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GOFAR Services, LLC - Appliance Repair Houston, TX - Chapter 2TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS AND SAFETYTIPS AND TRICKSLets talk aluminum foil for a minute.
Based on stylistic comparisons such as striations inside body contours and the presentation of horns in twisted perspective, several Paleolithic art experts, including the first curator of the Chauvet Cave, Jean Clottes, have accredited the Portuguese friezes to the early Solutrean of about 20,000 years ago3.
In Portugal, the government did the opposite a€“ plunging ahead with a project destined to destroy the nationa€™s oldest cultural heritage by completing a 300-million-dollar dam whose reservoir will flood a valley packed with dozens of art sites spread over at least 17 kilometers. Yet construction continues - even on holidays - and the water is about to rise another hundred meters.
A male ibex with his head shown in two positions, as if he were turning to watch the female behind him. As we drove up to a sentry box perched on the lip of a road into the vast, unnatural gashing of mountains at Foz CA?a, it was hard to tell if the young guard blocking us in a crisp red and gray uniform represented a well-heeled security service or an elite military unit - but it was plain that bluff and sweet talk wouldn't get us far.
The next time the car eased over the knuckles of a road crisscrossed by up-ended strata, past empty huts built just of stacked slabs, and jostled between overhanging and plunging cliffs until an avalanche of tailings from an old quarry almost blocked the path.
Here was one of the places of grandeur where our ancestors had first grasped visions and then concretized them by hewing - and sometimes painting - images into rock panels.
As I pushed forward and the river grew shallower, turtles became so numerous that their stacks toppled like circus acts from the brinks of submerged cliffs. As a draftsman, I could feel empathy for the beast flowing into the hands that had etched her. This first frieze stood at a fitting point, practically where the reservoir yielded to the original rapids and long pools of the virgin river. Far away across the moonscape of rutted ramps, knots of men stood before tunnels as fleets of dump trucks, made so tiny by distance that they only gave away their magnitude by over-sized wheels, eased to the brink of platforms, and added avalanches to tailings. Above us, the titanium-white cleanliness of the cement plant's towers stood in bold contrast to the devastation, like a phalanx of gigantic chess-rooks bunched for the kill. According to press articles, the dam-builders had recognized him as the true discoverer of Portugal's first reported Paleolithic engravings, at nearby Mazouco, even though the doctoral student's mentor, Professor Vitor Oliviera Jorge, had stolen his thunder.7 They had given Rebanda a job as their obligatory salvage archaeologist when the new doctor somehow couldn't get a position on a faculty. In return, all he'd had to do was wait till their concrete curtain had gone up and its reservoir had risen into a sea so voluminous and costly that its drainage would have been unthinkable.
My goateed interlocutor smirked as he told me I could try looking for the doctor at the complex built for the previous dam, 15A kilometers downstream.
But I'd hit pay dirt: the fact that I might hear Rebanda's mea culpa was more than Ia€™d hoped for. Sebastian elected to wait outside and embarked on Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth as I knocked at the locked door. Still, I complimented her on her English, sympathized with them for having to put up with this hierarchical bother, and kept spinning innocuous questions, while she kept waiting for me to go. When Rebanda's secretary came out again, to see if she could get either me a€“ or her boss - to give up as the wait grew embarrassingly long, I asked her what the round silos with tipped roofs on the hills had been used for.
But the next time, after they had gotten used to my rounds, I stepped inside and admired a sequence of two eight-foot-tall maps full of pins. Something was wrong: in addition to the constellations of pins extending for 17 kilometers upstream from the construction site, there were dozens downstream, along the reservoir behind the dam just outside!
Finally, so many hours had passed, and she'd informed the doctor so many times that I was still hanging around, that I was forced by the sheer need for new scenery to vary my route, and drifted through empty rooms.
The only thing the reports agreed on was that Rebanda had somehow discovered the flooded portion of Canada do Inferno by the previous autumn22 a€“ asking the EDP to lower the Pocinho reservoir by just 3 meters in November 1994 so he could study the engravings.23 a€?They told me it was too expensive,a€? Rebanda had told the New York Times.
So who had shot these photographs, which looked like they had been taken when the sites were dry vegetated hillsides instead of among the muck and bare banks below a fallen waterline? I realized that the photos of the dry sites might have been taken before the Pocinho Dam, which had flooded them, had even been completed a€“ over 12 years before!
UNESCO had suggested Clottes, who, in an uncanny convergence of good and bad karma, was taken on a whirlwind tour of the tip of the iceberg at Canada do Inferno, then immediately whisked to a press conference in Vila Nova do Foz CA?a on Dec 16th, 199428 a€“ just two days before the discovery of the Chauvet Cave that catapulted him, as its first interpreter and protector, from the summit of the French archaeological establishment to world fame. But Clottesa€™ judgement was mixed, confirming that the art could be dated on stylistic grounds to the early Solutrean or even late Gravettian of twenty to twenty-four thousand years ago while suggesting that flooding the valley might be the best way of protecting it, since Portugal was ill-equipped to protect such widely dispersed panels from vandals!29 a€?There is no easy solution,a€? he told a reporter.
What the press forgot to emphasize with quite as much fervor was the fact that Clottes had prefaced his Solomonic verdict by saying, a€?Whatever happens, the engravings must be preserved and not be damaged.a€? Clottes might have felt that he could safely pass the buck because no art conservationist could honestly guarantee the engravingsa€™ fate once they were subjected to currents carrying abrasives, burial under the petrifying alluvia that accumulates behind dams,33 and the worlda€™s most destructive solvent a€“ water, which would dissolve pigments and destabilize rock that had proven its resistance to aerial conditions over tens of millennia.
While chatting up the gaunt fellow traveller at the construction site, Ia€™d pretended to make small talk by asking engineering questions, including one about the depth of the sediment that had accumulated behind the Pocinho dam. The irony of it was that Clottesa€™ efforts to be honest without irritating his hosts had been the spark that the French diplomats had dreaded. Despite the fact that the great prehistoriana€™s reputation would remain largely intact, and with good reason, in much of the rest of the world,34 the Portuguese intelligentsia began to shun him.
A€ propos of CA?a, two Portuguese rock art researchers, who couldna€™t stomach Clottes after his press conference, ironically echoed him by telling me, confidentially, that flooding the engravings could still be a blessing since it would save them from graffiti and those boogeymen of archaeologistsa€™ dreams, prowling collectors.
My guess is that he was so beleaguered by advisers that he was just trying to get out of an awkward situation as quickly, judiciously and diplomatically as possible. I mentioned to Rebanda that I had just attended the lecture on Chauvet, that I even had a videotape of it right there in my camera. So it's true, I thought, drowning the site was Rebanda's solution to the problem of ownership of photographic rights. But then, what about Rebanda's self-serving talk of photo credits, not to mention the engravings already submerged by the dam at the doorstep a€“ and his belief that the engravings were doomed to be flooded?
Strangely enough, I could again see it being both ways, since the roots of tragedy are self-deception and entwined motives. He must have realized that I was rooting for him to pull himself out of his tailspin, because suddenly he decided. Upon leaving, Sebastian asked to check out the Pocinho dam, so I drove round an interchange into an empty parking lot with planters.
As the sun slanted over the plateau into the wilderness of the CA?a valley, I decided to sneak into a side-valley to the north of our campsite that Rebanda's map had cluttered with pins. Then, after breaching a wall of rushes, we broke to the reservoir's edge - and were met by a horned skull stuck on a stake. Suddenly, I remembered what Rebanda had said about the engravings' association with witchcraft. Being obstinate (or perhaps because of the prehistoric setting), I started whittling stone, knapping a microlithic surgeon's kit, and then bent single-mindedly to my task - failing till I was disgusted with myself and worried for my victim (which I had bizarrely associated with Rebanda).
This time there were two guards behind an overhanging military fence crested by barbed wire.
The guard who beckoned us in was rearing a guard-dog puppy, which scampered around, tumbling over ledges and using its chin to lever itself over steps. Our guide was a decent young man who couldn't help feeling uneasy blocking access to these bold masterpieces at the source of all our arts.
Still, these guards were actually tame as the locals poured down to catch a glimpse of the animals through the fence. After he'd hastened to take up his time-clock again, I wandered if there might not be even more testimonials of man's attraction to this classical Eden with its islets and fords in the flowery river, and browsed through a plowed orchard, along a contour which I judged would have been the valley floor half a million years ago.
We knew the next dawn would be our last, so we broke camp in blue light to explore the teeming side-valley beyond the first auroch. Not Portugal's - OURS - because this art is so old, despite its elegance, that we share the blood and genius of those distant ancestors who awoke to the universe, whether our cavalcade of ancestors migrated around the Old World or came across the Bering Straits 14,000 years ago. Footnotes have been added to the internet version of the article to provide historical perspective and more detail about sources than the versions that were published & distributed in 1995.
1 The three discoverers of the Chauvet Cave were Eliette Brunel Deschamps, Christian Hillaire, and Jean-Marie Chauvet. 2 The IPPAR announced the existence of the valleya€™s engravings on November 19, 1994 but a video was made of them in 1993.
10 Bahn 1995 for a re-capitulation of the same accusations against the IPPAR & Rebanda. 33 Bednarik & Jaffe have been the most outspoken spokesmen about delusions concerning the protective qualities of reservoirs a€“ which not only inundate art panels with water but deep alluvial deposits that make their later recovery dangerous and impractical. 34 Interestingly, a few years after this appeal was written, Clottes came under fierce attack and even ridicule by many representatives of the French intelligentsia, including some of the countrya€™s most prominent prehistorians, after he and David Lewis-Williams published a€?The Shamans of Prehistory: Trance and magic in the painted cavesa€? in 1996. As soon as their results indicating that the art might be only 3,000 to 6,500 years old (if not even younger) were announced a€“ which actually made the engravings even more astonishing, potentially rewriting the history of rock art or even making Portugal the last bastion of the Paleolithic tradition a€“ the most important Portuguese right-wing weekly screamed that the direct-dating results proved that stylistic daters like Clottes had perpetrated a a€?FRAUDa€? (O Independente, 7 July 1995). It should also be noted that the individuals who participated in the debate were often somewhat unwittingly drawn into playing secondary or tertiary roles in a struggle between the Portuguese Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Industry. 40 In November 1995 - six months after this call-toa€“arms was published and circulated to Prehistoric Art Emergencya€™s volunteers (who Ia€™m glad to report included a young actor, Yann Montelle, who went on to earn a doctorate in prehistory) - a book edited by Jorge called a€?Dossier CA?aa€? appeared with 20 contributions by him or his wife. 44 After writing this article in May 1995, it occurred to me that I might have missed one of the main reasons for eliminating Rebanda from Portugala€™s archaeological milieu a€“ the fact that he was so effective at finding rock art that drew international attention, first to Mazouco, then to CA?a. 49 When I wrote the article, I assumed that the two young men were Rebandaa€™s subordinates and referred to them as a€?draftsmena€?. 50 After initially denigrating both the art and the idea of extracting it, the EDP later adopted the idea as one of its three strategies for overcoming opposition to the dam project.
In the aftermath of a BrokerCheck study that concluded 1 in 13 advisors have tainted histories, Senator Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.) is asking the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority to disclose plans for curtailing broker misconduct. In the most recent Eaton Vance Advisor Top-Of-Mind Index study, more than half of advisors surveyed said their concerns over market volatility have increased in the past 12 months. Brilliance isn’t essential for successful financial professionals and, if anything, can be a characteristic that makes employees hard to manage, says David Rubenstein, founder of private equity advisor The Carlyle Group.
Advisory firms often focus on training their sales reps and ensuring that advertising and web campaigns target appropriate customers. Changes to forms 1099-R and 5498 that require IRA custodians to disclose hard-to-value assets in IRAs could lead to the Internal Revenue Service increasing its enforcement of required minimum distributions. Present bias, or spending money now rather than saving, and failing to appreciate the power of compounded earnings has cost retirement savers $1.7 trillion.
A lawsuit alleging that Edison International improperly favored high-fee funds for its 401(k) plan has been rejected by 9th U.S. The Security and Exchange Commission’s Investor Advisory Committee wants the regulator to mandate that standard fees be disclosed--in actual dollar amounts--on customer account statements.
Morgan Stanley is building a help desk with more than 10 staffers who will answers questions from financial advisors about complying with the new retirement fiduciary rule. Even though markets have been calm recently, the large equity selloff in the second half of 2015 and in the early portion of 2016 illustrates how quickly investor sentiment can sour.
