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This ethnic inspired sleeveless and strapless wedding gown has kente trim around upper bust, waist, sides, and back of dress skirt with attached chapel train. Please provide your measurements with order: Around upper bust, Around fullest part of Bust, Around Waist, Around Hip, Length of top (Upper bust to hip), Length of skirt (Waist to floor without shoes) with order.
Gochujang is a fire engine red chili paste that is a foundation ingredient in much of Korean cooking.
I really, really, really like dill, but unfortunately many of the people I’m likely to cook for really, really, really dislike dill.
Tofuture, a small UK business run by tofu devotees Susanna and Adam, recently sent me a sample of their tofu maker and press to try out. When I landed in Japan I knew I had no concrete plans save my initial nights booked at a hostel in Kyoto. The post Vegan in Hiroshima, Osaka, and Takayama + Vegan Okonomiyaki Recipe appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook.
Recent experiments with aquafaba have left me with a glut of chickpeas and my partner has indicated a preference for not cleaning up small round foods I launch spitball style across the room for the cats to chase. The post Easy chickpea stew with garlicky tahini and vegan yoghurt appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook.
Found on each table at every noodle-hawking stall in Thailand is a caddy of condiments, seasonings to add flavour balance based on a diner’s personal tastes. The post Nam Som Prik Dong: Thai Chillies Pickled in Vinegar (?????????????) appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook.
I recently stumbled across Madame Huang’s Kitchen, a blog written by Carolyn Phillips, a Chinese translator and food writer with a passion for Chinese cuisine.
The post Pomegranate Yuba (Fuzhu) with Caramelised Onions appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook.
The post Vegan in Kyoto + recipe for fried tofu and nori parcels appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. The post Vegan in Tokyo + Vegan Japanese Curry Recipe appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook.
In order to make Chinese style fermented tofu, firm bean curd is cut into cubes, inoculated with a mould, left to ferment, and then covered in brine.
There are a few types of cookie that look pretty enough to dupe people into thinking they are difficult to make. I’ve been away for a few months and am slowly replacing the freezer burned leftovers my partner failed to spot with new easy meals my partner will fail to spot.
The post Restaurant Review: The Gate Vegetarian Restaurant, Hammersmith appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. After years of visiting Thailand, writing about its food and the annual vegetarian festival, I decided it was time to try to learn some of the language.
The post Seven Thai vegan foods to try in bpra theet thai (Thailand) appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. Over the summer I had the great pleasure to attend a shojin ryori inspired Japanese supper club hosted by London based Pureism (very much worth checking out if you are interested in Japanese temple cuisine).
The post When Rice Ferments: Mikawa Mirin Production in Japan appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. The post Crispy Marmite Battered Chickpea Fritters appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook.
Despite a common belief by many Westerners that vegetarianism is impossible to communicate in Thailand, and that fish sauce goes in everything, the Thai language has a word to indicate veganism that is universally understood. The post Vegan Black Eyed Pea Stew with Faux Feta and Gari appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. I received a bag of hemp seeds a sample once and it was one of those ingredients that I kept intending to use but every time I looked at it I though “yeaaaaaah, no” and deep fried something instead. The post Easy Home Made Pecan Hemp Matcha Milk Shake appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. The post Vegan in Clerkenwell: Grain Store Unleashed appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook.
In my home I am mostly in charge of all food related activities, with a couple of exceptions. The post Warm Sweet and New Potato Salad with Smoked Paprika appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. I chose to adopt a vegetarian diet at the age of 12, but there was one ingredient I would not touch: tofu. The post Spicy Chargrilled Vegan Israeli Couscous Salad appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. Following my write up on vegan food in Taipei, I want to cover some of the options outside of the city centre.
Springtime is one of my favourite seasons in the UK, and that’s mostly down to that brief window of time when asparagus is harvested locally. The post Chargrilled Asparagus with Lemon & Sea Salt appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. I landed in Taipei convinced I would spend a few days there before moving on to visit other cities on the island, but instead spent a full two weeks planted firmly in one place.
A popular dish served in various ways throughout the country, this is a simplified version of a sticky noodle dish I enjoyed at Shan restaurants throughout Myanmar. Aside from their lack of mushy peas, one of my favourite comfort meals in London is the vegan fish and chips at the Coach and Horses pub in Soho. The post Beer Battered Vegan Fish Sandwiches with Homemade Tartar Sauce appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook.
A few times a year I take a holiday weekend in sunny The North, where I mostly drink wine and sit under a blanket at my friend Liz’s house while she cooks for me and I avoid being gutted by her laser eyes cat.
If you love Ethiopian food as much as I do, or even if you’ve never had it before, you need this cookbook.
The post SugarSin Covent Garden vegan candy options appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. The post The Moveable Feast Vegetarian Pop Up at London Bridge appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook.
Veg Bar vegbar.co.uk 45 Tulse Hill Brixton London, SW2 2TJ England Hey, go check this place out!
I recently joined the ambassador program for Froothie UK and the company kindly sent me an Optimum 9200 blender to review and play around with. The post Optimum 9200A Blender Review + Oreo Cookie Butter Recipe appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. Previously I’ve made garlic lime mayonnaise (which is ace on banh mi), but the combination of vegan mayonnaise flavours seems endless. The post Gochujang and Smoky Horseradish Vegan Mayonnaises appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. It’s already the beginning of March, and only a few weeks from that glorious weekend when the clocks change and we get an extra hour of sunlight in the evening.
The post Upmarket Raw Vegan Dining at L’elephant Vert Luang Prabang appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook.
