified and are shown in Figures 5a and 5b.
The Operator’s Facility Engineers are responsible for designing and evaluating the surface equipment required to produce oil and gas.
Different types of oil and gas wells require different facilities, so the Facilities Engineer’s involvement and responsibilities tend to vary (e.g. The workover reports include any operations performed on a well to restore or increase production. If invalid, the Reservoir Engineer performs well tests to analyze reservoir and well performance. Operators send invoices to non-Operators that compare the invoiced amount with the daily report.
This task involves reviewing the production volumes, as well as the amount of capital and expense dollars spent.
The non-Operator’s share of oil and gas is either sold by the Operator and the revenue is credited to the non-Operator or the non-Operator sells it themselves.
Figure 6a shows a production reporting data flow for general operations within Hess Corporation.

As humans, it is psychological for us to seek pleasurable stimulations while avoiding pain as much as possible.[1] Therefore when the reward circuit is exploited by abusive behaviors and addictive substances via substance, social and sexual addictions, the reward circuit is dramatically affected and altered. The activation of nAChRs by either nicotine or acetylcholine will lead to cation influx, modulating various neurons such as glutamatergic, GABAergic and especially dopaminergic transmission within the mesolimbic pathway.[9] The VTA is regulated by both excitatory glutamatergic neurons and inhibitory GABAergic interneurons. Additionally, they have also examined the effect of GABAB receptor function on the dopaminergic neurons in the VTA by using SCH0911 (GABAB antagonist).[12] Although SCH0911 did have an effect, it only moderately increased the firing rate. On the membrane of the MSNs, two subunits of AMPA receptors are present that mediates the excitatory information. Stimulation of mGluR1 with DHPG removed CP-AMPA receptor transmission either by inhibiting its function or by internalizing the receptor.[17] Additionally, protein kinase C (PKC) also played a key role in this mechanism because by blocking PKC with a protein kinase C inhibitor (PKI), postsynaptic transmission mechanism of DHPG was also blocked. The allocation details have been included in the sequence diagrams related to “reconciliation” and “well test” in section on Sequence Diagrams under Deliverable V of this report. This flowchart maps the workflow processes that take place in the upstream Oil & Gas Industry. To measure the production from the well, each well may have a meter to record the production parameters and these will be reconciled with periodic well testing. Verbal descriptions of each element in the swim-lane diagram are provided subsequent to the presentation of the figure along with a list of further questions for SMEs. The Reservoir Engineer checks or calculates reserves, performs simulations, and recommends development plans (i.e.
Figure 6b depicts the flow of information for international well production reporting on a monthly basis.
The reward circuit is composed of 3 major dopaminergic pathways of which one, the mesocorticolimbic, is largely associated with reward stimulation and reward-seeking behaviors. This increases the function of NMDA receptor by the NR1 and NR2B subunits insertion in the membrane. This was an important finding for proposing a strategy for drug relapse by reducing cue-induced cocaine craving and motivated behaviors. Ethanol dually modulates GABAergic synaptic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons in ventral tegmental area: role of µ-opioid receptors. High levels of dopamine D2 receptors in unaffected members of alcoholic familes: possible protective factors.
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: neuroplastic changes underlying alcohol and nicotine addictions.
Nicotinic cholinergic synaptic mechanisms in the ventral tegmental area contribute to nicotine addiction.
GABAergic transmission modulates ethanol excitation of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Ethanol blocks long-term potentiation of GABAergic synapses in the ventral tegmental area involving µ-opioid receptors. Reinforcement-related regulation of AMPA glutamate receptor subunits in the ventral tegmental area enhances motivation for cocaine. Cocaine enhances NMDA receptor-mediated currents in ventral tegmental area cells via dopamine D5 receptor-dependent redistribution of NMDA receptors.
Elevated expression of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the rat ventral tegmental area enhances vulnerability to the behavioral effects of cocaine.
Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors in the VTA and nucleus accumbens after cocaine exposure: when, how, and why?. Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors are present in nucleus accumbens synapses after prolonged withdrawal from cocaine self-administration but not experimenter-administered cocaine.
Alterations in AMPA receptor subunits and TARPs in the rat nucleus accumbens related to the formation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors during the incubation of cocaine craving. Group I mGluR activation reverses cocaine-induced accumulation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens synapses via a protein kinase C-depenedent mechanism.
PET imaging of dopamine D2 receptors during chronic cocaine self-administration in monkeys.
Data management entails communicating (from databases, etc.), validating, and presenting data to both Partners and regulatory agencies.
These have been categorized into operations performed at the oil field, production accounting, engineering, and production reporting, as shown in the components marked in the diagram.
In other cases where there are no production meters, production is sent to a test separator where it separates and measures the oil, water, gas, and any sediments produced. Utilizing a swim-lane diagram, Figure 6c illustrates the production reporting workflow for Hess Corporation. With any addiction, it alters this pathway, affecting reward regulation, motivation and behaviors. The increasing effects of IPSC were explained by an increase in the GABAergic transmission through nAChR activation by the presence of nicotine. Raw data can also be collected in real time using an automated system called Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA). In other words, with the increase in IPSC, there would be an increased inhibition of dopamine release for a brief period in the initial presence of nicotine. On the other hand, Partners are typically responsible for monitoring and analyzing data and for predicting revenue as well as approving investments as part of their cost sharing agreement and interests. One of the main sources of the dopaminergic neurons is located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However since the nAChRs subsequently becomes desensitized, there would be less IPSC and higher dopamine release, causing a higher activation of reward-related firings within the mesolimbic pathway. Despite having nAChR becoming desensitized on the GABAergic neuron, there is a recovery of the GABAergic neuron, enhancing inhibitory transmission back to normal. It was also observed that it additionally supplied the synapse with extrasynaptic AMPA receptors. Moreover, the maintenance of the AMPA receptors was found to be mediated by the activation of CAMKII and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) proteins within the PSD.[20] With cocaine administration, there was an increase in both of these proteins, promoting higher AMPA receptor synaptic insertions.

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