Robo-advisor Betterment has raised another $100 million in venture capital and plans to use the funding to build out additional advice products. The registered investment advisor community is quickly growing as clients increasingly prefer working with advisors who comply with the fiduciary standard, says Bill Van Law, president of Raymond James’s Investment Advisors Division. Advisors with the Certified Financial Planner distinction tend to have higher levels of trust among clients and earn, on average, 20% more than other advisors, according to a study funded by the CFP Board of Standards and conducted by the Aite Group.
The Securities and Exchange Commission has created the office of Risk and Strategy to focus on examining investment advisors and mutual funds.
Many Americans nearing retirement age are pursuing careers with a charitable or civic service nature, which is creating opportunities for financial planners. The Securities and Exchange Commission’s decision to shift resources from broker exams to advisor exams has been driven by necessity, says Marc Wyatt, director of the examinations office.
Among black working-age households, 62% have no savings in retirement accounts, while only 37% of working-age white households lack such savings, according to a National Institute on Retirement study. Individuals who are old enough to sneak past the recent termination deadline for using the file and suspend strategy that helps boost Social Security benefits are reportedly being told they are not allowed to use the strategy. A study of retirement assets during the 2000s has concluded that retirees in the top quintile of wealth have been spending substantially less than their savings allows for. Funding for the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Futures Trading Commission would be doubled by 2021 under the budget recently proposed by President Obama.
President Obama’s proposed budget includes provisions that would increase the number of Americans covered by employer-sponsored retirement plans by expanding the use of multiple employer plans.
Bill McNabb, who is the chief of ETF giant The Vanguard Group is warning the industry that the large number of ETFs being launched could create problems for investors. The Department of Labor’s proposed fiduciary standard could create a big increase in orphan accounts, which are accounts that end up being managed by home offices rather than by broker-dealers registered reps, says Paul Sankovich, chief compliance officer at Wells Fargo Advisors Financial Network. The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) is investigating how robo advisors manage risk, says Dawn Calonge, surveillance director at the organization. Deena Friedman, who skippered the Fidelity Select Retail Fund to an 18.59% return in 2015, has been selected by Bloomberg as the stock picker of the year. Only one out of every five advisor recruits stays in the industry, but firms can take various steps to improve retention.
The Securities and Exchange Commission has fined Everhart Financial Group nearly $240,000 and ordered the advisory firm to appoint a chief compliance officer after the regulator determined that the company was inappropriately recommending funds with 12b-1 fees for retirement plans. With weakening economic growth in China and other concerns driving market volatility, billionaire investor George Soros says capital markets currently remind him of conditions that existed during the economic crisis of 2008.
For financial advisory firms, implementing customer relationship management technology can be a high stakes and dicey undertaking. Galen Marsh, who as a Morgan Stanley advisor downloaded client data to his home computer without permission, has been sentenced to three years of probation and ordered to pay $600,000 in restitution. Retirement plan fees are falling as 401(k) participants increasingly embrace low-cost products.
The proposed Department of Labor fiduciary standard could cost the financial industry in excessive of $2.4 billion in lost transaction revenues, which is more than double most estimates, says Morningstar Analyst Stephen Ellis. A small number of stocks including Amazon, General Electric, Alphabet, Microsoft, and Facebook drove market gains in 2015. Having $30,000 in student debt can cut as much as $325,000 from 401(k) balances by the time an individual reaches retirement. Only 64% of advisors responding to a recent Russell Investments Financial Professionals Outlook survey have a positive outlook for capital markets over the next three years. Online market gurus have been forecasting rapid growth of web surfers connecting to cyberspace with smartphones and tablets and a decrease in the use of desktops and laptops.
Smart Beta exchange traded funds captured $3 billion in assets in October and $53.7 billion during the first ten months of this year, according to London-based research firm ETFGI. Despite occasional articles about advisors stealing from clients, only 2% of individual advisors have reported criminal charges such as felony convictions or investment related misdemeanors, according to an analysis of industry data by Big Crunch.
Morgan Stanley advisors who land clients that need cash management services next year can receive bonuses up to $50,000. Susan Elizabeth Walker, 51, of Plymouth, Minnesota, has been sentenced to more than seven years in the slammer after being found guilty of stealing $1.1 million from at least 24 clients. The Securities and Exchange Commission has issued a warning regarding outsourced compliance programs based on deficiencies that it has uncovered during examinations. Providing low-cost tax return preparation to generate financial planning prospects is just one of a variety of successful strategies. During the past year, daily equity market declines and gains exceeding 1% have been common, with investor sentiment quickly changing based on the prevailing outlook for the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy. File and suspend, which allows one member of a couple to receive a spousal benefit from Social Security while both spouses’ benefits continue to accrue, would be terminated under the budget bill that was recently passed by the House of Representatives.
Mounting levels of student debt and declining home ownership among younger people means that many recent college grads will have to work to age 75 before retiring.
The Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards should be raising the requirements to become a certified financial planning. Periodically adjusting asset allocations based on expected returns of different asset classes can generate better returns than traditional target date funds, according to back testing completed by Grantham, May, van Otterloo. Boston-based startup firm Gradifi has launched the Student Loan Paydown Plan, which allows business to make payments toward their employees’ student debt. Impact investors, or those investors seeking to invest in a socially responsible manner, don’t have to sacrifice returns to stay true to their calling, according to a new Wharton School study.
In the next five years, private wealth is estimated to grow from approximately $14 trillion to $22 trillion. Traditional advisors can compete with robo-advisors by being prepared to answer tough questions about fees, understanding what services clients value, expanding their referral networks, and clearly articulating the range of services they provide. Advisors should ensure that female clients can find financial planning documents, such as life insurance policies in the event that they outlive their husbands. Advisors need to address frequently overlooked aspects of their digital branding to ensure that their reputation and marketing are assets rather than liabilities. The Department of Labor is moving forward with a rule change intended to help states start retirement plans without running afoul of regulations included in the Employee Retirement Income and Security Act.
Financial services firms are awaiting a list of products that the Department of Labor may restrict from being used in IRAs as part of its fiduciary standard rule.
Investors younger than 40 ramped up stock purchases on August 24 when the market tanked 1,000 points at the open, according to Robinhood, which is a stock trading app that is frequently used by Millennials. The Social Security Administration says it will provide retroactive spousal benefits to same-sex couples that were married in states that previously didn’t recognize such matrimonial unions, according to attorneys for plaintiffs. Many advisors may cringe when conversations suffer from akward silence, but such moments can lead to more productive conversations. Labor Secretary Thomas Perez says he will continue to push for a fiduciary standard for retirement plan advisors even though Republicans and moderate Democrats are concerned that the rule could harm low-income individuals. Advisors need to understand the complex emotions that can accompany sudden wealth in order to best serve their clients. While blissful couples pledge to stay married until death, the reality is that approximately 50% of marriages inthe U.S. Collecting Social Security early can help retirees assess how much they can spend because the payments are consistent. The annual household savings rate climbed to 5.5% last year, up nearly a full percentage point from 2013.
Advisors can engage their clients and strengthen relationships by using appropriate teaching styles for each investor’s preferred method of learning. May and June have been tough months for Bill Gross and his Janus Global Unconstrained Bond Fund with investors withdrawing $50 million from the portfolio during the period, according to Morningstar. The Securities and Exchange Commission recently awarded a whistleblower $3 million for information that helped the regulator crack a complex case of fraud. Advocates of the fiduciary requirement for retirement investment advisors have delivered a petition with 230,000 signatures to the Department of Labor to urge the regulator to support the proposed standard.
Industry trade groups are proposing legislation that would require retirement planning advisors to serve in the best interest of clients rather than comply with the Department of Labor’s proposed fiduciary standard, says Steve Saxon, chairman of Groom Law Group. With the recent Supreme Court ruling shooting down state bans on same sex couples, financial planners should be ready to take a variety of estate planning actions with gay clients. Beijing has accused Tsai Ing-wen, who took office on Friday as Taiwan's new leader, of taking an ambiguous stand on the one-China principle in a speech after she was sworn in, thereby bringing uncertainty to cross-Straits relations. Tsai, Taiwan's first female leader, did not explicitly recognize the 1992 Consensus, which says that both sides are part of one China, the Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council said in a statement after Tsai took office.
She also failed to put forward concrete ways to ensure the peaceful and stable development of cross-Straits relations, it said, adding that her remarks were an "incomplete answer sheet". Tsai, chairwoman of the Democratic Progressive Party, defeated Kuomintang candidate Eric Chu and People First Party Chairman James Soong in January to become the island's top leader. In her 25-minute speech, Tsai mentioned the talks between the mainland's Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits and the island's Straits Exchange Foundation in 1992, and conceded that those talks reached a common understanding. She said the new leadership on the island will continue pushing forward the peaceful development of cross-Straits relations and maintain existing cross-Straits exchanges and communication. The Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council said the Taiwan leader has to choose between upholding the one China principle and pursuing "Taiwan independence", which will lead to a different future. The Taiwan authorities must make the choice with concrete actions and face the test of history and the people, according to the statement.
Li said the mainland won't tolerate any vagueness regarding the consensus, without which the peaceful development of the relations would be off course and would founder.
Ni Yongjie, deputy director of Shanghai's Taiwan Research Institute, said, "As Tsai mentioned in her speech, Taiwan has many problems.
Zhang Guanhua, deputy director of the Institute of Taiwan Studies of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said cross-Straits relations might enter a "cold" stage after Tsai's taking office, with cooperation and communication likely to be suspended.
The mainland's top legislature issues a statement asking for an end to military confrontation across the Straits. Taiwan allows its residents to visit their families on the mainland for the first time since 1949.
The mainland's Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits and Taiwan's Straits Exchange Foundation meet in Hong Kong and agree on the 1992 Consensus.
Hu Jintao, general secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee, meets with Kuomintang Honorary Chairman Lien Chan in Beijing. A delegation headed by Taiwan-based SEF Chairman Chiang Pin-kung visits Beijing for talks with Chen Yunlin, head of ARATS, marking the resumption of cross-Straits institutional consultations after a nine-year suspension.
Chen Yunlin leads a delegation to Taiwan to discuss issues including increasing direct flights, opening direct cargo shipping routes and fully opening postal services. The Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement, a preferential trade agreement, is signed to reduce tariffs and commercial barriers. Another 37 people involved in the case were being investigated on suspicion of duty-related crimes such as bribery, abuse of power and dereliction of duty, it said. The vaccines involved in the case had allegedly been sold since 2011 in more than 20 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities by a mother and daughter in Shandong province. The vaccines allegedly were not properly stored in cold conditions, which might have reduced their effectiveness. After the case was reported in February, the central government set up a special investigation team in March of officials from various ministries and the Supreme People's Procuratorate. Of the 125 arrested, two had been convicted by the court as of Thursday, according to the Supreme People's Procuratorate.
Most of those suspected of abuse of power are medical staff at township or community health centers who allegedly bought vaccines from sellers, despite knowing that the sellers were not certified to sell vaccines, according to the procuratorate. Most of those suspected of dereliction of duty are chiefs of township health centers who allegedly turned a blind eye to the medical staff in the centers buying the problematic vaccines through illegal channels, the procuratorate said. The management of such vaccines was not as strict as for Category One vaccines, such as those for hepatitis B and the polio virus, that are mandatory and provided by the government for free. Following the incident, the State Council, which is China's Cabinet, released a revised regulation in April to tighten the management of all vaccines.
Pepper the robot interacts with Kazutaka Hasumi, director of the product division at SoftBank, at the company's headquarters in Tokyo on Thursday. The Japanese developers of a robot are asking the public to make suggestions on what their waist-high humanoid should be able to do, and they are offering a software development kit for programmers to get creative.
The fast-selling robot, known as Pepper, can already laugh and serve coffee and is being used as a waiter, salesman and customer service representative in about 500 companies in Japan, including Nestle, Mizuho Bank and Nissan.
Now its creators, SoftBank Corp, have started offering a kit, Pepper SDK for Android Studio, that will allow programmers to develop new tasks.
The first six batches of the robot, each averaging 1,000 units, sold out in less than a minute.
SoftBank Corp describes Pepper on its website as the first humanoid robot capable of recognizing principal human emotions and adapting its behavior to the mood of those with whom it interacts. The call comes amid a series of cases that have occurred nationwide and involve allegations of abuse of police power. A meeting on Friday of the Leading Group for Overall Reform, presided over by President Xi Jinping, required the establishment of a professional police force with standardized law enforcement practices. The management of law enforcement should be "systematic" and procedures should be documented or recorded, to ensure that police power is used properly, according to a statement released after the meeting.