I have so many opinions about everything, but I’m still unclear on how I feel about okra. I’m trying so hard to refrain from talking about how great Luang Prabang was eleven years ago. The post Tamarind’s Vegan Cooking Class in Luang Prabang appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. My most recent visit to Vientiane was in 2003, and I recall little more than a delicious sandwich shop followed by the days of severe food poisoning that ensued for my travel companion.
I first tried this stir fry in Phuket after randomly pointing to a few items on a vegan buffet so large that my decision-making gears nearly broke (and they barely function to begin with).
The post Stir Fried Pickled Mustard Greens With Tofu appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. Part of the TREE Alliance, a group focussed on hands-on training for young people to give them employable skills in the hospitality industry, Makphet Restaurant in Vientiane is hit and miss for vegans but most definitely worth a visit.
The post Makphet: supporting a good cause while eating in Vientiane appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. Sometimes a place has wonderful things to see and do, but I don’t gel with the overall vibe and that’s the Mandalay I met.
After an eventful bus trip from Nyaungshwe (outdoor toilet break, cloth for door, massive hole in cloth, enough said) that involved many hours literally (hey look, this is how you use that word) sitting in the middle of the road while a broken down lorry was fixed, I arrived in Bagan. The post Vegan Around Inle Lake Myanmar + Sev Recipe appeared first on Messy Vegetarian Cook. The 476 date for the Fall of Rome is conventionally acceptable because that's when the Germanic Odoacer deposed the last Roman emperor to rule the western part of the Roman Empire.
Please note: The above are the only authentic images of Roman Emperors available to the public.
The Byzantine Empire was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Byzantium is today distinguished from ancient Rome proper insofar as it was oriented towards Greek culture, characterised by Christianity rather than Roman paganism and was predominantly Greek-speaking rather than Latin-speaking.
According to tradition, Saint Agnes was a member of the Roman nobility born and raised in a Christian family. Another was Pope Gregory I (540 – 604), better known in English as Gregory the Great, he was pope from 3 September 590 until his death. The East–West Schism of 1054, sometimes known as the Great Schism, formally divided the State church of the Roman Empire into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches, which later became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, respectively. Pope Leo IX of Rome and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael Cerularius heightened the conflict by suppressing Greek and Latin in their respective domains. Today, the Eastern Orthodox Church, being continuous, still depicts the original Christians as they really were - as Blacks, (though somewhat Whitenized). Avignon was a French city in southeastern France by the left bank of the Rhône river. In 1309 the city, still part of the Kingdom of Arles, was chosen by Pope Clement V as his residence, and from 1309 until 1377 it was the seat of the Papacy instead of Rome. Queen Joanna I of Sicily, as countess of Provence, sold the city to Clement VI for 80,000 florins on 9 June 1348 and though it was later the seat of more than one antipope, Avignon belonged to the Papacy until 1791, when during the French Revolution, it was reincorporated with France. John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (1392 – 1448), was the penultimate (next to last) reigning Byzantine Emperor, ruling from 1425 to 1448.
In June 1422, John VIII Palaiologos supervised the defense of Constantinople during a siege by the Ottoman Turks under Murad II, but had to accept the loss of Thessalonica which his brother Andronikos had given to Venice in 1423. John VIII Palaiologos named his brother Constantine XI, who had served as regent in Constantinople in 1437–1439, as his successor. Constantine XI Palaiologos (1404 - 1453) was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor from 1449 to his death as member of the Palaiologos dynasty.
He led the defence of the city and took an active part in the fighting alongside his troops in the land walls. A false account of the death is recorded by the Ottoman historian Tursun Beg who was an eyewitness at the siege, according to him Constantine was killed by Ottoman azab soldiers while trying to flee with his retinue. The Frankish Realm or occasionally Frankland, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks from the 3rd to the 10th century. In 777, the Wali of Barcelona, Sulayman al-Arabi (Suleiman bin Ioctan al-Quelbi in the Arabic sources) offered Charlemagne his own allegiance and the allegiance of Husayn (now in Paderborn Germany?). In 781 the Emir Abd ar-Rahman I sent general Tsalaba ben Obaid to re-take Zaragoza for the Caliphate. Roncesvalles of northern Spain in the Pyrenees, northeast of Pamplona and near the French frontier. In La Chanson de Roland the attackers are the Moors, and the rear guard is commanded by Charlemagne’s nephew Roland, who is accompanied by his comrade Oliver and by Archbishop Turpin. The story, as the anonymous author relates it in his poetic genius is cast as a major battle between Charlemagne’s Christian paladins against the infidel forces of Marsila, the Saracen king of Zaragoza.
Roland, a true, brave and faithful paladin, chooses his stepfather Ganelon to head the envoy. Assisted by the twelve paladins, Charlemagne’s most trusted and beloved peers Roland, leads the march back to France, only to be overrun by a vastly superior Saracen force at the Roncesvalles pass.
While the actual historical Roland’s rear guard was ambushed by Basque Christians, and Charlemagne and the Abbasid governors Sulieman al-Arabi of Barcelona and his confederates, Husayn of Zaragoza and Abu-Taur of Huesca were allies against the Ummayad caliph of Cordoba, Abd-Al Rahman I, the poem simply paints a picture of a thorough-going crusading enterprise pitting Christian against Muslim. It should be remembered that European Black Christians had no problem with Black Arab Islamists in the Holy lands. Born a member of the minor nobility, El Cid was brought up at the court of the Spanish Emperor Ferdinand the Great and served in the household of Prince Sancho. The Almoravids decisively defeated a coalition of the Castilian and Aragonese armies at the Battle of Sagrajas (October 1086). Carolingian Empire (800–888) is a historiographical term which has been used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty in the Early Middle Ages.