The recent case of Lei Yang, 29, who died in police custody after a vice raid on May 7 in Beijing, has prompted questions by the public about whether the police used excessive force. Prosecutors in Beijing are investigating the case to see if there was any police misconduct involved. Yang Weidong, a law professor at the Chinese Academy of Governance, said that the latest requirement from the top leadership is very timely, since police abuse and brutality do exist. Zhao Li, a criminal lawyer in Beijing, said that many law enforcement officers, especially police, do not follow standardized practices. The lawyer said the message sent by Friday's meeting is very encouraging, but further measures are needed.
Yang suggested that every law enforcement procedure be recorded so that police behavior can be put under public supervision. At Friday's meeting, leaders also called for speeding up supply-side economic reform, which aims to trim excess capacity and use resources more efficiently. In the Hangzhou City Social Welfare Center in East China's Zhejiang province, five robots remind 1,300 seniors when to take their medicines. The robots are programmed to "remember" medication schedules for the seniors and nursing home workers. The robots were developed by Woosiyuan Telecom Technology Co Ltd and are currently undergoing trials. The "A-Tie" robots, whose name means "iron" in Chinese, are 0.8 meters tall and weigh 15 kilograms. The robots are controlled by a mobile phone app or touch screens, and they can do much more than remind patients to take their medicines.
Chen Wei, a marketing manager with Woosiyuan, says that the company spent three years developing the robots. The company also plans to upgrade the robots to perform new functions, such as inspections and holding conversations with people. China had 222 million people over 60 as of the end of last year, accounting for 16.1 percent of the country's population, says Civil Affairs Vice-Minister Gao Xiaobing.
Meanwhile, China hopes to sell more than 30 billion yuan ($4.60 billion) worth of robots by 2020 amid surging demand in the healthcare, scientific research and domestic service sectors, according to a guideline posted on the website of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. Earlier this month, news got around that an artificial intelligence device could compete in the national college entrance exam in math in 2017. The AI device, part of a project by the Ministry of Science and Technology, is being designed by Chengdu Zhun Xing Yun Xue Technology Co Ltd. According to the plan, the AI device will take next year's math test, usually held on June 7 every year, along with millions of Chinese students.
Like its human peers, it will have to complete a 150 marks math test in two hours in a room without internet access. China reiterated its rejection of any UN arbitration panel's decision on territorial claims made by the Philippines in the South China Sea, but it will keep the door open for negotiations to solve the disputes. Chinese Ambassador to the United Kingdom Liu Xiaoming made the remarks in London on Friday in his speech to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, a leading international think-tank. He said by refusing to accept and participate in the arbitral tribunal, Chinese is exerting its rights according to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea.
China has said it will keep the door open for negotiations to resolve the dispute with the Philippines over its territorial claims in the South China Sea. China is within its rights under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea to refuse to accept and participate in the arbitration, he said. Noting the election of a new Philippine president, however, he added, "We hope the new Philippine government will work with China on a proper settlement of differences and bring the situation in the South China Sea back on track, following the principles established by UNCLOS and international law". Foreign Minister Wang Yi recently told Al-Jazeera that "there should be no double standards," a reference to Washington criticizing Chinese construction work on South China Sea islands and leveling accusations of militarization, while the US builds up its military presence there.
Chinese Ambassador to the US Cui Tiankai said in a speech on Thursday in Washington that the US military's so-called freedom of navigation operations were originally conceived as a countermeasure against freedom of navigation as defined by UNCLOS because the US believed that the convention's provisions would restrict its Navy's freedom of movement. Ambassador Liu noted in London that China's sovereignty over the Nansha Islands and the waters around it is built on strong evidence, which the international community has long recognized.
Chinese people discovered the islands in the South China Sea as early as 200 BC, and China was also the first to operate administratively in the region, dating back to the Tang Dynasty (AD 618 to 907). He cited evidence that The China Sea Pilot, published by the British Navy in 1868, recounted that only Chinese lived on the Nansha islands.
He rejected that China has refused to abide by international law by not accepting the UN arbitration case initiated by the Philippines in 2013. Tullio Treves, a Senior International Consultant in the International Arbitration group based in The Hague, says "negotiations remain the best avenue to settle the dispute on the South China Sea between the two states. The Beautiful China, Beautiful South Korea photo show - organized by State Council Information Office and South Korea's Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - features the landscape and cultures of the two countries. State Council Information Office Deputy Director Guo Weimin said at the opening ceremony at Jeju's International Peace Center that the media has played a vital role in strengthening China-South Korea relations since the two countries established diplomatic relations 24 years ago.
China-South Korean relations have made great stride and historic breakthroughs in a comparatively short time, mainly due to the countries' political trust, economic and trade cooperation, and cultural and people-to-people exchanges. Guo said both countries' media have focused more on each other recently and deepened their communication, which advanced the bilateral relations and improved the friendship between the two peoples.
Guo said he hoped the two countries would seize the opportunity during the 2016 South Korean Tourism Year to reinforce communication and dialogue, expand people-to-people and cultural exchanges, further deepen understanding and foster a more solid social basis for the further development of bilateral relations. Jeong Changsoo, president of the South Korean Tourism Organization, said at the ceremony that the exchanges between China and South Korea are more frequent than with other countries.
Chinese and South Korean leaders decided in 2014 to launch complementary tourism years during their summit in South Korea in 2014 to build on their cultural ties, promote tourism and reinforce the foundation of goodwill between the two peoples. The 2015 Chinese Tourism Year in South Korea began on Jan 23, 2015, followed this year by the South Korean Tourism Year in China. Liu Qibao, head of the Publicity Department of the CPC Central Committee, Chinese Ambassador to South Korea Qiu Guohong and Governor of Jeju Special Self-Governing province Won Hee-ryoung attended the exhibition.
Zhang said the SOE cleanup effort is in line with the national strategy and will optimize resources in key industries. Addressing concerns that a consolidation into a single entity could yield a monopoly, Zhang said that would be unlikely. The consolidation efforts fit in with government measures to improve SOEs' competitiveness, a major task outlined in this year's Government Work Report, delivered in March by Premier Li Keqiang.
Earlier this week, Li said at an executive meeting that SOEs need to "lose weight and get fit". In all, zombie enterprises will be reorganized or closed within three years, and the country's coal and steel capacity will be reduced by 10 percent within two years, according to Zhang. Coal, iron and steel are among the key target sectors in the effort to reduce excess capacity. Amid a slowing economic growth, SOEs, which are vital to the country's social and economic development, must rid themselves of inefficient and declining businesses, experts said. Li Daokui, an economic adviser and a Tsinghua University economics professor, said that this is the key year in national restructuring, and if all SOE and urbanization reforms are put in place this year, the economy's downward trend is expected to hit bottom at the earliest by the second half of the year.
CCB International is doing very well in Hong Kong and will actively look for business opportunities from emerging industries and companies on the Chinese mainland, said Hu Zhanghong, chairman and chief executive of the investment institution.
Hong Kong-headquartered CCB International is wholly owned by China Construction Bank Corp, and its services include sponsoring and underwriting, financial advisory services, corporate mergers and acquisitions (M&As), as well as restructuring, asset management, direct investment securities brokerage and investment consultancy, Hu told China Daily.
CCB International's corporate mergers and acquisitions drive is also doing well, thanks to the "going overseas" strategy of Chinese enterprises, Hu pointed out. CCB International has a competitive edge over its Chinese and foreign peers alike, as it is more familiar with the local market, Hu noted. During the past decade, most of the companies that came to Hong Kong looking for services from investment banks have been from the Chinese mainland. CCB International is among the few mainland investment managers that can boast international networks, which is quite an advantage, Hu said. Hu said that the mainland economy is obviously undergoing restructuring, on a scale that has never been seen by the world before. He pointed out that healthcare, logistics, high-tech and high-end manufacturing are among the sectors that have stood out during the Chinese economic restructuring. He explained that in terms of seizing business opportunities, CCB International will undertake the role of financial consultant for these companies, helping them solve developmental problems. There are also great business opportunities related to the latest round of Chinese companies' overseas M&A, he noted, adding that here too CCB International undertakes the role of financial advisor. Hu said that during overseas M&A, CCB International usually advises Chinese companies to pay special attention to valuation of the assets or company they are acquiring.
It would also remind the companies to consider whether the technology they want to buy could be applied on the Chinese mainland.
Hu said CCB International's target is to continue to enhance its value as an investment service provider by improving related core products. But while Hu is upbeat about prospects, he is also cautious, as any industry and business has its risks, he noted. In the early 2000s, China Construction Bank Corp was preparing to set up CCB International and Hu participated in the process. Hu said he officially joined CCB International when it was set up in early 2004 and is glad to have watched it grow into a great investment institution. US President Barack Obama will leave on May 21 for his first trip to Vietnam and his 10th trip to Asia as president, a trip that his aides said "demonstrates Obama's focus on the Asia-Pacific region". Obama will visit the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, a place that serves to commemorate the people who were killed in the atomic bombing of the Japanese city on Aug 6, 1945, which hastened the end of World War II.
Ben Rhodes, the White House deputy national security advisor for strategic communications, said the visit is not about issuing an apology. Michael Green, senior vice-president for Asia, and Japan chair at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, said a majority of Americans and a large majority of historians in the US believe that the atomic bombing was necessary to shorten the war and forestall an invasion of Kyushu, which would have led to many more casualties. Rhodes emphasized that the visit is to pay tribute to the enormous suffering and loss of innocents and also to pursue a world without nuclear weapons, a proposal by Obama in 2009 that won him the Nobel Peace Prize. Obama has been criticized in the past year for his efforts to spend $1 trillion in the next 30 years to upgrade the US' nuclear weaponry. China's demand for medical services is being met by some American healthcare companies that are starting operations overseas. Of more than 100 projects presented to Chinese investors, more than half were healthcare-related, according to Lu Jun, executive director of the US China Innovation Alliance, one of the major organizers of the US China Innovation and Investment Summit, which took place in Houston earlier this week.
Technology company 2nd.MD began to offer medical consultation from top American specialists via video teleconferencing about five years ago, and it has been in the Chinese market for more than a year.


For 2nd.MD, it was easy to access the China market - the company was eagerly sought out by the Chinese. Lu said his firm helped 2nd.MD pick strategic partners, including Neusoft Xikang, China's largest distant medical treatment company. China urged the United States on Thursday to "immediately stop close-in reconnaissance actions" after confirming that a US Navy EP-3 spy plane had conducted such flights near Hainan Island on Tuesday.
The spy flights have led to serious clashes and hurt bilateral ties before, including a collision in 2001 between a PLA Navy J-8 fighter jet and a US Navy EP-3 spy plane off Hainan Island that caused the death of Chinese pilot Wang Wei. The Pentagon said in a statement on Wednesday that two Chinese fighter jets conducted an "unsafe" intercept of a US military reconnaissance aircraft over the South China Sea on Tuesday, Reuters reported. Peter Cook, the Pentagon press secretary, said on Thursday that the US side is reviewing the incident to see if there needs to be an appropriate response.
As the US plane began close-in reconnaissance on Tuesday, two Chinese military airplanes "followed and monitored it in accordance with laws and regulations" and "maintained a safe distance" from it, Hong said. White House Press Secretary Josh Earnest said on Thursday that the incident occurred in international airspace during a routine US patrol in the South China Sea. Both Cook and Earnest emphasized that the confidence-building measures between the Chinese and Americans have helped reduce such incidents recently.
He said these are established diplomatic and military channels that allow the two sides to communicate clearly and raise concerns about these kinds of issues when they arise. China and the US are expected to meet at the next military maritime consultative agreement talks in Hawaii from May 24-25, according to Earnest.
Zhao Xiaozhuo, a researcher at the Center on China-America Defense Relations at the PLA Academy of Military Science, said it is not likely that security issues involving the two countries can be tackled quickly. The business philosophy of Hu Zhanghong is centered on a focus on the market, focus on the clients, and also on being flexible in terms of dealing with different market situations. CCB International has formulated a strategy which can be summarized thus: Stay connected to the Chinese mainland, stay connected to growing industries and stay connected to the capital market, Hu added. Hu said the major fluctuations in the Hong Kong capital market during the past two decades, including the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak in 2003 and the financial crisis of 2008, have taught him that CCB International needs to pay close attention to economic cycles and patterns, and its business operation needs to follow the economic cycle. CCB International attaches great importance to cultivating young employees, and has set up a "creative fund" to encourage and reward young employees who come up with good business ideas, Hu revealed.
Aside from that, the management team of CCB International also spends time in communicating with its young employees to understand their demands, as youngsters these days are outspoken, and they have their own ideas and aspirations which should not be ignored, he said. CCB International also spares no efforts in creating an environment that encourages youngsters to be outstanding at their work, Hu said. He explained that CCB International is focused on employee performance and ethics, rewards outperformers and provides a transparent promotion system for staff. For those keen on joining CCB International or any investment institution, the first quality they must have is professional integrity, said Hu. Hu admitted that working in the financial industry is very stressful, as he needs to cope with ever-changing market situations.
Hu said recently he has been reading a very interesting book by Japanese professor Takashi Saito, the English title of which reads as "Rules of Conversation", and he has recommended the book to young employees of CCB International. Hu said that it is a book about communication, and he believes communicating with other people is very important, not only in the work place, but also in daily life. Wildlife photographer Geng Dong has braved perilous terrain and freezing temperatures across the Tibetan Plateau in search of his subject - the beautiful, yet elusive, snow leopard. Mostly active after dark, these big cats have great eyesight and choose to seek shelter among rocks or caves during daylight.
Geng, on the other hand, has braved the frigid cold for hours, days, and sometimes weeks at a time, poised to capture a photograph of these beautiful animals.
Although it is a "game of luck", as he is first to admit, Geng has been rewarded for his patience and endurance with pictures of both lone snow leopards and cubs in the shadow of their watchful mothers - an enviable experience for any wildlife photographer. This new documentary is the result of four years of hard work, with Geng traveling to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau dozens of times, developing strong relationships with wildlife conservation groups and scientists engaged in tracking, studying and photographing the snow leopard. His crew have had to camp out in the bleak terrain for weeks at a time, enduring icy winds, altitude sickness and snow blindness as they covered more than 40,000 km in Qinghai province alone during the film period, from 2011 to 2015. Along the way, Geng has acted as director, photographer and producer, dealing with the project's many headaches and money woes.
Yet despite the hardships he never gave up, inspired by the area's residents who "have much harder lives than ours". Geng said the documentary also profiles wildlife conservation and the relationship between snow leopards and the local community, which he described as "the core of the story". Though the snow leopard was in his sights, Sori did not squeeze the trigger because he saw a cub nearby, which reminded him of his own children. Geng was moved by this relationship between the people and wild animals on "the roof of the world", as the plateau is known, which he said can be partly attributed to the influence of Tibetan Buddhism. Another story that left an impression on Geng concerned the Buddhist monk Drukgyab, who chooses to live in the wilderness rather than at a temple. Known for his pioneering environmental protection work, the monk persuades locals not to hunt animals and is often one of the first to spot snow leopards in the wild.
Mainly found in Central Asia, it is estimated that there are only about 2,000 left in the wild in China. Climate change, poaching, urbanization and pasture expansion are the animal's biggest threats, according to He.
For Geng, he just hopes that his footage will raise awareness of the snow leopard's plight. Changchub Lhamo lives on a Riwoche county pasture called the Nadenthang that is home to Tibetan red deer, an endangered species in China. Every winter, the deer trod down the mountains for food, knowing they will find Changchub Lhamo and a meal.
The bond forged between Changchub Lhamo and red deer dates back to the 1970s, when as a 16-year-old, she adopted three fawns and treated them like her own children.
The deer grew up healthy, thanks to her care, and another 10 deer eventually join the herd. The red deer habitat established by the government 40 years ago, the Riwoche Tramoling Tibetan Red Deer Reserve, has been expanded over the years to its current size of 64,000 hectares.
She said she intends to continue to feed the deer as she grows old, even though the subsidies she receives from the local ranger station are not nearly enough to pay for the food the deer herd consumes. Changchub Lhamo keeps an eye on the flock of Tibetan red deer on the grassland last winter. China urged the United States on Thursday to "immediately stop close-in reconnaissance actions" after confirming that a US Navy EP-3 spy plane had conducted close-in flights near China's Hainan Island on Tuesday. Such spy flights have led to serious clashes and hurt bilateral ties before, including the collision in 2001 of a Chinese PLA Navy J-8 fighter jet and a US Navy EP-3 spy plane off China's Hainan Island that caused the death of Chinese pilot Wang Wei. Observers said it is likely that Washington will continue its high-profile military presence in the South China Sea in the near future to maintain political pressure on China and bolster its overall regional strategy.
Zhang Junshe, a senior researcher at the PLA Naval Military Studies Research Institute, said the latest incident is part of US efforts to sustain tension in the region, and it is only natural for Chinese forces to verify and identify US planes and warships that are approaching.
Signs of possible wreckage were found on Thursday off the Greek island of Crete, a Greek military spokesman said. Egyptian Civil Aviation Minister Sherif Fathi told a news conference in Cairo that he did not want to prematurely draw conclusions, but that indications suggest a terror attack as a possible cause of the crash. Earlier, Egyptian Prime Minister Sherif Ismail also said a terror attack could not be ruled out.
Airline officials and the Egyptian Civil Aviation Department said they believed the plane had crashed in the Mediterranean between Greece and Egypt.
In Athens, Greek Defense Minister Panos Kammenos said the plane made sudden swerves in midair before disappearing.
A Greek Defense Ministry source said authorities were also investigating an account from the captain of a merchant ship who reported a "flame in the sky" about 130 nautical miles south of the island of Karpathos.
According to Greece's civil aviation chief, attempts by Greek air traffic controllers to contact the jet went unanswered just before it left the country's airspace, and the plane disappeared from radar screens soon afterward. The aircraft was carrying 56 passengers - including one child and two infants - and a crew of 10, EgyptAir said. With its archaeological sites and Red Sea resorts, Egypt is traditionally a popular destination for Western tourists. Chinese interest in international-level soccer has surged with the sale of English club Aston Villa to a Chinese businessman and reports that Jack Ma's Alibaba was in talks to become a major sponsor of FIFA, the sport's world governing body.
Tony Jiantong Xia, a wealthy Chinese entrepreneur who owns the Recon Group of companies and describes himself as a lifelong Villa fan, acquired Aston Villa from US businessman Randy Lerner, the club announced on Wednesday. Xia's acquisition, which is subject to regulatory approval, is the first instance of 100 percent Chinese ownership of a European club.
No price tag was given by the club, but Sky News reported that Xia may have paid as much as 70 million pounds ($102.5 million), a price that reflects the fact that Villa, which won only three games in the season that just ended, has been relegated from the top-flight English Premier League to the lower Championship.
Xia's immediate aim was to get the club back into the Premiership within a season, he told the club's website.
As the sale was being announced, Bloomberg reported that Ma of internet giant Alibaba was in talks with Swiss-based FIFA to become one of the governing body's top sponsors.
In March, billionaire businessman Wang Jianlin's Dalian Wanda signed a FIFA sponsorship deal.
In Italy, a Chinese consortium is in exclusive talks to acquire AC Milan, a Serie A club owned by Fininvest, which is controlled by former Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi's family. Last year, in the wake of President Xi Jinping's UK visit, a group of Chinese investors paid $400 million for a 13 percent stake in leading English Premier League club Manchester City. Li made the remark at the opening ceremony of the first World Conference on Tourism for Development, held at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. The conference, proposed by the Chinese government and jointly hosted with the United Nations World Tourism Organization, drew more than 600 representatives from 107 countries. Most of China's poverty-stricken regions are in remote and mountainous areas, and such places have natural advantages for developing the tourism industry, Li said. Tourism plays an important role in China's supply-side economic reform and the upgrade of China's industrial structure, and the government will develop tourism and protect the environment at the same time, he said.
The premier called on all countries to ease visa policies, simplify entry procedures and protect travelers' interests to boost tourism worldwide.
China is the largest tourism source market in the world, according to the China National Tourism Administration. About 120 million Chinese traveled overseas last year and spent a total of 684 billion yuan ($104.5 billion), it said.
Mozambique President Filipe Jacinto Nyusi said at the conference that his government will ease visa procedures to encourage more tourists to visit the country.
About 50,000 of Mozambique's 25 million people are working in tourism industries, generating a total tourism revenue of $135 million last year, he said.
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said in a congratulatory letter to the conference that tourism involves many economic sectors as well as social culture.
He said it also can create jobs, contribute to preserving culture and build cross-cultural understanding.
In 2011, the Chinese government designated May 19 as China's National Tourism Day to honor Xu Xiake, a famous geographer and traveler of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) who wrote travel books. Li Jinzao of the China National Tourism Administration said the government will improve such infrastructure as roads, waterways and urban construction to boost tourism, especially in poverty-stricken regions.
The job opportunities created by tourism and related industries account for 10.2 percent of the country's total employment, he said. He added that the number of Chinese outbound tourists will reach 600 million in the next five years.
Premier Li Keqiang joins participants at the first World Conference on Tourism for Development, which opened on Thursday at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. Sogou Inc joined forces with a Western search engine giant in a new English-language search service, looking to take advantage of Baidu Inc's recent crisis to gain more market share. The newly launched search engine, Sogou English, is able to help Chinese users access trillions of pieces of English-language information, including academic developments, Sogou said.
Wang Xiaochuan, CEO of Beijing-based Sogou, said the desire to closely link with the whole world prompted his company to launch the service. The launch of Sogou English comes soon after Baidu, China's largest search engine operator, encountered its biggest crisis since being founded in 2000.
Early this month, China's internet regulator launched an investigation into Baidu's paid search listings. Pang Yiming, a research director at internet consultancy Analysis International in Beijing, said Sogou will gain market share by making Microsoft's Bing a backstop.
Other times, though, I have this vision of being able to show off a six-pack at the beach, as opposed to just bringing a six-pack of beer to a pool party. As I'm too miserly to fork out on a gym, I did the next best thing - began browsing the iPhone App Store for free fitness apps. Many weeks on, I've watched one instructional video on the first app, ignored countless "you can do it" emails from the second (I think they now just go straight to my spam folder), and I've been chased by the undead through my local park once (it was OK, but screaming while running hurt my throat). The good news, however, is that on the Xbox I've taken Hartlepool United from the bottom league to European success on FIFA 16, won the Masters on Tiger Woods PGA Tour, and done the Grand Slam on Top Spin. Renewed efforts are needed to push supply-side structural reform to further release growth potential, a senior government official said on Wednesday. But he said that China's stable growth momentum is largely unchanged and its economic fundamentals remain sound. On Monday, President Xi Jinping also called for supply-side structural reform to be "resolutely pushed forward".
In March, the Government Work Report emphasized strengthening supply-side reform through cutting low-end supply while increasing high-end supply and public products and services. Data released this month show that the consumer price index rose in April by 2.3 percent year-on-year, unchanged from March. More important, the stable inflation situation will mean policymakers do not need to resort to tightening measures to keep prices in check, benefiting economic growth. Inflation pressure is expected to ease in the next two months due to reduced demand for pork in the summer and government efforts to stabilize pork prices, which have soared since January, Sheng said. While Sheng expects a mild rise in the consumer price index throughout the year, Lian Ping, chief economist at Bank of Communications, said CPI fluctuations within a reasonable range will not lead to major changes in monetary policy.
Employment also remains stable, with 4.43 million jobs created in the first four months, or 44 percent of the number targeted for the year. Although the overall situation is stable, employment pressure is rising, particularly in medium-sized cities with a glut of heavy industries, Sheng said. He also said that while prices and jobs stabilize, policymakers can concentrate on supply-side structural reform to tackle "economic headwinds" such as overcapacity in some sectors.
His appeal came in a speech to more than 200 key guests from various sectors of society on the last day of a three-day visit to the city. Hong Kong is well known because of its economic status, which decides its position in the world, said Zhang, who heads the National People's Congress Standing Committee. The first State leader to visit the city since 2012, Zhang delivered his speech to local political heavyweights and business leaders at the Hong Kong government headquarters before visiting a nursing home and a public housing estate still under construction.
He also called on society to support Hong Kong Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying and his administration, saying the chief executive is crucial to maintaining the city's stability, rule of law, economic development and improving people's livelihoods. Zhang Xiaoming, director of the Liaison Office of the Central People's Government in Hong Kong, said the top legislator's visit shows that Beijing is determined to firmly uphold the "One Country, Two Systems" principle, and it has also boosted Hong Kong people's confidence.
Jasper Tsang Yok-sing, head of the city's legislature, said in a local newspaper article on Thursday that Zhang's visit had reaffirmed the central government's confidence in Hong Kong's future and "One Country, Two Systems".