It is now 799 A.D, and for the third time in half a century, a Pope is in need of help from the Frankish kings. In (801-810) Charlemagne and the Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus I waged war on both land and sea for control of Venetia and the Dalmatian coast (modern-day northern Italy, Slovenia and Croatia). Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781. During his reign in Aquitaine, Louis was charged with the defence of the Empire's southwestern frontier.
Following the assassination of Berengar of Friuli in 924, the Imperial title had lain vacant for nearly forty years. Otto and his son and grandson (Otto II and Otto III) regard the imperial crown as a mandate to control the Papacy.
Peter I (1068 - 1104) was the King of Aragon and Navarre for a decade from 1094 until his death. The struggle for dominance between emperor and pope comes to a head in two successive reigns, of the emperors Henry III and Henry IV, in the 11th century. In 1059 Nicholas II takes two political steps of a kind, unusual at this period, which will later be commonplace for the medieval papacy.
Pope Gregory seizes political control by decreeing, in 1075, that no lay ruler may make ecclesiastical appointments. In subsequent periods compromises are made on both sides, particularly in the Concordat of Worms, in 1122, where a distinction is made between the spiritual and secular element in clerical appointments.
It was common procedure for a King to marry a high-born female from among his countryman to help legitimize his rulership - that would be his first wife and the Queen.
Albino Historians identify the secondary Queen as Maria of Antioch, however that makes no sense. The nine-year struggle between pope Gregory VII and the emperor Henry IV provides a vivid glimpse of the political role of the medieval papacy.
German princes opposed to Henry IV elect and crown, in 1077, a rival king - Rudolf, the duke of Swabia.
Frederick I Barbarossa was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March, crowned King of Italy in Pavia in 1155, and finally crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV, on 18 June 1155.
Before his royal election, he was by inheritance Duke of Swabia (1147–1152, as Frederick III).
Gregory appeals for help to his vassals the Normans, recently invited by the papacy to conquer southern Italy and Sicily.
In a reign of thirty-eight years Frederick, known also as Frederick Barbarossa, asserts his authority throughout Germany and extends imperial power into Bohemia, Poland and Hungary. The marriage of Henry to Constance brings Sicily and southern Italy into the German empire. The Hohenstaufen period has seen some notably forceful popes (Innocent III, Gregory IX, Innocent IV) and powerful emperors (Frederick I, Frederick II). Meanwhile, for almost twenty years after the death of Conrad IV in 1254, the German princes fail to elect any effective king or emperor. Before moving on to the Habsburg Dynasty, let us look at an absurdity of Albino European History. There are hundreds of statues of medieval Black knights, mostly in ancient religious sites, all over Europe, and especially in Germany. The lack of a scientifically valid inventory at Cathedral of Magdeburg allowed racist Albinos to engage in one of their favorite methods of falsifying history, that is to declare all European Blacks as Africans, African Slaves, or the children of African Slaves; without the inconvenience of having to prove what they say.
CLEARLY, AS CAN BE SEEN FROM THE EXAMPLES BELOW, WHAT THE ALBINOS ARE DOING IS DECLARING EVERY STATUE OF A BLACK MAN, OR EVEN SOMEONE WHO LOOKS REMOTELY BLACK, AT MAGDEBURG CATHEDRAL TO BE SAINT MAURICE, RATHER THAN DIVULGING HIS REAL NAME, RANK, AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. Click here for more images of Black knights and nobles of the Black Holy Roman Empire, and a debunking of the Saint Maurice nonsense. General Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie, also known as Alexandre Dumas, (25 March 1762 – 26 February 1806) was the first black general in French history and remains the highest-ranking person of color of all time in a continental European army. Born in Saint-Domingue, Alexandre Dumas was of mixed race, the son of a white French nobleman and a black slave mother.
It is clear from these examples and the many, many, more; that the Albinos are attempting to disenfranchise the existence all former Black Europeans, and to declare them Africans. Luckily Reynald was always well documented, so the Albinos had no opportunity to lie about this one.

But as we have said previously, since the material for almost all of our histories are in Albino hands, our only recourse is to use their material, but use critical analysis and cross referencing to find the truth.
Example: The Albinos have identified the Bishop who is taking a tongue lashing from the Black Knight as Albert of Brandenburg, who was a Cardinal and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire (1490 - 1545). Note on the Halos: Neither Cardinal Albert of Brandenburg nor Ulrich von Hutten were Canonized (declared a Saint). Knowing that the Albinos ALWAYS have a fake picture for every important Black person in history, we searched for it. So now we know two things: those Black knights pictured were indeed REAL people having nothing to do with Saint Maurice - if there ever was such a person. The current White occupiers of Germany, try to hide their countries Black Holy Roman Empire past, by modifying remnants of that past. The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants.
In general, Northern Europe, with the exception of Ireland and pockets of Britain and the Netherlands, turned Protestant.
The separation of the Church of England (or Anglican Church) from Rome under Henry VIII, beginning in 1529 and completed in 1537, brought England alongside this broad Reformation movement; however, religious changes in the English national church proceeded more conservatively than elsewhere in Europe. Sometime after the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Church also fell under the control of Europe's Albinos.
A legend tells of Abraham of Freising traveling one night through the Poljanska dolina valley with his black servant.
Interestingly, after we posted that in about August of 2010, it has since been cleansed from the web. Note: the video IS worth watching, and the books are probably worth buying, but only for the wonderful artifacts shown.
Choice of kente colors available: Purple and Gold (Shown), Red and Gold, Red and White, Black and Gold, Black and White, Royal Blue and Gold, Royal Blue and White, Green and Gold, Green and White, Pink and Gold, Pink and White, etc. Made from a combination of dried red chillies, sweet rice flour, and fermented soybean powder, the slightly funky flavour is further accentuated by weeks of aging in the sun.