Tsang said he believes that this confidence stems from the fact that the central government is familiar with the "reality" in Hong Kong, the issues that it faces, and ways to solve them. Top legislator Zhang Dejiang (center) chats with a helper at a care center for the aged in Hong Kong on Thursday. The country is in talks with several Arab nations, including Saudi Arabia and Egypt, to help them introduce Beidou-based positioning and navigational services, said Ran Chengqi, director of the China Satellite Navigation Office. In a speech at the Arab League headquarters in Cairo in January, President Xi Jinping said China and the League had agreed to introduce the Beidou system to Arab states.
Ma Jiaqing, deputy director of the China Satellite Navigation Office, said last week that tests in Doha, capital of the Gulf state of Qatar, showed local ground facilities could receive signals from up to eight Beidou satellites. This means the Beidou system is able to independently provide positioning, navigational and timing services to local users, and its accuracy is as good as other space-based navigational systems, he said.
Ma made the comments at the seventh ministerial meeting of the China-Arab States Cooperation Forum in Doha. According to the China Satellite Navigation Office, one of the forum's main goals will be to enable Arab states to better understand the Beidou system and its achievements. It will also promote Beidou-based applications in a number of civilian sectors in the Arab world such as the mining and oil industries, agriculture, traffic management and urban administration. The country has launched 22 satellites for the system and plans to launch about 30 more by the end of 2020. The government plans for the Beidou system to comprise 35 functioning satellites by 2020, five of which will be in geostationary orbit - a circular orbit more than 35,780 kilometers above the equator and following the direction of the Earth's rotation. A Long March 3C cargo rocket lifts off in Xichang, Sichuan province, on Feb 2 to carry a Beidou navigation satellite into orbit. Liu Liqing, founding country director of Marie Stopes, one of the world's largest reproductive health charities, said, "Government-supported contraceptives in China have been well promoted among married people. The commission says that 62 percent of abortions performed annually are on women who are between 20 and 29, most of whom are single. Zhang Lihua, a physician at Beijing Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, said repeated abortions increase the risk of premature births and have been linked to psychological disorders in women who have them.
Guo Wei, deputy director of the Social Work and Social Policy Department at Nanjing University, said young people have limited access to contraceptives. These enterprises, also known as central SOEs, are expected to achieve more than 100 billion yuan ($15.3 billion) in additional profits by the end of 2017 through reducing costs and improving efficiency. The decision to deepen SOE reform as well as improve the quality and profitability of these companies was made on Wednesday at an executive meeting of the State Council that was presided over by Premier Li Keqiang. The meeting addressed 106 central SOEs, which are those governed by the State-Owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission. The stock prices of 28 central SOEs that are going public surged on Wednesday, with 6 percent being the highest increase, as the Shanghai Composite Index dropped by 1.27 percent. Central SOEs must strengthen cost management as well as trim receivables, inventories and financial losses, in addition to cutting debts, said a statement after the meeting. These enterprises were urged to increase competitiveness by fortifying their core businesses and removing sideline businesses in the next two years. The central government plans to cut 10 percent of excess capacity for central SOEs in the coal, iron and steel sectors this year and in 2017. Zhang Chunxiao, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Governance, said all the measures were part of supply-side reform.
Analysts are divided on what will happen to steel prices in the US after the US Commerce Department applied duties of more than 500 percent on imported cold-rolled flat steel from Chinese steelmakers.
China's Ministry of Commerce said Wednesday that China was "strongly dissatisfied" with the ruling and criticized the US for adopting unfair methods in its anti-dumping and anti-subsidy probes into Chinese products. The US Commerce Department levied the tariff on Tuesday, accusing Chinese companies of selling their products below market prices. The US Commerce Department ruling comes as tensions mount between Beijing and Washington over a slumping global steel market that has been under pressure since the sharp fall in oil prices nearly two years ago trimmed steel demand in energy-related projects. China's Ministry of Commerce said the US has adopted unfair practices during anti-dumping and anti-subsidies investigations on Chinese products, which severely harmed the rights of Chinese enterprises to formally defend themselves. The ministry said that because the US refused to levy separate rates on Chinese State-owned enterprises, the companies were forced to give up on their response to the probe, which has resulted in high punitive taxes on steel products from China. Charles Bradford, an industry analyst with Bradford Research Inc in New York, said that Chinese exports of cold-rolled flat steel to the US have been declining since last fall.
Bradford said steel prices in China surged in February but began sliding earlier this month.
Not only were frescoes of rhinos, horses and lions over 30,000 years old found in a cave in the Ardeche on Dec. Although theya€™re probably right, ita€™s worth noting that these same specialists used similar criteria to ascribe the animals of Chauvet to the same period - until carbon 14 results pushed their age back over 10,000 years, shattering the notion that prehistoric art had evolved linearly, like technologies. In France, the Ministry of Culture placed its new treasure under the most draconian protection, despite the fact that the country already has the lion's share of Paleolithic art.
Standing right in front of some of the most spectacular engravings, the Secretary of State for Culture dismissed them as being nothing more than a€?childrena€™s doodlesa€? a€“ whereupon the students from Foz CA?aa€™s high school turned the official into a laughing-stock by presenting him with a schist slab covered with their own scribblings4. It's now or never, the author of the following article decided in April 1995, as he set out to evaluate the engravings, find out the truth, and propose solutions. My 13-year old son and I had flown to Porto in Portugal and driven far up the Douro valley into the northeastern mountains, prepared to maneuver around obstructions whether by negotiation or hiking through the back door. Still, here was our first encounter with the powers that be, so I took this opportunity to probe, and get a first step up the hierarchical ladder. So I explained how Sebastian and I had come so far to see the Paleolithic glories that Portugal would be displaying with pride, spoke of credentials, and placed us (and our pen) in his hands. Still, we had our bearings, and drove off into the late afternoon to penetrate the heart of the forbidden zone. We were getting closer, very close now, and could spy loops of a trail among the folds of a distant ridge.
And here too was the arena where one of the greatest feuds between discoverers and custodians of the past had exploded since the conflict between Othniel Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope over the fossils of extinct giants in Sioux territory during Custer's battles. With swifts swirling in up-drafts around our heads, we scrambled and picked our way among sheer precipices and ledges. Its tight horseshoe of cliffs and rubble made the perfect hiding place for our car and tent from the gray guards roaming the surrounding crests with binoculars.
Sebastian snuggled tighter into his sleeping bag, so I set out to reconnoiter alone, systematically working quadrants and contours between our quarry at Fariseu and Piscos brook. Somewhere among the jumble of a thousand rock faces would be an ancient image - perhaps masked by lichen or so faint one had to trace its parts before seeing it whole. The numbed waters suddenly spangled upstream with glitter and so many flowery white tresses of water plants that the currents looked like sudsy pastures. After all the noisy demonstrations against the dam in Lisbon, how were they to know how much clout a nosy prehistorian might have? Whatever was going to happen to him afterwards in the backwater of Portuguese archaeology had surely been inconsequential, since experience proved that nobody made much fuss over sites that were out-of-sight and out-of-mind - especially with archaeologists beholding to dam-builders and political appointees for access and records. According to the insinuations, he could have continued his documentation right up to the headwaters as his masters worked their way upstream step by step. I sensed that this crowd felt their doctor deserved to be the one to tell fellow archaeologists that they might as well ask to visit Atlantis. Sure enough, there was the 12 year-old Pocinho dam sweeping the valley with a clean curtain.14 But the silos of this former construction site's cement plant were speckled with rust, the ranks of its offices and dormitories were deserted and almost every window was broken.
Fortunately, Sebastian was becoming ever more engrossed in Verne's book, spelunking towards the planet's core, so I began to gravitate down halls for exercise and companionship, coming to the door of the room where the secretary was braiding the blind's cord while two laconic draftsmen labored over tracings of horses, ibexes and aurochs. It has been insinuated that Rebanda probably discovered Rock 1 at Canada do Inferno as early as November 1991.18 In Dec. So, quixotically, he had proposed building a dry-dock around the outcropping, and, failing that, underwater exploration. If so, the power utility may have known of incredibly rich sites years before the first blueprint for the new dam! Clottes was the worlda€™s reigning prehistorian a€“ the man who had risen to the pinnacle of the French archaeological establishment and held the only keys to the holy grail of art caves - the unbelievably strong and ancient Grotte Chauvet. After inspecting the 15% of the art that remained above water at the site in the rising dama€™s shadow, because the EDP had hardly felt it necessary to lower the water for the visit of the foreigner sent by the now antagonistic IPPAR, Clottes stepped before a highly polarized press corps.
The dam-builders and their government backers felt vindicated while much of Portuguese public was crestfallen or furious. The dam had become a poisonous political issue in a national election with the President and his fellow Socialists attacking the center-right Prime Minister for its willingness to sacrifice both the nationa€™s patrimony and vineyards to a flaky building scheme. As if the owners of villas built around the new lake would really allow it to be drained 100 meters to its bottom - where almost all of the known panels would soon be drowned a€“ once every decade! Suddenly, the Portuguese public felt that the dam-builders were not only destroying the nationa€™s most ancient claim to world grandeur and civilization, but that they were in league with a man who would never have been so cavalier with Paleolithic masterpieces in his own country! When I later asked Portuguese archaeologists if they were going to attend an up-coming conference organized by Clottes, they recoiled. First, because Clottesa€™ retinue of hosts, diplomats and reporters was rushing him and putting him in a bind a€“ even if his stature, pride, and role as UNESCOa€™s expert on rock art had led him into it. They even echoed his faith in getting dam operators to regularly empty the vast lake a€“ despite the glaring evidence of the EDPa€™s behavior at CA?a itself. No sooner had Clottes triggered a public outcry, than he began to explain away his tepid defense of the CA?aa€™s importance by saying that he had not been shown enough art to form a true idea of the valleya€™s richness.35 But the truth is, he was shown Rebandaa€™s trove of drawings from submerged sections and sites upstream36 and could have been more demanding. After all it was a lot of money, the government was inflexible, the controversy had become a campaign issue a€“ which meant that his advice would seem like foreign meddling - and the elections were still far off. When, in fact, the long-term rights for the cave in France would belong to its Ministry of Culture a€“ which was already attacking its discoverer, Chauvet, for the pittance hea€™d received for his pictures. But I could hardly hold my tongue: why on earth had he invited people from this caste of academics back into his life - and the valley - when at least one of them had apparently abused him?
The picture was compelling: SimAµes and her husband angelically insisting that the world must be told, while the hireling screamed demonically over the fire, accusing university archaeologists of trying to hog the credit yet again. If Rebanda had known SimAµes and Jaffe were going to paint him into a corner, wouldn't he have raced for the exit?
Both Rebanda and SimAµes de Abreu could have been traitors and saviors at once, and as long as I was with this archaeologist, I felt bound to encourage the savior in him. It must have seemed like an insult to him after all his efforts, so with an anarchic gesture, he announced, what the hell, he'd photocopy their fax when it came, so we could enter a second. Huge black derricks hulked atop the dam beside a row of gate-lifting pistons that looked like Big Berthas. We bagged the warning or omen, caught and released a giant water beetle - the kind that injects deliquescing enzymes into living frogs, then sucks out their juice - and worked our way along what was actually the upper tier of a disappearing cliff. When art panels are located in the CA?aa€™s side valleys, they are apparently concentrated on northern slopes. I was a willing guide as we skewered corn kernels on hooks, lashed lines around a log and threw the lethal leashes into the dark. They were a hundred yards apart, making perpetual rounds as they kept time clocks happy by cranking them every few paces with keys chained to the fence. It was probably his first job after military service, but he was intelligent enough to realize that hea€™d been hired as a pawn in a vast conspiracy to keep Portugal's greatest cultural wonders out of sight and out of mind, till they could be obliterated. One, because any plan to remove the friezes not only meant assigning a value to them, but keeping the controversy alive. The mountainous dirt road forked, meandered and even skirted an imposing castle,51 but several classes of children were making the long dusty pilgrimage on foot while carloads of adults in their Sunday best made the excursion to see the only engravings to have escaped the censors - either because the site at Penascosa was so far from Lima Montiero's spyglass or because the valley was gentler here and had always been farmed. I hadn't passed the first olive tree when I happened upon a well-knapped hand-axe, and then another! On-line commentary entitled a€?Some corrections about the CA?a petroglyphsa€? in TRACCE no. While Chauveta€™s name was given to the cave itself, the names of his co-discoverers were given to two of its large chambers. Mila SimAµes de Abreu and Ludwig Jaffe were the founders of the APAAR (AssociaA§ao Portuguesa de Arte e Arqueologia Rupestre), which has been a member of IFRAO (International Federation of Rock Art Organisations) since Sept. In an on-line commentary, Jaffe denounced what he perceived as a continuation of the scandal under new management: a€?In December 1994 IPPAR passed the responsibility for the rock art in the Coa valley to Mario Varela Gomes and Antonio Martinho Baptista. Their critics often subscribe to the doctrine that modern ethnographic evidence cannot be used to interpret ancient cultures. Although Bednarik was one of the earliest crusaders for CA?a - calling for the EDP to stop building the dam in Nov.