I have approximately zero interest in gadgets like these, so found myself pleasantly surprised at how much I enjoyed this product. Hiroshima, Osaka, and Takayama were all last minute, uncoordinated decisions that were erratic at best. I’ve been working full time on the internet for 12 years now, and engaging in blogging side projects for nearly as long. The process typically takes at least a couple of months, but as with cheese-making longer aging tends to produce a more flavoursome and umami rich product. Each year a nine day vegetarian festival is held across the country, more pronounced in some areas than others, that celebrates a je diet.
Mom, I love you and the effort you made to support my choice, but those mushy tofu and frozen vegetable stir fries you made when I was a teenager were the worst.
The best version I tried utilised dates against a backdrop of rich tomato and berbere gravy soaked injera. At the class I learned how to make a simple jiew, a dip to be eaten with sticky rice, that contained little more than a few chargrilled grilled vegetables, salt and a pinch of monosodium glutamate.
Transportation in Taiwan is efficient, reliable, and fast enough to make day trips easily, so while I was in Taipei I visited a few outlying towns and cities.
Everyone goes mad for it, and with good reason, but what confuses me is how dull its preparations often are.
Typically it is not vegetarian, but is easy to prepare without traditional meat ingredients and fish sauce. Also, yes, I still call sweets candy (but I say sweets when I’m pretending in my head that I live in an English Seaside town in like 1887). London, SE1 9RY England The Moveable Feast is a vegetarian popup just next to London Bridge station, under The Shard (come out of the station at the bus stop, go left and down the escalators, then around the corner).
Veg Bar is a new vegetarian restaurant just five minutes by bus from Brixton tube, toward Tulse Hill. One of my favourite condiments for spice and wow factor is gochujang, a Korean chilli paste, so when considering the next mayo variation this seemed an obvious choice.
That means there’s a lot more upmarket eating, which is sometimes disappointing and sometimes wonderful, but usually exciting. I don’t want to sound like that tourist, sorry, I mean traveller, who waxes lyrical over how cool they are for going to a place before most people heard about that place. Vegan food was available, as everywhere in the country, and the one wholly vegetarian restaurant I tried was pretty good.
The next day I woke up in Nyaungshwe (Northern Burma) bright and early to spend the day in a boat. Some say the split into an eastern and western empire governed by separate emperors caused Rome to fall. Its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), which was originally known as Byzantium. Her memorial, which commemorates her martyrdom, is 21 January in both the Roman Catholic calendar of saints and in the General Roman Calendar of 1962. She suffered martyrdom at the age of twelve or thirteen during the reign of the Roman Emperor Diocletian, on 21 January 304. Gregory is well known for his writings, which were more prolific than those of any of his predecessors as pope. When Rome was sacked by the Albino Germanics in 410 A.D, though the Papacy remained in Rome, Constantinople became predominant. Relations between East and West had long been embittered by political and ecclesiastical differences and theological disputes. In 1054, Roman legates traveled to Michael Cerularius to deny him the title Ecumenical Patriarch (first among equals), and to insist that he recognize the Church of Rome's claim to be the head and mother of the churches, Cerularius refused.
To secure protection against the Ottomans, he visited Pope Eugene IV and consented to the union of the Greek and Roman churches. Despite the machinations of his younger brother Demetrios Palaiologos, his mother Helena was able to secure Constantine XI's succession in 1448.
Constantine faced the siege defending his city of 60,000 people with an army only numbering 7,000 men. At the same time, he used his diplomatic skills to maintain the necessary unity between the Genovese, Venetian and the Greek troops.
Conspired with the Yemenite aristocracy against the Emir, proclaiming the rule of the Abbasid (Arab) Caliphate in Hispania. This battle gave birth, about four-hundred years later, to one of the most celebrated epic poems in French literature, Le Chanson de Roland (The Song of Roland). King Marsila, who reigns in the last remaining stronghold of Zaragoza, devises a plot to fool Charlemagne into leaving Spain for good. Ganelon, who plays the part of Judas in the story, would betray his stepson because of a long-held hatred and jealousy towards him. Oliver and Archbishop Turpin of Rheims, two of the paladins, fight bravely along with Roland. Events in Spain from the mid-eleventh century, as well as the new crusading movement encouraged by Pope Urban II’s sermon at Cleremont in 1095, inspire and shape the tale.
In other words, Charlemagne had Muslim allies, but the Chanson does not concern itself with this tricky detail, preferring to allow the crusading events of the time mold and shape the poetic retelling.
He was called El Cid (the Lord) by the Moors and El Campeador (the Champion) by Christians. He inflicted the first major defeat on them in 1094 on the plains of Caurte outside Valencia, and continued resisting them until his death. This dynasty is seen as the founders of France and Germany, and its beginning date is based on the crowning of Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, and ends with the death of Charles the Fat. After being physically attacked by his enemies in the streets of Rome (their stated intention is to blind him and cut out his tongue, to make him incapable of office), Pope Leo III makes his way through the Alps to visit the king of the Franks Charles I at Paderborn. The displeasure is probably diplomatic, for the legal emperor is undoubtedly the one in Constantinople.
The war progressed well for the Franks, additionally, beginning in 809, Nicephorus was distracted by a new war with the Bulgars. He provided a prosperous and stable country for his people during an era of uncertainty in Europe.
He was also King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813. He conquered Barcelona from the Muslims in 801 and asserted Frankish authority over Pamplona and the Basques south of the Pyrenees in 812.