The leftist press and Portuguese archaeological milieu reacted with just as much reflection, ignoring both Bednarika€™s qualifiers and his pioneering role in organizing the world campaign to fight for the whole valleya€™s salvation (see Dossier CA?a p. Of the 66 contributions written by individuals, not one is by Nelson Rebanda, whose ghost a€“ to anyone interested in intellectual property a€“ haunts every line.
After the CA?a scandal served its purpose as an electoral issue that helped the Socialists to win power, the new government kept its campaign promise by protecting the CA?a Valley but used the goodwill engendered by the decision to blunt criticism while flooding other huge assemblages of rock art. 3; Catherine Vincent, writing in Le Monde on March 11, 1995, goes into much more detail about one particular vineyard, Ervamoira, that would have been lost, along with its exceptional Port wine.
The first was to prove that the engravings were not Paleolithic a€“ an effort that entrapped researchers who wanted to apply experimental direct-dating techniques. Those include services on its 401(k) platform and additional features for use by financial advisors.
Now, recent data suggests the use of such portable devices has exploded, which underscores the need for advisors to ensure that their websites are well equipped to handle smartphone and tablet traffic. Instead, it is making it easier to obtain the credentials, writes Rick Kahler, who is president of financial planning firm Kahler Financial Group. During that period, furthermore, women are expected to control two-thirds of private wealth. La Placa and a handful of other team members that collectively manage $3 billion in assets have left the San Francisco office of Deutsche Bank to start their own firm. In addition to further opening-up, efforts will particularly target sectors like State-owned enterprises, taxation and finance and the pricing system. That the Philippines sought the arbitration is "clearly unreasonable, unfair and illegal," said Liu on Friday. Successive Chinese governments since then have maintained administration over the Nansha Islands and the surrounding waters, Liu said.
These are disputes, as China holds, which concern sovereignty and the delimitation and they are not covered by the arbitration".
Their combined number of visits surpassed 10 million in 2014 and 2015 and are expected to reach a new height this year. In 2015, the State Council, China's Cabinet, approved mergers of 12 State-owned companies in such industries as shipping, railway and telecommunications.
The commission is putting regulations and procedures in place to protect other companies' from unfair business practices.
As outlined in the Government Work Report, their overhaul through innovation, restructuring and personnel management reform would help revitalize the economy. CCB International understands Chinese mainland companies, and its ability to provide comprehensive financial services is envied by foreign investment banks, Hu claimed. We believe there will be many national and even world-class enterprises emerging from these sectors," Hu said. Mainland companies used to acquire resources when they participated in overseas M&A, but recently, aside from acquired resources, we've seen that Chinese companies are interested in bringing back advanced technologies," he explained. Meanwhile, we will also focus on exploring opportunities that arise along with the internationalization of the renminbi and the Belt and Road Initiative," he said. Currently, the mainland economy is continuing to slow down and CCB International needs to avoid any wild fluctuations in the business, it needs to communicate well with clients to carry out risk management together, and also needs to be cautious about compliance, said Hu, who was one of the major founders of CCB International.
On May 25, Obama will depart for Japan to attend the G7 summit and end his trip with a visit to Hiroshima. Daniel Kristenbrink, senior director for Asian affairs at the National Security Council, said on Wednesday that all of the sales since the US enacted a partial lifting in 2014 on maritime-related articles are reviewed on a case-by-case basis. In addition, a lot of Chinese companies are seeking to acquire US innovative companies or technologies to meet medical demand in China," said Lu, who also serves as the vice-president and partner at Vesalius Ventures, a firm connecting Chinese and US healthcare companies. Vesalius Ventures helped us to determine who the best potential partners are," said Jason Melton, co-CEO of 2nd.MD.
It counsels 30 to 40 Chinese clients per month, but the number is expected to rise to 400 to 500 a month in the next 12 to 18 months, Melton said.
This behavior has earned them the nickname "mountain hermits" among scientists, who can only study them with the help of sensitive infrared cameras. Once, when he was photographing a mother and her two cubs, he realized something was wrong. He has struggled to protect his animals from snow leopards that stalk the plateau and once, almost at tipping point after losing a number of animals, took aim at one of these "hated cats" with his firearm, Geng explained. If big animals are protected then so too are thousands of other species, and by association water resources, said He Bing, a project officer of leading wildlife conservation NGO Shanshui. I just hope my work can make people aware of the animal and its fight for survival," he said.
Also known as sha in the Tibetan language, red deer are native to the southern Tibetan highlands. She has been sharing her love for the small herd over the past 40 years by feeding them turnips and salt. But the industry has been badly hit by the downing of a Russian Metrojet flight in October, killing all 224 on board, an Islamist insurgency and a string of bomb attacks.
He also hopes to make Aston Villa the most famous soccer club in China with a huge fan base. It was the first such commercial agreement since FIFA was rocked by allegations of corruption that led to several major sponsors withdrawing and President Sepp Blatter stepping down. Although the price has not been disclosed, Italian media reported that Berlusconi was seeking about 700 million euros ($785 million) for the club.
China will carry out 50 tourism projects with international cooperation in the next five years to help the global economy recover, he said.
The probe followed the death of Wei Zexi, a computer science major who sought out a controversial treatment for a rare form of cancer after learning of the treatment through Baidu search results. The Cyberspace Administration of China ordered Baidu to adopt a new search listing system that does not fully depend on advertising price but also considers the advertisers' "reputation". This teaming up is going to significantly improve users' experience on Sogou in searching for information in English," she said.


I don't know whether she sends them to inspire or sicken, but after seeing all those selfies of Chinese women showing off "A4 stomachs" (covering their midriff with a bit of paper) or "100-yuan wrists" (wrapping a bill around their wrist) it certainly isn't the former.
According to analysis cited by Digital Trends, the value of the fitness app industry hit $4 billion in 2014 and is forecast to increase to $26 billion by 2017. It began providing positioning, navigational, timing and short-messaging services to civilian users in China and surrounding areas in the Asia-Pacific region in December 2012. Many of them did not take oral contraceptives due to a misunderstanding about the side-effects, but chose other unsafe methods instead, such as avoiding days in their menstrual cycle when they were most likely to get pregnant," she said. These SOEs are also required to reduce management hierarchy by half and strip off 20 percent of their subsidiary legal entities within three years.
China is taking action under the World Trade Organization dispute settlement framework, the ministry said on its website. European and US steel producers said China is distorting the global market and undercutting them by dumping its excess supply abroad. In February, China set a goal of reducing steel production capacity by 100 million to 150 million tons in five years. 18th1, but Europea€™s biggest open-air gallery of Paleolithic animals was reported just a month earlier in the CA?a Valley of northeastern Portugal2. Regardless of how old the CA?aa€™s art turns out to be, it is unique in its richness above ground and astonishing in its illustrations of movement - with animals tossing their heads with the same stop-action dynamism found at Chauvet and only millennia later in photography and Futurist painting.
The Chauvet Cavea€™s prehistoric bestiary was proudly splashed across magazines around the world.
Soon, the guard turned into a regular lad, wrote down the chief engineer's name and pointed beyond the ramp-laced moonscape - into the wilderness. In this walled garden, the conflicting passions of archaeologists had exploded around a campfire, set a president and prime minister against each other, and cowed the emissaries of UNESCO. Lizards skidded into fissures, a rusty blade wedged in a nook beside a sliver of cliff garden spoke of an emigrant who had never returned, but the walls seemed barren. Over and over again, the scene seemed set, the rock stretched, but its lines were just fractals. I yanked myself up to a platform less than a step wide and a ten-foot long cow - an auroch! By holding the animal's form and movement vividly in mind, the maker had poured himself into its body and experienced a power beyond abstraction, beyond even tool-making, to thrill to the new power of passing through the looking-glass into another being. A stream, running pure as its springs over crisp cresses between alternating bull rushes and crags, almost made it to the river unaltered, but met it just below the threshold and sank into an estuary.
We had arrived at Pandemonium and would try to insinuate ourselves into an audience with the Chief Engineer himself.
Only one was so spotless and redolent of perks, though, with its rolled lawn incongruous in the desert, that we knew right where to head among forking roads. I was hardly surprised when these well-fed pros passed the buck to the only gaunt and partially toothless fellow traveler among them. So they decided to play it safe by dumping me on their pet nemesis, the organizationa€™s own archaeological a€?hirelinga€?, Dr.
He could have added to his hoard of exclusive photos and measurements, imposed interpretations, and generally lorded it over his peers - for who could have naysayed him with his treasures locked a hundred meters deep in so many great watery safes?10 And to think that all the dam-builders' pet archaeologist and his accommodating superiors at the Portuguese Institute for Architectural and Archaeological Heritage (IPPAR)11 in Lisbon - to whom Rebanda had reported his discoveries at least twice12 - had had to do to pull off this economically patriotic (not to say mutually beneficial) stunt was keep their mouths shut! After having suffered at the hands of his mentor, Professor Jorge, why had Rebanda put himself at the mercy of two similar academics and representatives of an international body to boot - Mila SimAµes de Abreu and her archaeologist husband, Ludwig Jaffe, who represented the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO)?
At least such nuisances would keep him from getting up to more mischief by turning up new discoveries. But, finally, a secretary answered my summons and let me into a vestibule empty except for a display of postcard-sized photographs of some of the engravings, and a cartoon caricaturing the scandal - which I reckoned had been knowingly posted to co-opt criticism.
I couldn't quite make out the man's features through the crack, but it was obvious he was gushing recriminations - and no wonder: the entire archaeological profession had ganged up on the pariah. We all knew I had crossed a threshold, but, after all, I had paid my dues, and in any case, I padded off to the foyer again.
Yet they'd prattled to the press that they had found the art a year ago, and then more like two years ago, and now, word had it, a€?onlya€? three years ago25 - when it was always somehow too late to stop the process leading up to construction, which had only started in September a€™94.26 The gall! Instantly, I whipped out paper and scribbled the fastest copy of the main map that my hand could draw.
After SimAµes de Abreu and Jaffe had unleashed the scandal by revealing the conspiracy to flood Europea€™s richest assemblage of open-air Paleolithic art, the IPPAR and Portuguese Ministry of Culture had scrambled to get their own expert witness a€“ and, in a further twist, had asked UNESCO to recommend an expert to challenge the power companya€™s growing efforts to prove the art wasna€™t Paleolithic but recent27 a€“ in which case, the EDP seemed to think that the public would drop the subject as being the relatively recent work of peasants drawing their cows.
For all their heightened sensitivity to having CA?aa€™s fate evaluated by a foreigner, the Portuguese press viewed Clottes as a referee and expected a verdict. Then, as fate would have it, Clottes was back in the headlines within the week, announcing drastic measures to protect Francea€™s new crown jewel, Chauvet. And as if anyone could even find new art during the two weeks a lake might be emptied (every hundred years) while everything was coated with algae and grime!
Opposition editorialists had a field day with Clottesa€™ apparent hypocrisy and dismissiveness towards Portugal - and demonstrators flooded the streets.
Two, because people are often driven to produce their greatest work and worst mistakes by similar drives. Rebanda was even fooling himself on this score, I thought - after all, the Foz CA?a photographs would probably end up belonging to Portugala€™s own ministry or even the EDP.
Scientists - like lawyers - ply an adversarial trade, but the chance to put Portugal into the archaeological heavens a€“ and to boost their own reputations with it - had given many researchers more ulterior motives than usual.
Personally, I couldn't see anybody bedding down for the night and traipsing out the next morning with people who had announced that they were going to expose him. In essence, my heart a€“ if not my mind - had taken his side for the moment; he was the underdog, on the verge of a nervous breakdown, and I was concerned that he might even attempt suicide. If I didn't mind coming back at 9 the next morning, he apologized, the approval should be there. But basically the dam was a streamlined machine without much need for local intervention or maintenance. My unequivocal certification of their global importance only made him uneasier, as he didn't know whether to feel flattered or upset. We peered into a dovecot, a squat white tower lined inside with empty compartments like a city after a plague. Suddenly, a deeply hammered auroch on the rock stood out boldly as a road sign - alerting us to an entire herd.
The geology, erosion, & silica skins protecting engravings all seem similar on both slopes, so I theorize that this positioning is not simply a taphonomic illusion created by the disappearance of engravings on the southern slopes. I wasn't expecting anything when I ambled down at dawn, but there it was: a big mound under the bank!
From what I could tell, even his draftsmen had decided to take the day off 49, once they realized the coast was clear.
By God, I thought, if the flooders don't save them, I hope the townspeople storm the valley!
If the guards hadn't been under strict orders not to sell admissions, they'd have made a killing; but then any financial association with the art is anathema to the dammers: the next thing they knew, they'd have a revolt on their hands!
And like the first guard, when he realized that I had somehow gotten authorization despite my evident opposition to the reservoir, he let out his pent-up indignation - for we were insiders. As we passed the threshold between the deadened depths and virgin current with its billowing water-foliage, we had to skirt and climb over a sheer wall blocking the side-valleya€™s entrance.
The intertwined couple, spanning the length of a single real horse, was still necking in Eden after twenty millennia. Rock Art and the CA?a Valley Archaeological Park: A case study in the preservation of Portugal's prehistoric parietal heritage. Although it is true that one must be extremely circumspect about doing so, such evidence often opens new perspectives that have more in common with the subsistence systems of ancient cultures than does our own, and the two authors showed considerable originality and courage in exploring it. 1994 - most Portuguese archaeologists with access to the CA?a sites now shun him as thoroughly as they do Clottes and Rebanda.
539, for a resolution, written in defense of CA?a, by Bednarik, in a book filled with vitriole against him). These retractions confirmed that some of ZilhA?oa€™s criticisms of the direct dating attempts were well founded, but dona€™t necessarily reflect on other matters raised in his disputes with Bednarik and Jaffe. In the English sections, Jorge generously credits numerous associates and generations of Portuguese prehistorians by full name, while studiously avoiding any mention of Rebanda except where it is unavoidable, and then only with his last name between brackets. The second was to make casts of panels for a museum a€“ which may have damaged some panels.
If you throw into the mix the occasional premature death of a spouse, then it becomes clear that a substantial portion of advisors’ married clients are likely to become single. Spooked by his presence, the cubs had fled from their mother - and the longer he stayed, the more dangerous it became for the cubs, as the mountains were full of predators. Its commercial content should be no more than 30 percent per web page, the administration said. Other indicators, such as fixed-asset investment and retail sales growth, eased mildly in April.
But even in an oven with natural convection, it can mess up airflow and cooking and even cause burners to malfunction. While the paintings in the French cave, which became known as the Grotte Chauvet, often have engraved contours, the Portuguese menagerie may also have been painted, but, being outdoors, their pigments have usually weathered away. As shadows welled from the valley, we turned from the scarps and trundled downwards into the cleavage, till the road turned into a path to the water through a profusion of poppies. Finally, I discerned a flock ambling down through dry brush, then a shirt flashed a white dot, and we converged within hailing distance on opposite banks. Even ideal panels on either side of a fig tree bulging titanically from a small cave were barren. A stand of poplar trees crackled like Chinese New Year with small birds, abundant as leaves. It was a good thing we had his name, Lima Monteiro, because the Securitas guard on this side meant business. Our compact car slid in among Mercedes and I stepped into glare, drawing cool stares from fleshy faces. My interlocutor explained that the Chief Engineer was powerless to help me, so he couldn't be bothered to give me an audience.
Of course, the stories went, the honorable witnesses had refused to become accomplices and had immediately denounced the whole plot a€“ writing open letters to the Portuguese President, Vice President and Director of IPPAR - with carbon copies for the press.13 If only his employers had known that Rebanda was so naive! She announced that it was no use disturbing the doctor, who I could see through a jarred door talking to someone over the phone with peevish vehemence.
Finally, I suggested that she didn't need to keep me company while I waited for the good doctor to get off the phone.
That's strange, I thought as I wandered off again, mulling over a mental photograph of the site distribution.
And here were others, even closer to the construction site, at "RA?go de Vide", which had been submerged by the same old dam! Still, she caught me; whereupon I went on elaborating it, asking questions, and then padded back to the foyer again to continue my vigil. After all, the archaeologists and reporters had allowed the Tagus petrogylphs to be drowned with hardly a whimper.
Not only did the contrast with his actions in Portugal now smack of a double standard, but there was a piquant irony. With stakes this high, both parties unleashed their opinion-making machines, making hash of Clottesa€™ carefully weighed words as quickly as theya€™d vilified Rebanda.
Clottesa€™ words may have been earnest, but with stakes this high and politicized they were about as reasonable as Pontius Pilatea€™s attempts to keep the peace. I prefer to think the latter, and that his only mistake was thinking that people on both sides were lucid and reflective enough to interpret his verdict correctly. In Rebanda's place, I'd have calmed down and let the traitors fall to sleep, but then I'd have snuck away - trekking fast through the dark, picking myself up when I fell, but getting out - bloody knees and all - and calling that alarm first!
Furthermore, I had no doubt - whatever pacts he'd struck - that he would make up for them if only approached constructively. After we'd faxed it, I was sorry to see him having to still recall and refax, as he nudged the request repeatedly through the unyielding bureaucracy.
Sebastian and I scrambled and tacked among the carious cliffs, till there was nothing left but rock overhanging the water itself.
But a huge horse, leaning over the depths, was both more graceful and cryptic, for someone had wedged a rusty horseshoe into a crack between its hooves.
No sooner had I chipped the thin device and steadily shoved each curve straight, than the hook slipped smoothly free. Only Rebanda's long-suffering secretary had to keep her post and occupied herself by taking up the relay of calling and faxing. These red and gray devices were not only customized to match the guards' uniforms, but showed off the latest in high-tech materials and molding. As we wound our way down towards the reservoir among towering red cliffs, he took quiet pride in pointing out the hidden elements of scattered engravings.
But then Piscos Brook ran between trees, pastures and cane-groves, with cliffs full of shelters and stone panels at each bend.
La Pintura, The Official Newsletter of the American Rock Art Research Association (Member of IFRAO) Volume 21, Number 3, Winter. In the same book, which Jorge compiled to record the campaign he was spear-heading to save CA?a a€“ a laudatory effort, if there ever was one, that made Jorge synonymous with yet another of Rebandaa€™s finds - Bednarik is repeatedly dismissed as a a€?charlatana€? (pp. Jaffe accused the trio, who had taken over responsibility for the archaeological resources of the valley, of endangering art panels and refusing to allow qualified foreign researchers or even Dr.
Whatever the case may be, the problem of rock art conservation is still as far from resolution in Portugal as it is in most other places in the world. There are thousands offering advice and tutorials, and most let you track your progress and share it with the world, should you be inclined.
If you simply must line the bottom of your oven with foil, at least poke holes in it where there are holes in the oven floor.
All that remains, where jagged outcroppings of schist jut from brushy slopes - exposing terminal facets perfect for murals - are hauntingly sinuous outlines of deer, horses, ibexes, and wild cattle called aurochs. The first flurry of press articles had mentioned that many of the engravings were already submerged by the cofferdam holding the river back for the more monstrous wall rising downstream from it.
I sent greetings and the shepherd expostulated and gestured animatedly upstream towards towering slabs. For me, all of mankind's later accomplishments, all our later experience of good and evil only become possible after such art. The irrelevant exchange had sparked sympathy as we both waited - and waited, in similar irrelevance to someone too consumed to give us heed.
I would have to go to Lisbon, and no, it wouldn't do any good for him to fax; he didn't have an iota of authority. Despite all the insinuations about Rebanda and IPPAR, they were actually the first to try blocking the philistines with the clout of an institution as important as UNESCO. About thirty years before, Francea€™s equivalent to the EDP had taken the entire Ardeche Gorge, where the Chauvet Cave had just been found, from its entrance at Sauze to a rainbow-huge, natural arch - Vallon Pont da€™Arc, next to Chauvet - by eminent domain, to build a dam. These conscientious people know that theya€™re barely tolerated by the forces of Mammon - scraping crumbs from the tables of vast enterprises armed with dynamite and bulldozers - and make compacts all the time with them, telling themselves, for instance, that the alluvial strata that cement plants exploit are always too tumbled to contain intact Acheulian hearths.
If only he'd announced the discovery, co-opted his employers, and splashed masterpieces across magazine covers while the art's existence was still fresh, he might have won honor, fame, a very small fortune (and maybe even kept his job). Within weeks, local academics had begun signing their names to Rebandaa€™s discoveries, tracings, and interpretations while forgetting to cite him. I'd have been the one to announce the existence of the largest gathering of open-air Paleolithic engravings in Europe to the world.
Slate slabs, thoughtfully laid into a wall as steps, led down through a canopy of fig trees into a cavernous wallow between cliffs.
I woke Sebastian in time to see the beast lumber over the bank and glide away, and then it was high time we checked out our other line at the doctor's office. Noon passed as we still waited together like an old couple, talking about the doctor's misery, Australian rock art, translations; whatever. The guards stiffened as Sebastian and I had the gumption to breach a forbidden zone and stride blithely forward. There were so many warblers piping and whistling, there must have been a dozen species with overlapping territories.
Botha€? - Baptista and Gomes a€“ a€?were closely involved in the rationale to submerge the rock art (to 'protect it from vandals'); in fact, on 8 November Baptista spoke of how sedimentation behind dams should protect rock arta€? - my italics. After our departure, Bednarik and three other researchers (Alan Watchman from Canada, plus Fred Phillips and Ronald Dorn from the USA), who believed that they had found ways to date rock art directly, studied some of the CA?aa€™s engravings during separate visits. 1995 that was led by Mounir Bouchenaki, the IPPAR formed a scientific committee consisting of Antonio BeltrA?n, Emmanuel Anati and Jean Clottes, who came back for a second round.
They're there for a reason.2-1 BASIC REPAIR AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS1) When working on gas cooking equipment, if you've disconnected a gas pipe to replace a valve or other component, always test the pipe joint for leaks when you reassemble it. And so, forgive me, but in comparison to these ancient windows, cathedrals seem to have anti-climatic and overwrought power.
Except for the absence now of bigger species, this was how Solutreans had experienced the world - with whistling, mooing, barking, roaring and trumpeting not just on the Serengeti, but to the frozen north! So much will go unrecorded because of all this fuss.a€? a€“ So, Rebanda is resigned to the inevitability of the flooding, I thought.
If the dam had been built, a dozen known art caves would have been flooded or affected by rising water tables. So rather than condemn Clottes, perhaps the Portuguese should simply admit his diplomacy opened the debate, even if one might wish that hea€™d been a crusader. From Chauveta€™s pinnacle, its gatekeeper was probably right to dismiss the scratchings, which I too thought could have been the kneading of bears, but the contrast between the levels of encouragement was striking. Although they granted him the discovery of Hella€™s Canyon (in footnotes), other sites that Rebanda had already noted were soon claimed by competitors as Rebanda was effectively silenced. And Vitor and his wife, Susanaa€? - was it my imagination or did her name stick in his craw?
Their stingy hypocrisy and philistinism revolted me: they wouldn't spend a penny on protecting such discoveries, but they'd drown the world up to its headwaters to keep driving Mercedes.
Goldfinches sparked into the air, a crested hoopoo flashed orange and black, and the shaggy canes were a tumult of avian chatter.
Jaffe was also the IFRAO representative of the SocietA  Cooperativa Archaeologica, Le Orme della€™Uomo, Italy (Bednarik 1994). But not before signing controversial non-disclosure agreements with the EDP, which was hoping that their techniques would yield dates so recent that they could be used to ridicule stylistic daters who had identified the engravings as Paleolithic (Baptista & Fernandes 2007, p. You can do this by coating the joint with a solution of liquid soap and water and looking for bubbles. Intermittent splashes smacked echoes off the walls, a frog croaked and some beast keened a cry we had never heard. When I asked if they could intercede on our behalf, she said one had to apply in person, in Lisbon, and have connections.
In fact, paw prints indicated that we had missed cornering another feral dog or fox in its lair. Surgically, it was a nightmare: I'd have to pry its head out, keep its neck extended, wedge open its powerful beak and finally thrust the treble barbs down its throat, so as to carefully extract their burr, without snagging them again!
Finally, they agreed that one of them would walk parallel to us, down the fence-line, to let us in the distant gate.