But in 962 a pope once again needs help against his enemies, and once again he appeals to a strong Frankish ruler. They dismiss Popes at their will and install replacements more to their liking (sometimes even changing their mind and repeating the process).
He was the second, but only surviving legitimate son and fourth child of Afonso I of Portugal by his wife, Maud of Savoy. Coimbra was the centre of his kingdom; Sancho terminated the exhausting and generally pointless wars against his neighbours for control of the Galician borderlands. He was the son and successor of Sancho V Ramírez by his first wife, Isabella of Urgell.
He grants land, already occupied, to recipients of his own choice; and he involves those recipients in a feudal relationship with the papacy, or the Holy See, as the feudal lord. But investiture remains a bone of contention between the papacy and lay rulers - not only in the empire, after the first dramatic flare up between Gregory and Henry IV, but also in France and England. The Kings subsequent marriages were often diplomatic affairs, meant to solidify peace treaties and bond former enemies: as the children from those marriages would be mixtures of the two peoples. Black kings had to make these diplomatic marriages to pacify invading Albino tribesman from Central Asia.
St Gregory, canonized in the Catholic Reformation, is one of the great defenders of papal power.
But his greatest effort is in Italy, where he tries to recover the empire in the north and to extend it south of the papal states down to Sicily. They excommunicate Frederick II twice, and even proclaim a crusade against him, in a prolonged power struggle which eventually weakens his authority in both Sicily and Germany. It is followed, after the death of the last Hohenstaufen ruler in 1254, by a prolonged time of uncertainty in both papacy and empire. This period is usually known (with a grandiloquence to match the Great Schism in the papacy) as the Great Interregnum. As we all know, there were no Blacks in Medieval Europe - except of course the Slaves and servants.
The Magdeburg Cathedral remains the only former archiepiscopal cathedral of the Middle Ages in Germany without an inventory.
He was the first person of color in the French military to become brigadier general, the first to become divisional general, and the first to become general-in-chief of a French army.
He was born into slavery because of his mother's status but was also born into nobility because of his father's.
This is to further the Albino lie that there were no indigenous Black Europeans, and that lie is intended to hide the genocide that was perpetrated against Black Europeans at the end of the Medieval period.
From the picture we know that the Knight must be very important and powerful if he can give an Elector and a Cardinal a tongue lashing.
They depict statues and the heads on heraldry of the Holy Roman Empire, with rings in their ears. These Race wars resulted in the Genocide of Blacks in Europe, and the expulsion of the survivors to the Americas. The saints especially were an integral part of the Catholic Church, their images were prayed to by believers, and they were almost exclusively Black. Southern Europe remained Roman Catholic, while fierce battles which turned into warfare took place in central Europe.
Reformers in the Church of England alternated, for centuries, between sympathies for ancient Catholic tradition and more Reformed principles, gradually developing into a tradition considered a middle way (via media) between the Roman Catholic and Protestant traditions. The solution was very simple: SAY THAT THE MADONNA'S ARE A NOVELITY, AND THE SAINTS ARE ALL SAINT MAURICE! Maurice, who are depicted wearing the uniform of medieval Knights of the Holy Roman Empire. For the western Catholic church, new statues and paintings of the Madonna and the Saints were created - they now depicted Albinos. Mainstream Black academics are quite happy to believe the Albinos nonsense, their incomes depend on it. The secret got out about Dalston years ago, but the good news about the trendy vibe is there are plentiful vegan options. The firfir recipe below, although not exactly the same (sometimes location is half of the flavour), is in memory of that dish. What’s not to love about the idea of eating that every day? I joked for a long time about visiting Ethiopia because how cool would that be?
The eastern half became the Byzantine Empire, with its capital at Constantinople (modern Istanbul).
Initially it was the eastern half of the Roman Empire (often called the Eastern Roman Empire in this context), it survived the 5th century fragmentation and collapse of the Western Roman Empire, and continued to thrive, existing for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. 304) she is a virgin–martyr, venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion, and Lutheranism.
The Prefect Sempronius wished Agnes to marry his son Procopius, and on Agnes' refusal he condemned her to death. There was no single event that marked the breakdown, in the centuries immediately before the schism became definitive, a few short schisms between Constantinople and Rome were followed by reconciliation's. The leader of the Latin contingent, Cardinal Humbert, excommunicated Cerularius, while Cerularius in return excommunicated Cardinal Humbert and the other legates. At the time, the city and the surrounding Comtat Venaissin were ruled by the kings of Sicily of the house of Anjou. He was associated as co-emperor with his father before 1416 and became sole emperor in 1425. The Union was ratified at the Council of Florence in 1439 which John attended with 700 followers including Patriarch Joseph II of Constantinople and George Gemistos Plethon, a Neoplatonist philosopher influential among the academics of Italy.
Confronting the Byzantine forces was an Ottoman army numbering many times that, backed by state-of-art siege equipment provided by a very competent Hungarian arms maker named Orban. His death marked the end of the Roman Empire, which had continued in the East for 977 years after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
In response, the Emir sent general Abd al-Melek bin Umar, who obtained the allegiance of Abu Taur of Huesca and the Wali of Tudela, but who was rejected (defeated?) in Zaragoza.
As Charlemagne could not take the city, he withdrew after a month, which then led to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. 15, 778), in which the Basques (Visigoths) ambushed and totally wiped out the rear guard of the Frankish army as they were returning across the mountains to Aquitaine after Charlemagne had ravaged several towns south of the Pyrenees and had razed Pamplona.
He promises Charlemagne that he will be his vassal, and convert to Christianity, in return for him leaving Spain. He views Roland’s choosing him for this mission as a way to have him killed, given the potential danger involved. Oliver counsels Roland to blow his oliphant horn (Elephants' tusks) so that Charlemagne could return with a fresh contingent of knights to face the ambushing foe, but Roland refuses to do so. The exploits of the Spanish knight El Cid, nee Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, against the invading Almoravid armies from North Africa led by bin Yusuf, is a big inspiration for the tale. The eighth century paladin Roland becomes, in the Chanson, the ideal Christian knight for the twelfth and thirteenth-century knights fighting in Acre and Jerusalem.
He went on to lead the Castilian military campaigns against Sancho's brothers, the rulers of the kingdoms of Leon and Galicia as well as against the Muslim kingdoms in Andalusia. Although de Vivar himself remained undefeated in Valencia, he suffered a tragedy when his only son and heir, Diego Rodríguez, died fighting against the Almoravids in the service of Alfonso in 1097. However, the rule of the dynasty was relatively short-lived and the Almoravids fell - at the height of their power - when they failed to quell the Masmuda-led (Berber tribal confederacy of Morocco), rebellion initiated by Ibn Tumart. Depending on one's perspective, this Empire can be seen as the later history of the Frankish Realm or the early history of France and of the Holy Roman Empire.
Nevertheless this public alliance between the pope and the ruler of a confederation of Black tribes now reflects the reality of political power in the west. Therefore, the Byzantines began negotiations with the Franks, and peace was agreed upon in which Charlemagne gave up most of the Dalmatian coast (which he had conquered), in exchange for the Byzantine Emperor recognizing him as Emperor of the West. In the beginning of this war, Charlemagne gained his reputation as a ruthless warrior when he massacred over 4,000 Saxons.
In these meetings, the mass could vote by shouting out their agreement or disagreement with his offered laws. He died at the age of seventy two, ruler of a kingdom that included what is now modern France, Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, half of Italy, half of Germany, part of Austria, and the Spanish border area.
As the only surviving adult son of Charlemagne and Hildegard, he became the sole ruler of the Franks after his father's death in 814, a position which he held until his death, save for the period 833–34, during which he was deposed. As emperor he included his adult sons, Lothair, Pepin, and Louis, in the government and sought to establish a suitable division of the realm among them. In 875, after the death of the Emperor Louis II (son of his half-brother Lothair): Charles the Bald, supported by Pope John VIII, traveled to Italy, receiving the royal crown at Pavia and the imperial insignia in Rome on 29 December.

The coronation of Otto I by pope John XII in 962 marks a revival of the concept of a Christian emperor in the west. This power, together with territories covering much of central Europe, gives the Empire and the imperial title great prestige in the late 10th century.
Instead, he turned all his attentions to the south, towards the Moorish small kingdoms that still thrived. He was named in honour of Saint Peter, because of his father's special devotion to the Holy See, to which he had made his kingdom a vassal. This time the beneficiaries are the Normans, who are granted territorial rights in southern Italy and Sicily in return for feudal obligations to Rome. The issue becomes known as the investiture controversy, being in essence a dispute over who has the right to invest high clerics with the robes and insignia of office. Though the Mulatto offspring of those marriages did not often ascent to kingship, the artifacts tell us that some did. The mis-identification of her as Maria of Antioch, is probably to falsely establish the Crusaders as Albinos and not the Black men that they really were. By then the pope has recognized Rudolf as the German king and has again excommunicated Henry. His mother was Judith, daughter of Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, from the rival House of Welf, and Frederick therefore descended from Germany's two leading families, making him an acceptable choice for the Empire's prince-electors.
But the Norman sack of the city is so violent, and provokes such profound hostility, that Gregory has to flee south with his rescuers. He meets strong opposition in the north from the Italian communes, who form the Lombard league to resist him. In spite of the brilliance of his court in Sicily, and the nonchalant ease with which he achieves his own crusade to Jerusalem, Frederick leaves an inheritance which cannot long survive him. The popes abandon Rome in 1309 and spend most of the 14th century in self-imposed exile in Avignon. So of course, all of these Black knights couldn't possibly be REAL people, with their own stories. Who then but a fool, would believe that all of those statues represent this one mythical Saint Maurice? The first church built in 937 at the location of the current cathedral was an Abbey called Saint Maurice, dedicated to Saint Maurice and financed by Emperor Otto I the Great. Archbishop Dietrich dedicated the cathedral in 1363 and the two towers on the west façade were presented by Cardinal Albrecht from Brandenburg in 1520. A scientifically substantiated inventory is an important requirement for getting the Magdeburg Cathedral on the UNESCO World Heritage list, something which the state is working towards, adds Schenkluhn.
Dumas shared the status of the highest-ranking black officer in the Western world only with Toussaint Louverture (who in May 1797 became the second black general-in-chief in the French military). So cross referencing to see who Albert was at odds with, we find that it was Ulrich von Hutten (1488 – 1523) who was a German scholar, poet and reformer. Or were placed there later, to justify identifying Ulrich von Hutten as Saint Maurice - put nothing beneath them. This is to signify that those people were somehow related to the Moors of North Africa, instead of what they really were: the descendents of the first Human settlers of Europe.
They came about because ascending European Albinos, whose numbers were constantly increased by new migrants from Central Asia, and finally, the Mongols expulsion of the Turks from Asia, wanted to begin a new era, one completely free of their Black Lords.
The Reformation was precipitated by earlier events within Europe, such as the Black Death and the Western Schism, which eroded people's faith in the Catholic Church and the Papacy that governed it.
The largest of the new churches were the Lutherans (mostly in Germany, the Baltics and Scandinavia) and the Reformed churches (mostly in Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Scotland).