At our feet, frogs skipped like pebbles and painted turtles rowed earnestly in tangled water blossoms - all for the taking. Unless you and I and all of us together add our voices to those of the Portuguese citizenry trekking down for a last look, and reclaim what is OURS! The story of the denunciation is from Bednarik (1994) and Simons in the New York Times (1994). Apply it with a brush to make sure you coat the joint thoroughly, and use a mirror to look at the back side of the joint if necessary.
Even the Chauvet Cave, which was unknown, might have been threatened by the changing water table! Unfortunately, Bednarik, who is one of the worlda€™s most encyclopedically informed, accomplished, and bold prehistorians, walked right into the trap.
Jorgea€™s utter dismissal of Bednarik was clearly motivated by the lattera€™s implicit condemnation of the way that Jorge had appropriated Rebandaa€™s earlier discovery at Mazouco, instigating Rebandaa€™s secrecy that was one component of the CA?a a€?cover-upa€? (Bednarik 1994, p. Your appliance parts dealer has gas leak testing solution, with a brush built into the cap, made specifically for this purpose. 2) Always de-energize (pull the plug or trip the breaker on) any oven that you're disassembling.
Later, Bednarik spear-headed another campaign to save a Portuguese rock-art assemblage from inundation a€“ this time behind a dam in the Guadiana Valley - and noted that a€?None of this helps the rock art of the Guadiana, condemned to inundation under billions of tonnes of lake sediment as the reservoir silts up over the next 70 yearsa€? a€“ again, my italics.
If you need to re-energize the oven to perform a test, make sure any bare wires or terminals are taped or insulated. Do you think I'm such a fool as to invite the man who deprived me of the credit for my first discovery, to come see my greatest wonders if it wasn't because I needed all the allies I could get; if it wasn't because I even needed the universities to help save them. Ironically, the mandarin in Porto would come out smelling like roses for his campaign while the roles of several well-meaning prehistorians, if I may insist upon the word, were simplified so as to make them better scapegoats. Energize the unit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then disconnect the power again. 3) If this manual advocates replacing the part, REPLACE IT!!
First, because his dating system, which was based on determining the degree of micro-erosion undergone by a rock face, had been developed in Australia, where climate and geological conditions are different from Portugala€™s. This odd statement flies in the face of Bednarika€™s consistent defense of both the CA?aa€™s art and other assemblages, suggesting that it was a ploy to get the EDP to allow them to test their methods.
There is a reason that it stopped - you can bet on it - and if you get it going and re-install it, you are running a very high risk that it will fail again. Even though both men concluded that their observations proved that the art was no older than the Neolithic, Bednarik did not repeat the notion, when announcing his results, that a relatively recent vintage diminished the arta€™s importance or the need to protect it a€“ quite the contrary. Replace the part. 4) Always replace the green (ground) leads when you remove an electrical component. Wear gloves, and be careful not to cut your hands! 6) If you have diagnosed a certain part to be bad, but you cannot figure out how to remove it, sometimes it helps to get the new part and examine it for mounting holes or other clues as to how it may be mounted. 7) When testing for a 110 volt power supply from a wall outlet, you can plug in a small appliance such as a shaver or blow dryer.
If you're testing for 220 volt power you need to use the VOM. 8) When splicing wires in an oven, remember that you're dealing with high temperatures. Your parts dealer has high-temp connections, porcelain wire nuts and fiberglass-insulated wire for this purpose. I want to impress upon you something really important. It's unpleasant, but unless exposure is more than a second or so, the only harm it usually does is to tick you off pretty good. However, you don't want to badger them with too many questions, so know your basics before you start asking questions. Some parts houses may offer service, too.
They'll tell you it's too complicated, then in the same breath "guide" you to their service department. If they genuinely try to help you fix it yourself, and you find that you're unable to, they may be the best place to look for service. On some models, you will also need the lot number to get the right part, so if there is one on the nameplate, write that down, too.2-3 TOOLS (Figure 2-A)Most of the tools that you might need are shown below.
An inexpensive one will suffice, as long as it has both "AC Voltage" and "Resistance" (i.e. It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked. Remember the rule in section 2-1; while you are working on a circuit, energize the circuit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then take the power back off it to perform the repair.
You will only need to be able to set the VOM onto the right scale, touch the test leads to the right place and read the meter.In using the VOM (Volt-Ohm Meter) for our purposes, the two test leads are always plugged into the "+" and "-" holes on the VOM. It's derived from the word "continuous." In an electrical circuit, electricity has to flow from a power source back to that power source. It should peg the meter all the way on the right side of the scale, towards "0" on the meter's "resistance" or "ohms" scale.
If the meter does not read zero ohms, adjust the thumbwheel on the front of the VOM until it does read zero.
If the ignitor's leads are still connected to something, you may get a reading through that something. You can touch the ends of the wires and test leads with your hands if necessary to get better contact. If there is GOOD continuity, the meter will move toward the right side of the scale and steady on a reading. This is the resistance reading and it doesn't concern us; we only care that we show good continuity. If you do not, the switch is bad. 2-4(c) AMMETERSAmmeters are a little bit more complex to explain without going into a lot of electrical theory. If you own an ammeter, you probably already know how to use it. If you don't, don't get one.
To determine continuity, for our purposes, we can simply isolate the component that we're testing (so we do not accidentally measure the current going through any other components) and see if there's any current flow. To use your ammeter, first make sure that it's on an appropriate scale (0 to 10 or 20 amps will do).
If the meter shows any reading at all, something in the oven is using power.2-5 WIRING DIAGRAMSometimes you need to read a wiring diagram, to make sure you are not forgetting to check something. The symbols used to represent each component are pretty universal. Wire colors are abbreviated and shown next to each wire.
GR or GN are green, GY is gray.A wire color with a dash or a slash means --- with a --- stripe. In some wiring diagrams, wiring and switches inside a timer or other switchblocks are drawn with lines that are thicker than the rest of the wiring. The small white circles all over the diagram are terminals. These are places where you can disconnect the wire from the component for testing purposes. If two wires cross on the diagram without a black dot, they are not connected. Switches may be numbered or lettered. Usually the terminals on the outside of the timer or switch are stamped or printed with markings that you will see on the wiring diagram. To test a switch, mark and disconnect all the wires. For example, in figure 2-F, if you want to test the door switch, take power off the machine, disconnect the wires from it and connect one test lead to COM and one to NC. If it does, you know that contact inside the switch is good. Remember that for something to be energized, it must make a complete electrical circuit. You must be able to trace the path that the electricity will take, FROM the wall outlet back TO the wall outlet.
In this simplified circuit diagram, notice that only the heating elements operate on 220 volts. Since the locking mechanism is interlocked with the heating circuit, the oven will not reach cleaning temperature either.Let's start at the lock motor and find out which switches feed electricity to it.
Tracing the other lock motor lead, we first end up at the "C" terminal of the 4-position selector switch.
Looking at the switch for the chart, the "C" to "LM" contacts are closed when the "clean" button is depressed on the switch. Power then leaves the thermostat through the "5" terminal, so we need to check for continuity between terminals "5" and "6" of the thermostat. Since it is a thermostatic switch, only heat will open the switch, so we only need to test it for continuity. They are shown in the diagram in their "normal state." So continuing with our circuit, if the locking motor is not turning, you need to check switch "B" for continuity between the "COM" and "NC" terminals. If there is no continuity, it might mean the switch is bad. It might also mean that the switch was not returned to its "normal" state the last time it was activated!You need to examine the switch carefully to determine what the problem is. If the locking motor stopped turning before the switch unlocked, you've got other problems. You will need to trace other circuits in the diagram to figure out what. From the "COM" terminal of switch "B," the circuit goes back through the door switch to L1.
The door switch feeds several other oven circuits, too, so unless there's something else not working, we can eliminate that as the problem. The door must be closed to close the switch that feeds electricity to the thermostats and heating circuit.To check for a wire break, you would pull each end of a wire off the component and test for continuity through the wire.
You may need to use jumpers to extend or even bypass the wire; for example, if one end of the wire is in the control console and the other end in underneath the machine. It will then be up to you to figure out exactly where that break is - there is no magic way. An ammeter is a safer way to test energized circuits if you have one, especially testing 220 volt circuits. Occasionally, if the component is inexpensive enough, it's easier to just replace it and see if that solves the problem. Following is a primer on how to test each individual component you might find in any given oven. Take all wires off the component and test continuity across it as described in section 2-4(b). Switches should show good continuity when closed and no continuity when open.
NO means "normally open" and with the switch at rest, you will see no continuity through it. SELECTOR SWITCHBLOCKS A selector switchblock, located in the control panel, is a group of switches all molded into one housing.
In your oven, a switchblock might be used to allow you to choose a cooktop heat setting, for example, or a cleaning cycle instead of a baking cycle.
You must look at the wiring diagram to see which of the terminals will be connected when the internal switches are closed. Keep in mind, however, that you must also know which of the internal switches close when an external button is pressed.
When you press one button on the switchblock, several of the switches inside may close at once.To test a switchblock, in addition to the wiring diagram, you must have a chart that gives you this info. Usually this is a part of the wiring diagram. Using the diagram and chart in figure 2-J, lets say we want to test contacts "T1" to "FM" for proper operation. We see that with the "clean" button pressed, these contacts inside the switchblock should be closed. Although error (fault) codes for most major brands may be found in Chapter 7, usually diagnosis consists of simply replacing circuit components until you find the bad one. Usually the problem turns out to be a bad oven sensor, stuck or defective keypad, ERC (clock) unit or a circuit board.
These can be tested and rebuilt or replaced as described in this chapter.2-6 (c) THERMOSTATIC CONTROLSA thermostat is simply a switch or a gas valve that opens and closes according to the temperature it senses.
If there is an automatic oven cycle, main control thermostats must also be wired through the timer.
And if there is a cleaning cycle, they must be either bypassed or adjusted for the higher temperatures of that cycle. That's where you start to get dual-control thermostats, thermostats with twelve leads, and other complexities. Some even control two levels of the same pilot. Main control thermostats are about the most expensive commonly-replaced parts in an oven.
It should be the last thing you conclude, after you have checked out everything else in the system.The liquid inside the bulb and capillary of an oven thermostat is usually a mercury or sodium compound or some other such nasty and dangerous stuff. So when you replace an oven thermostat, do not cut open the capillary or bulb, and dispose of the old thermostat properly.
The definition of "properly" varies between jurisdictions, but check with your appliance parts dealer or local fire department hazardous materials professionals.ADJUSTING THERMOSTATS The oven is adjusted by a small adjusting screw in the center of the oven thermostat valve stem. In other words, if you set the thermostat at 350 degrees, you want the heating system to cycle on if the temperature is below 340 degrees, and off when the temperature reaches about 360 degrees.
With nothing else in the oven, place it in the middle of the oven, where you can see it through the oven door glass. The important thing to remember about clocks in an oven unit are that often the thermostat controls are first wired through the timer. Also, if you are troubleshooting a no heat complaint in an oven with an automatic cycle, the first step is always to check the timer controls.
The woman who greeted me was the ultimate Susie homemaker; everything was spotless in HER kitchen. Including the oven, which looked new, but this gal swore she'd owned it since it was new 35 years before, and by golly she knew it inside and out and didn't know why two ovens out of three suddenly didn't work.
You must have a wiring diagram to determine which terminals are connected when a switch inside the timer closes.
Put a resistance meter across those terminals and advance the clock to determine if the switch is opening and closing. If the clock motor doesn't run or the switches don't open and close as they are supposed to, replace the timer. If there are any special wiring changes, they will be explained in instructions that come with the new timer. Clocks and timers can usually be rebuilt.
Ask your appliance parts dealer for details.2-6 (e) ELECTRIC HEATERS AND IGNITORSElectric heater elements and ignitors are tested by measuring continuity across them as described in section 2-5(b). Replace heater elements if they show no continuity.2-6 (f) RELAYSHeating elements use a lot of electricity compared to other electrical components. The switches that control them sometimes need to be built bigger than other kinds of switches, with more capacity to carry more electricity. The switches involved in running a heater or ignitor can be too big to conveniently put inside the control console or timer. Besides that, there are safety considerations involved in having you touch a switch that carries that much electricity directly, with your finger. The way they solve that problem is to make a secondary switch. A little switch activates an electromagnet, which closes a big switch that carries the heavier current load. Energize the unit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then disconnect the power again. 3) If this manual advocates replacing the part, REPLACE IT!! It's unpleasant, but unless exposure is more than a second or so, the only harm it usually does is to tick you off pretty good. If they genuinely try to help you fix it yourself, and you find that you're unable to, they may be the best place to look for service.
It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked.
If the ignitor's leads are still connected to something, you may get a reading through that something.



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