See Saint Martin of Tours here, he was also a Roman soldier of the same period, note that he is depicted wearing a Roman uniform of his period: (Also note that he is Black - that will of course be changed later). The Albinos developed cottage industries devoted to creating new statues and paintings which looked like ancient artifacts.
Abraham stopped, terrified; the quick-thinking servant aimed an arrow from his bow and shot the bear dead.
After all, when authentic artifacts and true history is brought to bear, who but a fool would believe their nonsense?
So while they are happy to show that Blacks actually existed in history, they will take it no further. But there is no doubt that the western Roman Empire fell, and the widespread and long-term social disarray and insecurity following the decline of the Roman Empire and the gradual affiliation of masses of people with military overlords who could protect them constitutes the big picture of medieval society in Europe.
She is one of seven women, excluding the Blessed Virgin, commemorated by name in the Canon of the Mass.
As Roman law did not permit the execution of virgins, Sempronius had a naked Agnes dragged through the streets to a brothel. Pope Leo III crowned Charles I, king of the Franks (Charlemagne) as Holy Roman Emperor (even though there was already a Roman Emperor in Constantinople).
Though efforts were made to reunite the two churches in 1274 (by the Second Council of Lyon) and in 1439 (by the Council of Florence) they ended in failure.
The French King Philip the Fair, who had inherited from his father all the rights of Alphonse de Poitiers (the last Count of Toulouse), gave them over to Charles II, King of Naples and Count of Provence (1290).
The Union failed due to opposition in Constantinople, but through his prudent conduct towards the Ottoman Empire he succeeded in holding possession of the city. Before the beginning of the siege, Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II made an offer to Constantine XI.
The Frankish army was led by the seneschal Eggihard, the count palatine Anselm, and Roland, prefect of the March of Brittany. Once back in France, however, Marsila reneges on his promise, and Charlemagne and his paladins, now in no mood to keep fighting the long war, plan to send an embassy to Marsila to negotiate on the agreed settlement. Once he is received at Marsila’s court, he concludes a plot to have Roland killed by telling the Saracen king that he could attack the rear guard as Charlemagne leaves Spain. After the rear guard puts up a valiant fight, it is defeated, and so Roland blows the oliphant horn with such force that his temples burst, and he falls to his death.
He became famous for his military prowess in these campaigns and helped enlarge Castilian territory at the expense of the Muslims, while driving Sancho's brothers from their thrones. Alfonso overcame his antagonism toward de Vivar and talked him into fighting for him again. After the Cid's death in 1099, his wife Jimena Díaz, succeeded him as ruler of Valencia, but she had to surrender the principality to the Almoravids in 1102. As a result, their last king Ishaq ibn Ali, was killed in Marrakesh in April 1147 by the Almohads, (Moroccan Berber-Muslim dynasty that established a Berber state in Tinmel in the Atlas Mountains, circa 1120. In a ceremony in St Peter's, on Christmas Day, Leo is due to anoint Charles I's son as his heir. And it launches the concept of the new Holy Roman Empire, which will play an important role throughout the Middle Ages. He charged property taxations, called tithes, so that there would be money to pay for improvements like the five hundred foot bridge up the Rhine River and the cathedral at Ravenna. The first decade of his reign was characterised by several tragedies and embarrassments, notably the brutal treatment of his nephew Bernard of Italy, for which Louis atoned in a public act of self-debasement. Louis the German, also a candidate for the succession of Louis II, revenged himself by invading and devastating Charles' dominions, and Charles had to return hastily to Francia. It is also the beginning of an unbroken line of Holy Roman emperors lasting for more than eight centuries. But subservience was not the papal intention in reinstating the Holy Roman Empire - A clash is inevitable. He used the title King of Silves from 1189 until he lost the territory to Almohad control in 1191. Peter continued his father's close alliance with the Church and pursued the Reconquista with even greater success, allying with Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, known as El Cid, the ruler of Valencia, against the Almoravids. The pope, in an overtly political struggle against the German emperor, is playing a strong hand. The appointment of bishops and abbots is too valuable a right to be easily relinquished by secular rulers. Henry IV, alarmed at the demands being made over investiture, sends a threatening letter to the pope in 1076. In 1138, after some years of upheaval and civil war, their son Conrad is elected the German king - as Conrad III. And his attempts in the south are unpopular with the papacy, alarmed at the danger of being surrounded.
At first it seems unlikely that the boy can inherit both Sicily and the German kingdom, particularly since the prospect displeases the papacy. From 1378 there are two rival popes (a number subsequently rising to three) in the split known as the Great Schism. The choice subsequently seems of great significance, because he is the first Habsburg on the German throne. They must of course, all be that one mythical Black Saint from Egypt, known to us from Roman tales some 1,300 years earlier. Despite being repeatedly looted, the Cathedral of Magdeburg is rich in art, ranging from antiques to modern art. Slavery was illegal in metropolitan France and thus any slave would be freed de facto by being in the country. He was an outspoken critic of the Roman Catholic Church and a bridge between the humanists and the Lutheran Reformation.
This is a favorite trick of all White Europeans, they always identify all Blacks of medieval Europe as Slaves, Servants, or people who came directly from Africa. However for the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Black Madonna's and Saints were mostly kept, though now with mostly Albino features.
To do so would mean an end to their place of favor among the Albinos, and an end to their comfortable incomes. According to Tertullian, Clement was consecrated by Saint Peter, and he is known to have been a leading member of the church in Rome in the late 1st century. She is the patron saint of chastity, gardeners, girls, engaged couples, rape victims, and virgins. Under the protection of the Frankish Emperors, the Pope was once again able to exert authority. In exchange for the surrender of Constantinople, the emperor's life would be spared and he would continue to rule in Mistra, to which, as preserved by G. The battle forms the basis of the legend of the hero Roland recounted in the epics La Chanson de Roland and Roncesvalles. This, however, ended up putting him in a difficult position when in 1072, Sancho died suddenly without issue, leaving his brother Alfonso as his only heir and ruler of the reunified empire.
Over the next several years de Vivar set his sights on the kingdom-city of Valencia, operating more or less independently of Alfonso, while politically supporting the Banu Hud (an Arab dynasty that ruled the taifa of Zaragoza from 1039-1110), and other Muslim dynasties opposed to the Almoravids.
They replaced the Almoravids as the ruling dynasty in both Morocco and Al-Andalus (Muslim state in parts of what are today Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar, and France). Because Charles and his ancestors had been rulers of the Frankish realm earlier (his grandfather Charles Martel had essentially founded the empire during his lifetime), the coronation did not actually constitute a new empire. But unexpectedly (it is maintained), as Charles I rises from prayer, the pope places a crown on his head and acclaims him emperor. In the 830s his empire was torn by civil war between his sons, only exacerbated by Louis's attempts to include his son Charles by his second wife in the succession plans. After the death of Louis the German, Charles in his turn attempted to seize Louis's kingdom, but was decisively beaten at Andernach on 8 October 876. Otto I does not call himself Roman emperor, but his son Otto II uses the title - as a clear statement of western and papal independence from the other Christian emperor in Constantinople. In 1170, Sancho was knighted by his father, King Afonso I, and from then on he became his second in command, both administratively and militarily. Silves was an important city of the South, an administrative and commercial town with population estimates around 20,000 people. He summons a council which deposes the pope and elects in his place the archbishop of Ravenna (as pope Clement III). Clement III returns to Rome and reigns there with imperial support as pope (or in historical terms as antipope) for most of the next ten years. For more than a century, with one minor interruption, members of the Hohenstaufen family inherit the German kingdom - usually together with the status of Holy Roman emperor. In the long term Frederick's most significant act, before his death on crusade in 1190, is to marry his son Henry to Constance, heiress to the Norman kingdom of Sicily.
With Conrad's death, in 1254, there is a vacancy on the German throne which is not filled for another nineteen years. The most common dating of the Protestant Reformation begins in 1517, when Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses, and concludes in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia that ended years of European religious wars. That left only Byzantium in Anatolia, as the only check against the Albinos marauding throughout Europe. He is considered a saint in the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Anglican Communion, and some Lutheran churches. Although de Vivar continued to serve the crown in the person of Alfonso, who was now Emperor of Spain, he lost his status in court and was held in suspicion. He gradually increased his control over Valencia and the Muslim ruler al-Qadir, became his tributary in 1092. Though his reign ended on a high note, with order largely restored to his empire, it was followed by three years of civil war. Sancho ordered the fortification of the city and built a castle which is today an important monument of Portuguese heritage. Pope Nicholas II, elected in 1058, initiates a process of reform which exposes the underlying tension between empire and papacy. And high clerics, as the best educated members of the medieval community, are important members of any administration. Henry marches into Italy, enters Rome and is crowned emperor by this pope of his own creation. Urban II, the pope who preaches the first crusade in 1095, is not able to enter the holy city for several years after his election.
The first Hohenstaufen to make a profound impression on the empire is Conrad's nephew, Frederick I.
But after a period of confusion, with warring candidates, he is also elected king by the German princes in 1211. But the problem was that even as the Byzantine Emperors had to deal with the marauding Albinos, they were also constantly at war with the resurgent Persian Sassanian Kings, who wanted to reclaim their former territories in Anatolia and Europe. The Liber Pontificalis presents a list that makes Pope Linus the second in the line of bishops of Rome, with Peter as first; but at the same time it states that Peter ordained two bishops, Linus and Pope Cletus, for the priestly service of the community, devoting himself instead to prayer and preaching, and that it was to Clement that he entrusted the Church as a whole.
However, the Almoravids instigated an uprising that resulted in the death of al-Qadir: de Vivar responded by laying siege to the city.
In (808-810) Charlamagne settled accounts with the Danes, who had given aid and asylum to the Saxon leader Widukind in the Saxon Wars. The kings of León and Castile were trying to re-annex the country and the Roman Catholic Church was late in giving its blessing and approval.
However, military attention soon had to be turned again to the North, where León and Castile threatened again the Portuguese borders.
Meanwhile the real pope, Gregory, is living in a state of siege in his impregnable Roman fortress, the Castel Sant'Angelo.
Unrest prevails in Rome, and uncertainty in the empire, until the Hohenstaufen win the German crown in 1138. Not till the coronation of Charles IV in 1346 is there the start of another dynasty - that of the house of Luxembourg. An inscription on the outer part of a 14th century seal reads SIGILLUM CIVITATIS LOK - seal of the town of Škofja Loka. John Calvin admired Gregory and declared in his Institutes that Gregory was the last good pope. Valencia finally fell in 1094 and de Vivar established an independent principality in the eastern Mediterranean coast of Spain.
In (805-806) Charlemagne's forces subdued the Slavic region of Bohemia (modern-day Czech Republic).
These include simony (the selling of clerical posts), the marriage of clergy and, more controversially, corrupt practices in papal elections.
Portugal made an alliance with the Crown of Aragon and together they fought Castile and León. Nicholas now restricts the choice of a new pope to a conclave of cardinals, thus ruling out any direct lay influence. To secure the agreement, Infante Sancho of Portugal married, Infanta Dulce of Aragon, younger sister of King Alfonso II of Aragon in 1174. In 1061 the assembled bishops of Germany - the emperor's own faction - declare all the decrees of this pope null and void.

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